In 1897 a railway was opened between Tientsin and Peking.
By the treaty of Tientsin (1860) Taichu was opened to European commerce, but the place was found quite unsuitable for a port of trade, and the harbour of Tam-sui was selected instead.
After having been vice-consul at Shanghai and acting consul in 1900 at Tientsin, he entered the Foreign Office in 1902 in a subordinate capacity and rose by 1910 to be director of the Political Section.
There are four rivers of some importance in the province: the Pei-ho, with the Hun-ho, which rises in the mountains in Mongolia and, flowing to the west of Peking, forms a junction with the Pei-ho at Tientsin; the Shang-si-ho, which rises in the mountains on the north of the province of Shan-si, and takes a south-easterly course as far as the neighbourhood of Ki Chow, from which point it trends north-east and eventually joines the Hun-ho some 15 m.
Above Tientsin; the Pu-to-ho, which rises in Shan-si, and after running a parallel course to Shang-si-ho on the south, empties itself in the same way into the Hun-ho; and the Lan-ho, which rises in Mongolia, enters the province on the north-east after passing to the west of Jehol, passes the city of Yung-Ong Fu in its course (which is south-easterly) through Chih-li, and from thence winds its way to the north-eastern boundary of the Gulf of Chih-li.
Tientsin is the Treaty Port of the province.
The bulk of the leaf tea, however, now goes to Russia by direct steamers to Odessa instead of to London as formerly, and a large quantity goes overland via Tientsin and Siberia in the form of brick tea.
In fulfilment of these rights a railway has been constructed connecting Kiao-chow with Chinanfu, the capital; there it connects with another railway crossing the province north to south and forming part of the Tientsin and Chin-kiang line.
The Tientsin developments of German business on credit terms are said to have proved unsatisfactory, and heavy losses were suffered in Hong-Kong some years ago by merchants who endeavoured to initiate a bolder system of trading.
In 1870 there was a great outbreak concentrating in the massacres at Hankow and Tientsin; in 1891 at Hunan and in 1895 at Ku Cheng there: were other attacks which were only preliminary to the Boxer uprising of 1899-1900,, when 135 missionaries, besides 52 children.
TIENTSIN, the largest commercial city in Chih-li, the metropolitan province of China.
The town is built on a vast alluvial plain, which extends from the mountains beyond Peking to the sea, and through which the Peiho runs a circuitous course, making the distance by water from Tientsin to the coast about 70 m.
The coal exported is brought from the Kaiping colliery to the east of Tientsin; its output in 1885 was 181,039 tons and in 1904 28,956 tons.
The importance of Tientsin has been enhanced by the railways connecting it with Peking on the one hand and with Shanhai-kwan and Manchuria on the other.
In 1853 Tientsin was besieged by an army of T'aip'ing rebels, which had been detached from the main force at Nanking for the capture of Peking.
The defences of Tientsin, however, saved the capital, and the rebels were forced to retreat.
During the period 1874-1894, when Li Hung-Chang was viceroy of Chih-li and ex officio superintendent of trade, he made Tientsin his headquarters and the centre of his experiments in military and naval education.
The loss of prestige consequent on the Japanese War brought about the retirement of Li, and with it the political importance of Tientsin ceased.
It was formerly quite a small place, and had only the rank of an unwalled village; but it was chosen as the port of Teng-chow, opened to foreign trade in 1858 by the treaty of Tientsin, and it is now the residence of a Tao-Val, or intendant of circuit, the centre of a gradually increasing commerce, and the seat of a British consulate, a Chinese custom-house, and a considerable foreign settlement.
According to the treaty of Tientsin, the capital K`iung-chow and the harbour Hoi-how (Hai-Kow) were opened to European commerce; but it was not till 1876 that advantage was taken of the permission.
It was arranged that the treaty, which was then provisionally concluded at Tientsin, should be ratified at Peking in the follow- China ing year; and in June 1859 Mr (afterwards Sir war, Frederick) Bruce, Lord Elgins brother, who, had been appointed plenipotentiary, attempted to proceed up the Peiho with the object of securing its ratification.
This reverse necessitated fresh operations, and in 1860 Lord Elgin and Baron Gros were directed to return to China, and, at the head of an adequate force, were instructed to exact an apology for the attack on the allied fleets, the ratification and execution of the treaty of Tientsin, and the payment of an indemnity for the expenses of the war.
But his stay in England was brief, for in 1860 war was declared against China, and Gordon was ordered out there, arriving at Tientsin in September.
Fighting continued round Shanghai for about two years, but Ward's force was not altogether successful, and when General Staveley arrived from Tientsin affairs were in a somewhat critical condition.
He started at once and arrived at Tientsin in July, where he met Li Hung Chang, and learnt that affairs were in a critical condition, and that there was risk of war with Russia.