The railway by Batoum to Baku by way of Tiflis has tended greatly to turn the channel of commerce from Trebizond into Russian territory, since it helps to open the route to Erivan, Tabriz and the whole of Persia.
Livonia Minsk Mogilev Moscow Nizhniy-Novgorod Novgorod Olonets Orel Orenburg Penza Perm Podolia Poltava Pskov Ryazan St Petersburg Samara Piotrkow Plock Radom St Michel Tavastehus Uleaborg Stavropol Elizavetpol Erivan Kars Saratov Simbirsk Smolensk Tambov Taurida Tula Tver Ufa Vilna Vitebsk Vladimir Volhynia Vologda Voronezh Vyatka Yaroslavl Siedlce Suwalki Warsaw Viborg Vasa Terek Kutais Tiflis with Zakataly Akmolinsk Semipalatinsk The Steppes Turgai Uralsk Semiryechensk Samarkand Ferghana Syr-darya The effects of emigration and immigration cannot be estimated with accuracy, because only those who cross the frontier with passports are taken account of.
In other parts of the empire there were four cities each having over too,000 inhabitants in that year, namely, Baku, Tiflis, Tashkent and Helsingfors.
A third line of great importance is the junction line between the Transcaucasian railway - which runs from Batum and Poti to Baku, via Tiflis, with a branch line to Kars - and the railway system of Russia proper.
Ex Ploration The progress of geodetic surveys in Russia had long ago extended across the European half of the great empire, St Petersburg being connected with Tiflis on the southern slopes of the Caucasus by a direct system of triangulation carried out with the highest scientific precision.
At Tiflis it is 45°.
At Tiflis the yearly fall is 22 in.; on the Caspian about 7 or 8 in.; on the Sea of Aral 5 or 6 in.
They correspond roughly with the governments of Kutais, Tiflis, Elisavetpol and Baku, and have a population of nearly 3,650,000.
At Tiflis to 500 f t.
It is in this valley that the principal towns (except Vladikavkaz at the north foot of the Caucasus) of Caucasia are situated, namely, Baku (179,133 inhabitants in 1900), Tiflis (160,645 in 1897), Kutais (32,492), and the two Black Sea ports of Batum (28,512) and Poti (7666).
Fall as a rule at the northern foot of the Caucasus (Mozdok, Pyatigorsk) and in the Kura valley (Tiflis, Novo-bayazet), On the Armenian highlands and on the steppes north of Pyatigorsk the rainfall is less than 12 in.
The best wine grows in Kakhetia, a district lying north-east and east of Tiflis; this district alone yields nearly 8 million gallons annually.
South of Batum), at Akhtala south of Tiflis, and at Kedabek in Elisavetpol; manganese to a considerably greater extent (over 400,000 tons annually) at Chiaturi in the Kvirila valley in Kutais.
Naphtha is also obtained, though in much smaller quantities, in Terek and Kuban, in Tiflis and Daghestan.
Others Zhelesnovodsk, Essentuki, and Kislovodsk in Terek, and at Tiflis, Abbastuman and Borzhom in the government of Tiflis.
Carpets (especially at Shusha), silk, cotton and woollen goods, felts and fur cloaks are made, and small arms in Daghestan and at Tiflis, Nukha and Sukhumkaleh; silversmiths' work at Tiflis, Akhaltsikh and Kutais; pottery at Elisavetpol and Shusha; leather shoe-making at Alexandropol, Nukha, Elisavetpol, Shusha and Tiflis; saddlery at Sukhum-kaleh and Ochemchiri on the Black Sea and at Temirkhan-shura in Daghestan; and copper work at Derbent and Alexandropol.
From Tiflis, nearly midway on this last line, a railway proceeds south as far as Erivan (234 m.), with a branch to Kars (48 m.).
Many of the oil wells at Baku were burned, and massacres took place at that town, at Shusha, at Erivan, at Tiflis, at Batum, at Jebrail and at other places.
It has the province of Terek on the N.W., the government of Tiflis on the S.W., and that of Baku on the S.E.
France, Switzerland, Spain, Italy, Sicily, Greece, Rumania, Turkey-in-Europe, Styria, Slavonia, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Lower Austria, Wurttemberg, Brandenberg, West Prussia, Crimea, Kuban, Terek, Kutais, Tiflis, Elizabetpol, Siberia, Transcaspia, Mesopotamia, Persia, Assam, Burma, Anam, Japan, Philippine Islands, Borneo, Sumatra, Java, Algeria, Egypt, British Columbia, Alaska, Washington, California, Colorado, Texas, Louisiana, Barbados, Trinidad, Venezuela, Peru, South Australia, Victoria, New Zealand.
France, Spain, Greece, Rumania, Hungary, Transylvania, Galicia, Bavaria, Elsass, Rhenish Bavaria, Hesse, Saxony, Crimea, Daghestan, Tiflis, Baku, Alaska, California, Florida.
Yorkshire, Somerset, Buckingham, France, Switzer land, Spain, Italy, Lower Austria, Baden, Elsass, Hesse, Hanover, Brunswick, Sizran, Tiflis, Siberia, Persia, Madagascar, Alaska, Wyoming, Colorado, Mexico, Argentina.
The war lasted for twelve years, during which Tiflis, Shirvan and Daghestan were taken; finally Shah Abbas established himself on the Persian throne and in 1590 made peace with Turkey, who retained her conquests in Georgia, Azerbaijan and Shirvan.
In the course of the war with Persia Russia had received permission from the Ottoman government to use, for a limited time, the easy road from the Black Sea to Tiflis by way of the valley of the Rion (Phasis) for the transport of troops and supplies, and this permission had been several times renewed.
He also trained Georgians in the art of printing, and cut the type with which under his pupil Mihail Ishtvanovitch they printed the first Georgian Gospels (Tiflis, 170 9).
He based his teaching on the Gospels and the Epistles of Paul, repudiating other scriptures; and taking the Pauline name of Silvanus, organized churches in Castrum Colonias and Cibossa, which he called Macedonia, after Paul's congregation of that 1 In the Armenian Letterbook of the Patriarchs (Tiflis, 1901), p. 73.
There is more than one meaning of Tiflis discussed in the 1911 Encyclopedia.
Of Tiflis, there is a thick bed of the pure salt about 5 ft.
More than 400 families of Doukhobors who were living in the province of Tiflis were ruined and banished to Georgian villages.
And the Black Sea on the W., the government of Tiflis' on the E.
Along the shore of the Black Sea; (2) the southern slopes of the main Caucasus range; (3) the western slopes of the Suram mountains, which separate Kutais from Tiflis; and (4) the slopes of the Armenian highlands, as well as a portion of the highlands themselves, drained by the Chorokh and its tributary, the Ajaris-tskhali, which formerly constituted the Batum province.
A railway runs from the Caspian Sea, via Tiflis and the Suram tunnel, to Kutais, and thence to Poti and Batum, and from Kutais to the Tkvibuli coal and manganese mines.
Of Etchmiadzin and Jerusalem are given by Agop Garinian, Tiflis (1858), 4to.
Of Tiflis and 35 m.
ABBAS-TUMAN, a spa in Russian Transcaucasia, government of Tiflis, 50 m.
Of Tiflis, on an isolated rocky eminence, 3865 ft.
BORZHOM, a watering-place of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Tiflis, and 93 m.
The Turks seized on Tiflis, Tabriz and Hamadan, while Peter the Great, whose aid had been sought by the friendless Tahmasp, fitted out a fleet on the Caspian.2 The Russians occupied Shirvan, and the province of Gilan south-west of the Caspian;3 and Peter made a treaty with Tahmasp II.
J7~5 ~ It shows, during the reign of the Safawids, Tiflis, Erivan, Khoi and Bagdad to have been within the limits of Persia on the west, and in like manner Balkh and Kandahar to have been.
At this place he encountered the Georgian army under Heraclius, defeated it, and marched upon Tiflis, which he pillaged, massacring and enslaving 1 the inhabitants.
Hearing that a Russian force of some 9000 men was concentrated at Tiflis, Mahommed Mirza, son of the crown prince, advanced to meet them on the banks of the Zezam.
In November 1889 Malcolm Khan, Nizam-ul-Mulk, who had been Persian representative to the court of Great Britain since October 1872, was recalled, and Mirza Mahommed ~Ali Khan, consulgeneral at Tiflis, was appointed in his stead, arriving in London the following March.
Its head, the archbishop of Tiflis, bears the title of exarch of Georgia, and has under him four suffragans.
It thus includes the governments of Baku, Elisavetpol, Erivan, Kutais and Tiflis; the provinces of Batum, Daghestan and Kars; and the military districts of the Black Sea (Chernomorsk) and Zakataly.
(6) The mountain Tatars (about 850,000), divided into many tribes and of an origin still undetermined, are scattered throughout the provinces of Baku, Erivan, Tiflis, Kutais, Daghestan, and partly also of Batum.
SERGE JULIEVICH WITTE, Count (1849-), Russian statesman, was born at Tiflis, where his father (of Dutch extraction) was a member of the Viceregal Council of the Caucasus.
Over the former, which lies immediately east of Kasbek, runs the Georgian military road (made 1811-1864) from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis, cutting through the mountains by a gorge (8 m.
But farther inland, upon proceeding eastwards towards Tiflis, a great change becomes noticeable on the other side of the transverse ridge of the Suram or Meskes mountains.
Radde, Reisen im mingrelischen Hochgebirge (Tiflis, 1866) and Vier Vortreige fiber den Kaukasus (Gotha, 1874); E.
Dlya geologiy Kavkaza (Tiflis, 1873 seq.); O.
Cretaceous Jurassic N k Bodorno :s: Vladikaukaz Lars `n - - - n ° Tiflis a =Plain of Vladikaukaz; b= Upper Jurassic; Moraine terrace; d= Folded lias shales; e = Upper Jurassic; = Paleozoic schists; Creenstone dykes; h= Granite; g°= Gneiss; i = Andesites; k = Jurassic?; I = Pliocene fNagelfluh); m = Miocene; 11 = Oligocene; r = Nullipore limesto n e & conglomerate.
Loewinson-Lessing has an account of the geology of the district along the military road from Vladikavkaz to Tiflis in the Guide des Excursions du VII' Congrks geol.
TELAV, a town of Russian Transcaucasia, in the government of Tiflis, 63 m.
Of the town of Tiflis, on the river Alazan and at an altitude of 2420 ft.
Xviii., Tiflis, 1896, with map), the population of the nine Turkish vilayets, Erzerum, Van, Bitlis, Kharput (Mamuret-el-Aziz), Diarbekr, Sivas, Aleppo, Adana and Trebizond, was 6,000,000 (Armenians, 913,875, or 15%; other Christians, 632,875, or 11%; and Moslems, 4,453,250, or 74%).
All hope of practical self-government under Russian protection now ceased, and the Armenians of Tiflis turned their attention to Turkish Armenia.
Societies were formed at Tiflis and in several European capitals for the circulation of pamphlets and newspapers, and secret societies, such as the Huntchagist, were instituted for more revolutionary methods.
The town is connected by rail with the main Transcaucasian railway to Tiflis, and is the chief port for the export of naphtha and paraffin oil, carried hither in great part through pipes laid down from Baku, but partly also in tank railway-cars; other exports are wheat, manganese, wool, silkworm-cocoons, liquorice, maize and timber (total value of exports nearly 52 millions sterling annually).
AKHALTSIKH (Georgian Akhaltsikhe, " new fortress"), a fortified town of Russian Transcaucasia, government of Tiflis, 68 m.