The true character of Urim (as expressing " aye ") and Thummim (as expressing " nay ") is shown by the reconstructed text of 1 Sam.
30 (Urim and Thummim), xxix.
URIM AND THUMMIM in the Bible.
If this fault be in me or in Jonathan my son, give Urim, and if it be in Thy people Israel, give Thummim.'
From this illuminating passage it is clear (a) that by means of the Urim and Thummim the guilt or innocence of the suspected parties was determined; (b) that this was effected by a series of categorical questions implying the simple alternative of "yes" or "no," or something positive or negative.
1896, 118 f.): "Give to Levi Thy Thummim, And Thy Urim to the man of Thy favour."
Regarding the form and material of the Urim and Thummim ' Encycl, Biblica, iv.
Thus the association of the Urim and Thummim with the ephod, which appears in the oldest narratives, is retained in the Priestly Code (P).
It is doubtful, however, whether P had any clear notion as to what exactly the Urim and Thummim were.
Nor has any satisfactory explanation of the names Urim and Thummim been proposed.
40, where "a high priest wearing Urim and Thummim" (R.V.) is given as "a high priest clothed in doctrine and truth" in A.V.
Perhaps the conjecture least open to objection is that which regards the terms Urim and Thummim as the names of two lots 2 (perhaps actually written on them) of opposite import.
For modern discussions, see the articles "Urim and Thummim" in the Bible dictionaries; the relevant sections in the treatises on archaeology; and W.
Muss-Arnolt, The Urim and Thummim (reprinted from the American Journal of Semitic Languages, July 1900).