The central area bounded on the north and north-west by the Yablonoi Mountains and their western extension in the Tian-shan, on the south by the northern face of the Tibetan plateau, and on the east by the Khingan range before alluded to, forms the great desert of central Asia, known as the Gobi.
The cannon-bones are remarkably short and wide, and in this respect differ from those of all allied ruminants, except the Tibetan takin.
Two English missions sent by Warren Hastings to Tibet, one led by George Bogle in 1774, and the other by Captain Turner in 1783, complete Tibetan exploration in the 18th century.
Starting from the Amur river and reaching along the eastern margin of the Gobi desert towards the sources of the Hwangho, it merges into the Altyn-tagh and the Kuen-lun, forming the northern face of the vast Tibetan highlands which are bounded on the south by the Himalaya.
China lies between the eastern flank of the Tibetan plateau and the North Pacific, having its northern and southern limits about on 40° and 20° N.
British India comprises approximately the area between the 95th and 10th meridians, and between the Tibetan table-land and the Indian Ocean.
The great rivers of northern India - the Ganges, the Brahmaputra and the Indus - all derive their waters from the Tibetan mountain mass; and it is a remarkable circumstance that the northern water-parting of India should lie to the north of the Himalaya in the regions of central Tibet.
From it the Oxus, or Amu, flows off to the west, and the Jaxartes, or Syr, to the north, through the Turki state of Khokand, while to the east the waters run down past Kashgar to the central desert of the Gobi, uniting with the streams from the northern slope of the Tibetan plateau that traverse the principalities of Yarkand and Khotan, which are also Turki.
Here the Tibetan mountains unite with the line of elevation which stretches across the continent from the Pacific, and which separates Siberia from the region commonly spoken of under the name of central Asia.
Bonvalot, accompanied by Prince Henri d'Orleans, crossed the Tibetan plateau from north to south, but failed to enter Lhasa.
Rockhill, commenced his Tibetan journeys, and also attempted to reach Lhasa, without success.
He, too, failed to penetrate the jealouslyguarded portals of Lhasa; but he secured (with the assistance of a native surveyor) a splendid addition to our previous Tibetan mapping.
(afterwards Lord) Curzon in the Pamirs, and St George Littledale on his first great Tibetan journey, accompanied by his wife.
From 1896 to 1898 we find two British cavalry officers taking the front position in the list of Tibetan travellers - Captain M.
Southern China is very different in structure, consisting largely of folded mountain chains, but the geological succession is very similar, and excepting near the Tibetan and Burmese borders, there are no marine deposits of Mesozoic or Tertiary age.
On reaching the Tibetan plateau, with the increased dryness the flora assumes many features of the Siberian type.
The Tibetan mastiff is equally powerful, but has still larger pendent ears, a shaggy coat and a long brush-like tail.
In June the waters of the Mekong, swollen by the rains and the melting of the Tibetan snows, rise to a height of 40 to 45 ft.
Montanus, the Tibetan as V.
MEKONG, or ME NAM KONG (pronounced Kawng), sometimes known as the Cambodia River, the great river of Indo-China, having its origin in the Tibetan highlands.
From Manchuria and China it is separated by the border ridge of the plateau - the Great Khingan, while in the south-west it runs up to the foot of the high northern border ridges of the Tibetan plateau - an artificial frontier separating it from east Turkestan and Dzungaria.
The second river in the province in point of size is the Salween, a huge river, believed from the volume of its waters to rise in the Tibetan mountains to the north of Lhasa.
YAK, the wild (and domesticated) ox of the Tibetan plateau; a species nearly allied to the bison group. The yak, Bos (POephagus) grunniens, is one of the finest and largest of the wild oxen, characterized by the growth of long shaggy hair on the flanks and under parts of the body and the well-known bushy tail.
Some excellent survey work was done in Bhutan by a native surveyor during the progress of the Tibetan Expedition in 1904.
The tracts inhabited by the aboriginal tribes entitled Lo Nakpo, Lo Karpo and Lo Tawa ("Lo" signifies "barbarous" in Tibetan), are described as a pleasant country; the lands on either side of the Tsanpo being well cultivated and planted with mangoes, plantains and oranges.
1670 some Tibetan soldiers subjugated the Tephus, took possession of the country and settled down in it.
They are mere offshoots from the main tribes which inhabit the Burma side of the boundary range, and are supposed by some to be of Burmo-Tibetan origin.
KUEN-LUN, or KwEN-LUN, a term used to designate generally the mountain ranges which run along the northern edge of the great Tibetan plateau in Central Asia.
From the Tibetan plateau on the S.
Western Kuen-lun and Astin-tagh) is throughout double; and this " twinning " of the mountain-ranges, as also of the intermont lake-basins among the Kuen-lun ranges, is a peculiar feature of the Tibetan plateau.
Ritter (Asien, ii.) was the first of modern geographers to recognize the true character of the Kuen-lun as a border range of the Tibetan plateau; and Baron von Richthofen (China, i.
From the transverse breach of the Keriya-darya (about 811° E.) to that of the Kara-muren in the longitude of Cherchen (about 852° E.) the parallel border-ranges of the Tibetan plateau trend to the E.N.E., and here occur in the lower or outer range the passes of Dalai-kurghan-art (14,290 ft.), Choka-davan, i.e.
Ustun-tagh, which appears on Stieler's map as an alternative name for Altyn-tagh, means Higher or Farther Mountains, and though not used locally of any specific range, would be appropriately employed to designate the higher and more southerly of the twin border-ranges of the Tibetan plateau.
But there exists a striking difference between the crests of the Astin-tagh and those of the ranges which give rise to the gigantic ridge and furrow arrangement on the Tibetan plateau.
On the Tibetan plateau, on the other hand, most of the ranges are distinguished by their rounded outlines and soft consistency, and their striking poverty in hard rock, which in the best cases only crops out near the summits.
On the other hand, the precipitation on the Tibetan plateau is so copious, and so uniformly distributed, that it is able to retain the loosened material in situ, and causes it to heap itself up in rounded masses on the flanks of the mountains that are its primitive source of origin, these projecting in great part like skeletons from the midst of their own ruins."
At the same time the Arkatagh is the actual border-range of the Tibetan plateau properly socalled; to the south.
Of it none of the long succession of lofty parallel ranges which ridge the Tibetan highlands seems to have any connexion with the Kuen-lun system.
Hence these ten parallel ranges of the middle Kuen-lun system may be grouped in three divisions - (1) the more strictly border ranges of the Upper and Lower Astin-tagh and the Akatotagh; (2) the three ranges of Chimen-tagh, Ara-tagh and Kaltaalaghan, which may be considered as forming a transitional system between the foregoing and the third division; (3) the Arka-tagh, which constitute the elevated rampart of the Tibetan plateau proper.
In 1875 she conceived the plan of combining the spiritualistic " control " with the Buddhistic legends about Tibetan sages.
Henceforth she determined to exclude all control save that of two Tibetan adepts or " mahatmas."
- The Tibetan Zokor (Siphneus armandi).
September of that year found the missionary at Dolon Nor occupied with the final arrangements for his journey, and shortly afterwards, accompanied by his fellow-Lazarist, Joseph Gabet, and a young Tibetan priest who had embraced Christianity, he set out.
Rather than encounter alone the horrors of a four months' journey to Lhasa they resolved to wait for eight months till the arrival of a Tibetan embassy on its return from Peking.
Under an intelligent teacher they meanwhile studied the Tibetan language and Buddhist.
Other Tibetan epithets for the country sometimes used by flowery native writers are " The Icy Land " (Gangs-c'an) and the " Country of the Red Faces " (Gdong-mar-gyi yul).
The Chinese name for central Tibet is Wei-Ts'ang, which is a transcription of the Tibetan designation of the two, provinces V and Tsang (spelt dbus-gtsang) that constitute central Tibet.
The general structure of the trans-Himalayan chains appears to indicate that the main axis of upheaval of the whole vast mass of the Tibetan highlands is to be found on two approximately parallel lines, represented the one by the Kuen-lun and the other by a line which is more or less coincident with the watershed between India and the central lake region, extending from Lake Pangong to Tengri Nor, the plateau enclosed between the two being wrinkled by minor folds, of which the relative elevation is comparatively low, averaging from woo to 1500 ft.
The Tibetan diggers collected together at the mines chiefly during the winter, when the frost assisted to bind the loose alluvial soil and render excavation easy.
They are worked in crude desultory fashion and are sometimes abandoned owing to the exorbitant imposts levied on gold production by Chinese and Tibetan officials.
But little gold at present finds its way across the Tibetan passes to India; and the export to China has diminished of late years.
Modern travellers bear witness to a gradual progress of desiccation in the Tibetan uplands.
Western and southern Tibetan flora were partially explored previously to the advent of these travellers.
The peculiar form of tussocky grass which prevails in the Pamirs is the characteristic feature of the Tibetan Chang-t'ang of the Tsaidam plains and of the bogs north-east of Lhasa.
Here are to be found yak, wild asses (kyang), several varieties of deer, musk deer and Tibetan antelope (Pantholops); also wild sheep (the bharal of the Himalaya), Ovis hodgsoni and possibly Ovis poli, together with wild goats, bears (in large numbers in the north-eastern districts), leopards, otter, wolves, wild cats, foxes, marmots, squirrels, monkeys and wild dogs.
The Tibetan sand-grouse is peculiar to the country, and the snow-partridge (Lerva nivicola) and the snow-cock (Tetraogallus tibetanus) are occasionally met with in the uplands, while the ordinary partridge (Perdix hodgsoni) is common in the ravines on the plateau.
From the eastern extremity of the Tibetan mountains, between the 95th azd tooth meridians, high ranges extend from about 35°N.
The falls can only be approached from below, where a monastery has been erected, the resort of countless pilgrims. Their height is estimated at 70 ft., and by Tibetan report the hills around are enveloped in perpetual mist, and the Sangdong (the " lion's face "), over which the waters rush, is demon-haunted and full of mystic import.