The family of Thun-Hohenstein, one of the wealthiest of the Austrian nobility, which has for more than 200 years settled at Tetschen, in Bohemia, has given several distinguished members to the Austrian public service.
Thun, Geschichte der revolutionaren Bewegungen in Russland (Leipzig, 1883); Konni Zilliacus, The Russian Revolutionary movement (London, 1905).
The handsome château of the counts of Thun (built in 1667-73 and restored in 1788), which occupies a rocky height above the town, was at one time fortified, and was a place of some importance during the Seven Years' War.
The lordship was bought from them in 1628 by the Freiherr von Thun, by whose descendants, the Counts Thun, it is still held.
By that line they were sold in 1384, with Thun, to the town of Bern, whose bailiffs ruled in the castle till 1798.
The lake of Thun, and those in the Upper Engadine, in the heart of the mountains, though these are naturally smaller in extent, while the true lakes of the High Alps are represented by the glacier lakes of the Marjelensee (near the Great Aletsch glacier) and those on the northern slope of the Col de Fenetre, between Aosta and the Val de Bagnes.
The snowy Alps of the Bernese Oberland (culminating in the Finsteraarhorn, 14,026 ft., and the Jungfrau, 13,669 ft.), as well as the famous summer resorts of Grindelwald, Marren, Lauterbrunnen, Interlaken, Meiringen, Kandersteg, Adelboden, Thun and the fine pastoral valley of the Simme.
(2) The Mittelland or Midlands, comprising the valley of the Aar below Thun, and that of the Emme, thus taking in the outliers of the high Alps and the open country on every side of the town of Bern.
The capital is Bern, while the other important towns are Bienne, Burgdorf, Delemont or Delsberg (50J3 inhabitants), Porrentruy or Pruntrut (6959 inhabitants), Thun, and Langenthal (4799 inhabitants).
Iron mines are also worked in the Jura, while the Heimberg potteries, near Thun, produce a locally famous ware, and there are both quarries of building stone and tile factories.
The more important, with dates of acquisition, are the following:-Laupen (1324), Hasli and Meiringen (1334), Thun and Burgdorf (1384), Unterseen and the Upper Simme valley (1386), Frutigen, &c. (1400), Lower Simme valley (1439-1449), Interlaken, with Grindelwald, Lauterbrunnen and Brienz (1528, on the suppression of the Austin Canons of Interlaken), Saanen or Gessenay (1555), Kdniz (1729), and the Bernese Jura with Bienne (1815, from the bishopric of Basel).
But certain regions previously won were lost in 1798-Aargau (1415), Aigle and Grandson (1475), Vaud (1536), and the Pays d'En-Haut or Chateau d'Oex (1555) From 1798 to 1802 the Oberland formed a separate canton (capital, Thun) of the Helvetic Republic. (W.
In 1898 the expulsion of Austrian subjects from Prussia, in connexion with the Anti-Polish policy of the Prussian government, caused a passing irritation, to which Count Thun, the Austrian premier, gave expression.
Not only did the party include all the Czechs, but they were supported by many of the great nobles who were of German descent, including Count Leo Thun, his brother-in-law Count Heinrich Clam-Martinitz, and Prince Friedrich von Schwarzenberg, cardinal archbishop of Prague, who hoped in a self-governing kingdom of Bohemia to preserve that power which was threatened by the German Liberals.
Rieger and Thun were summoned to Vienna; he himself went to Prague, but after two days he had to give up the attempt in despair.
The Germans in their turn now left the diet, and the Czechs voted an address to the crown, drawn up by Count Thun, demanding the restoration of the Bohemian kingdom.
When Count Thun was appointed governor of Bohemia their hopes ran high, for he was supposed to favour the coronation of the emperor at Prague.
The Czechs also were offended; they arranged riots at Prague; the professors in the university refused to lecture unless the German students were defended from violence; Gautsch resigned, and Thun, who had been governor of Bohemia, was appointed minister.
Thun then arranged with the Hungarian ministers a compromise about the Ausgleich.
Thun had in consequence to retire, in September 1899.
Mention must also be made of two dramatists, Peter Thun Feorsom (1777-1817), who produced an excellent translation of Shakespeare (1807-1816), and Thomas Overskou (1798-1873), author of a long series of successful comedies, and of a history of the Danish theatre (5 vols., Copenhagen, 18J4-1864).
INTERLAKEN, a Swiss town (1864 ft.) in the canton of Berne, situated on the flat plain (Bodeli) between the lakes of Brienz (E.) and of Thun (W.), and connected by steamer, as well as by railway (171 m.) with the town of Thun.
The lines serving these places all start from the eastern railway station (that from Thun reaches the western or main railway station), whence steamers depart for the Giessbach Falls, Brienz and Meiringen, on the way to Lucerne or to the Grimsel Pass.
"ALOYS LEXA VON AEHRENTHAL, Count (1854-1912), Austro-Hungarian statesman (see 3.25; 9.951), was born at GrossSkal, Bohemia, the son of Baron (Freiherr) Johann Lexa von Aehrenthal and his wife Marie, née Countess Thun-Hohenstein, and began his diplomatic career in 1877 as attache to the Paris embassy under Count Beust.
After a brief interval he was succeeded by Count Thun and then by Count Clary, whose government repealed the decrees that had to a certain extent granted equal rights to the Bohemian language.
Of the many palaces, the Waldstein, Schwarzenberg - formerly Rosenberg- - palaces, the two palaces of the counts Thun and that of Prince Lobkowitz are the most interesting.