He also renewed the claim which had been made by his predecessor, Adolf, on Thuringia, and interfered in a quarrel over the succession to the Hungarian throne.
His attack on Thuringia ended in his defeat at Lucka in 1307, and, in the same year, the death of his son Rudolph weakened his position in eastern Europe.
He supported Frederick in his struggle with the anti-kings, Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, and William II., count of Holland, and was put under the papal ban by Pope Innocent IV., Bavaria being laid under an interdict.
JOHANN AUGUST ERNESTI (1707-1781), German theologian and philologist, was born on the 4th of August 1707, at Tennstadt in Thuringia, of which place his father was pastor, besides being superintendent of the electoral dioceses of Thuringia, Salz and Sangerhausen.
Sachsen-Meiningen), a duchy in Thuringia, forming an independent member of the German empire and consisting chiefly of an irregular crescent-shaped territory, which, with an average breadth of 10 m., stretches for over 80 m.
There are salt-works at Salzungen and Neusulza, the former the most important in Thuringia; and the mineral water of Friedrichshall is well known.
There are small detached portions in Waldeck, Thuringia, &c.; on the other hand the province enclaves the province of Oberhessen belonging to the grand-duchy of Hesse, and the circle of Wetzlar belonging to the Rhine Province.
He helped to crush the rising of the peasants under Thomas Munzer in Thuringia in 1525; he was a member of the league of Schmalkalden, and took part in all the movements of the Protestants against Charles V.
In the 13th century Elizabeth of Hungary, the pious landgravine of Thuringia, assisted in the foundation of many convents in the north of Germany.
One of the most ancient towns in Thuringia, Saalfeld, once the capital of the extinct duchy of Saxe-Saalfeld, is still partly surrounded by old walls and bastions, and contains some interesting medieval buildings, among them being a palace,, built in 1679 on the site of the Benedictine abbey of St Peter, which was destroyed during the Peasants' War.
In 1389 it was purchased by the landgrave of Thuringia, and with this district it formed part of Saxony.
When trouble arose between Conrad and Henry, duke of Saxony, afterwards King Henry the Fowler, the attitude of Conrad was ascribed by the Saxons to the influence of Hatto, who wished to prevent Henry from securing authority in Thuringia, where the see of Mainz had extensive possessions.
After being part of Thuringia, Eschwege passed to Hesse in 1263.
It was recovered by the landgrave of Thuringia in 1388, but soon reverted to Hesse, and it became the residence of one of the branches of the Hessian royal house, a branch which died out in 1655.
LEOPOLD VON RANKE (1795-1886), German historian, was born on the 10th or the 21st of December 1795, in the small town of Wiehe, in Thuringia, which then formed part of the electorate of Saxony.
After studying at Tubingen and Erlangen, he taught chemistry and physics, first at Keilhau, Thuringia, and then at Epsom, England, but most of his life was spent at Basel, where he undertook the duties of the chair of chemistry and physics in 1828 and was appointed full professor in 1835.
About 722 he visited Hesse and Thuringia, won over some chieftains, and converted and baptized great numbers of the heathen.
In early times there dwelt in Thuringia, south of the river Unstrut, the Angli, who gave their name to the pagus Engili, and to the east, between the Saale and the Elster, the Warni (Werini, or Varini), whose name is seen in Werenofeld.
Duke John of Saxony had placed him on the commission for church visitation in Thuringia, and in 1529 appointed him pastor and superintendent at Eisenach, where for eighteen years he administered church affairs with tact, and fostered the spread of education.
(2) Another Blankenburg, also a health-resort, is situated in Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, Thuringia, at the confluence of the rivers Rinne and Schwarza, and at the entrance of the Schwarzatal.
About 1120 another Giso, count of Gudensberg, secured possession of the lands of the Werners; on his death in 1137 his daughter and heiress, Hedwig, married Louis, landgrave of Thuringia; and from this date until 1247, when the Thuringian ruling family became extinct, Hesse formed part of Thuringia.
In the following year Sophia handed over Hesse to her son Henry (1244-1308), who, remembering the connexion of Hesse and Thuringia, took the title of landgrave, and is the ancestor of all the subsequent rulers of the country.
Dietrich married Jutta, daughter of Hermann I., landgrave of Thuringia, and was succeeded in 1221 by his infant son Henry, surnamed the Illustrious; who on arriving at maturity obtained as reward for supporting the emperor Frederick II.
Having gained Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate on his uncle's death in 1247, he granted sections of his lands to his three sons in 1265, but retained Meissen.
First (908-910) they ravaged Thuringia, Swabia and Bavaria, and defeated the Germans on the Lechfeld, whereupon the German king Henry I.
One of his sons, Henry, called margrave and duke in Franconia, fell fighting against the Normans in 886; another, Poppo, was margrave in Thuringia from 880 to 892, when he was deposed by the German king Arnulf.
In Germany, at his instigation, the archbishops with a few of the secular nobles in 1246 elected Henry Raspe, landgrave of Thuringia, German king; but the "priests' king," as he was contemptuously called, died in the following year, William II., count of Holland, being after some delay elected by the papal party in his stead.
When his father died in 1381 some trouble arose over the family possessions, and in the following year an arrangement was made by which Frederick and his brothers shared Meissen and Thuringia with their uncles Balthasar and William.
Sachsen-Koburg-Gotha), a sovereign duchy of Germany, in Thuringia, and a constituent member of the German empire, consisting of the two formerly separate duchies of Coburg and Gotha, which lie at a distance of 14 m.
In the beginning of the 13th century the village received municipal rights; in 1232 it was captured and burned by the landgrave Conrad of Thuringia and his allies; in 1631 it was taken by William of Hesse; in 1760 it was successfully defended by General Luckner against the French; and in 1761 it was occupied by the French and unsuccessfully bombarded by the Allies.
He married Margaret, daughter of the emperor Frederick II., in 1254, and in 1265 received from his father Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate.
THURINGIA (German ThÃ¼ringen), an historical division of Germany, but now a territorial term without political significance.
Besides these, the term Thuringia also, of course, includes the various "exclaves" of Prussia, Saxony, Bavaria and Bohemia which lie embedded among them.
At this time King Basin divided Thuringia among his three sons.
The northern portion of the kingdom was given to the Saxons who had joined him against Hermannfried; the southern part was added to Austrasia; and the name of Thuringia was confined to the district bounded by the Harz Mountains, the Werra, the Thuringian Forest and the Saale.
Thuringia was retained by Otto's son and successor, Henry I.
His son Louis was appointed landgrave of Thuringia in 1130 by the emperor Lothair II.; by his marriage with Hedwig of Gudensberg in 1137 he obtained a large part of Hesse.
He was succeeded by his brother Hermann I., during whose reign Thuringia suffered greatly from the ravages of the adherents of Philip, duke of Swabia, and also from those of his rival Otto of Brunswick.
This Louis, who is celebrated in story, destroyed many robber-castles in Thuringia and died at Otranto while accompanying the emperor Frederick II.
In 1242 Thuringia had been promised by Frederick II.
Henry, however, found himself obliged to defend his title against Sophia, wife of Henry II., duke of Brabant, who was a daughter of the landgrave Louis IV., and it was not till 1263 that an arrangement was made by which Thuringia and the Saxon palatinate fell to Henry.
Frederick defeated Albert decisively and in 1314 was formally invested with Thuringia by the emperor Henry VII.