About 55% of the whole is under tillage, while 16% consists of meadow and pasture and 21% is covered by forests.
Tillage operations on such land are easily interrupted by rain, and the period always much limited in which they can be prosecuted at all; the compactness and toughness of the soil renders each operation more arduous, and its repetition more necessary than in the case of dry land.
At the close of 1905 the area devoted to tillage was 9,365,000 acres, the area utilized for the production of breadstuffs being 6,270,000 acres or over two-thirds of the whole extent of cultivation.
This has greatly facilitated the formation of large estates devoted chiefly to grazing purposes, contrary to the policy of the legislature, which has everywhere sought to encourage tillage, or tillage joined to stock-rearing, and to discourage large holdings.
The proportion of tillage to pasture is roughly as 1 to 22.
When the last were abundant, it seems to be an indication that tillage was practised.
Isaac, too, conjoined tillage with pastoral husbandry, and that with success, for " he sowed in the land Gerar, and reaped an hundred-fold " - a return which, it would appear, in some favoured regions, occasionally rewarded the labour of the husbandman.
To the end of Elizabeth's, a number of statutes were made for the encouragement of tillage, though probably to little purpose.
(1488), " two hundred persons were occupied and lived of their lawful labours, now there are occupied two or three herdsmen, and the residue fall into idleness "; therefore it is ordained that houses which within three years have been let for farms, with twenty acres of land lying in tillage or husbandry, shall be upheld, under the penalty of half the profits, to be forfeited to the king or the lord of the fee.
By the 39th Elizabeth (1597) arable land made pasture since the 1st Elizabeth shall be again converted into tillage, and what is arable shall not be converted into pasture.
The following passage indicates the contemporary theory of manuring: - " In thy tillage are these special opportunities to improve it, either by liming, marling, sanding, earthing, mudding, snayl-codding, mucking, chalking, pidgeons-dung, hens-dung, hogs-dung or by any other means as some by rags, some by coarse wool, by pitch marks, and tarry stuff, any oyly stuff, salt and many things more, yea indeed any thing almost that bath any liquidness, foulness, saltness or good moysture in it, is very naturall inrichment to almost any sort of land."
This writer seems to differ a good deal from Blith about the advantage of interchanging tillage and pasture.
He was thus led to adopt that system of sowing his crops in rows or drills, so wide apart as to admit of tillage of the intervals, both by ploughing and hoeing, being continued until they had well-nigh arrived at maturity.
It is therefore necessary not only to pulverize the soil by repeated ploughings before it be seeded, but, as it becomes gradually more and more compressed afterwards, recourse must be had to tillage while the plants are growing; and this is hoeing, which also destroys the weeds that would deprive the plants of their nourishment.
Nor did this increased tillage interfere with the increase of live stock, as the green crops of the alternate husbandry more than compensated for the diminished pasturage.
The great future that seemed to await the application of steam power to the tillage of the soil proved illusory.
It was found, however, that the steam work was done with less care than had been bestowed upon the horse tillage, and the result was that steam came to be regarded as an auxiliary to horse labour rather than as a substitute for it.
A verbal lease is deemed to be for the term necessary to enable the lessee to gather in all the produce, thus for a year in the case of a meadow or vineyard; in the case of lands leased in tillage, where they are divided into shifts or seasons, for as many years as there are shifts (Art.
The male slaves were employed in the tillage of the land and the tending of cattle, and the females in domestic work and household manufactures.
Crofting agriculture is conducted on primitive methods, spade tillage being almost universal, and seaweed the principal manure.
They support themselves by the rearing of cattle, tillage, glass-making and linen-weaving.
During the two years of his residence in Walden woods he lived by the exercise of a little surveying, a little job-work and the tillage of a few acres of ground which produced him his beans and potatoes.
Tillage is conducted on very primitive methods.
The area of land under tillage is less than a twentieth of the whole surface, the crop most extensively grown being maize or " mealies."
Desolate bogs, incapable of cultivation, alternate with the mountains; and the inhabitants earn a scanty subsistence by fishing and tillage, or by seeking employment in England and Scotland during the harvesting.
M., about one-half is meadow and grazing land, one-quarter under tillage, and the remainder occupied by a little woodland, some unprofitable sandy wastes, the bed of the Weser and the towns.
On this account deeper tillage than usual, which allows of easier penetration of roots, or the carrying out of operations which bring the subsoil to the surface, must always be carefully considered.
In certain districts where the rainfall is low a crop can only be obtained once every alternate year, the intervening season being devoted to tillage with a view of getting the rain into the soil and retaining it there for the crop in the following year.
It is the business of the farmer and gardener to promote the activity of these organisms by good tillage, careful drainage and occasional application of lime to soils which are deficient in this substance.
Aboriginal races generally follow the migratory system of tillage, clearing the jungle on selected patches, and after taking crops for two or three years abandoning them for new ground.
High cultivation, however, has produced valuable marketgardens about Boston and the larger towns; and industry has made tillage remunerative in most other parts.
They have no word for plough in their language, and they still follow the nomadic form of tillage known as jum cultivation.
Tillage was also made compulsory, but this had little effect on production owing to the shortage of labour, draft animals, manures and agricultural implements, together with the oppressive restrictions caused by the fixing of maximum prices.
The proportion of barren land to the total area is roughly as 1 to 9; and of tillage to pasture as 2 to 3.
Tillage is therefore, relatively to other counties, well advanced, and oats and potatoes are largely, though decreasingly, cultivated.
A large part of the Great Plains to the east of the Rockies was taken up as farms in the decade 1880 1890; abandoned afterwards, because of its aridity, to stock grazing; and reconverted from ranches into farms when a system of dry farming had proved its tillage practicable.
No special tillage is required, but weeding and irrigation are requisite.
The proportion of tillage to pasturage is roughly as I to 32.
The island has again become an important point of call and has a considerable trade in olive oil; under a more careful system of tillage the value of its agricultural products might be largely increased.
If the fruit garden is large enough to admit of horse culture, it is best to keep the bush-fruits well cultivated during the season; this tillage conserves the moisture and helps to make a full and plump crop of berries.
As a rule, sheep-farming is resorted to where the soil is of inferior quality and unsuitable for tillage and the breeding of cattle.
It is a curious fact that not a single bird is visible on the fragments, and the trees and plants, which might easily have been collected in a tillage compact and well-defined section, are widely scattered.
The course of tillage comprises two principal harvests: the kharif, or autumn crops, sown in June and reaped in October or November; and the rabi, or spring crops, sown in October or November, and reaped in March or April.
About half the province is under tillage; 18% is occupied by forests, and about 23% by meadows and pastures.
South of Sydney, the mountains skirt the very edge of the coast, but farther north there is a wider coastland, with greater stretches of country available for tillage and pasture.
About 35% of the total surface is occupied by forests, while about 4 o% is under tillage and about 19% under meadow and pasture.
Thousands of square miles in Lower Bengal annually receive a top-dressing of virgin soil from the Himalayas, - a system of natural manuring which renders elaborate tillage a waste of labour, and defies the utmost power of over-cropping to exhaust its fertility.
Farms in tillage are comparatively small, whilst those devoted to the rearing of sheep are very large, ranging from 3000 acres to 15,000 acres and more.
The surface must necessarily be thrown into ridges, and the furrows and cross-cuts cleared out after each process of tillage, and upon this surface-drainage as much labour is expended in twenty years as would suffice to make under-drains enough to lay it permanently dry.
Upwards of 61% of the area is under tillage, 13% is occupied by pasture and meadows and 20% by forests, mostly fir.
The river Lapps, many of whom, however, are descendants of Finns proper, breed cattle, attempt a little tillage and entrust their reindeer to the care of mountain Lapps.
Even in the mountainous districts which are unsuitable for tillage there is often sufficient soil to yield, with the aid of the moist atmosphere, abundant pasturage of good quality.
The marked tendency which has been visible for so many years in Ireland for pasturage to increase at the expense of tillage makes the improvement of live-stock a matter of vital importance to all concerned in agriculture.
Of the whole surface, land under tillage amounts to about 60, meadowland to 7 and forest to 25%.
More famous than either are the Georgics of Virgil, published about 30 B.C., and treating of tillage, horticulture, cattle-breeding and bee-keeping.