According to one story, it was founded by the Egyptian god Hermes (Thoth), the reputed inventor of the arts and sciences, to whom, under the appellation Hermes Trismegistus, Tertullian refers as the master of those who occupy themselves with nature; after him later alchemists called their work the " hermetic art," and the seal of Hermes, which they placed upon their vessels, is the origin of the common phrase " hermetically sealed."
Elsewhere he was the artizan-god Ptah, who with his hammer broke the egg; sometimes Thoth, the moon-god and principle of intelligence, who spoke the world into existence.'
In the scene of the weighing of the soul before Osiris, dating from the New-kingdom onwards, Anubis attends to the balance while Thoth registers the result.
At this time the first of Thoth had receded to the 29th of August.
In the year 136 of our era, the first of Thoth in the ancient Egyptian year corresponded with the 10th of July, between which and the 29th of August there are forty days.
The adoption of the Julian year must therefore have taken place about 160 years before the year 136 of our era (the difference between the Egyptian and Julian years being one day in four years), that is to say, about the year 25 B.C. In fact, the first of Thoth corresponded with the 29th of August in the Julian calendar, in the years 25, 24, 23 and 22 B.C.
By the Romans the era of Actium was considered as beginning on the 1st of January of the 16th of the Julian era, which is the 30th B.C. The Egyptians, who used this era till the time of Diocletian, dated its commencement from the beginning of their month Thoth, or the 29th of August; and the Eastern Greeks from the 2nd of September.
The ram Khnum in Elephautine, the jerboa or okapi (?) Seth in Ombos, the ibis Thoth in Hermopolis Magna, and of the gods named above, Horus in Hieraconpolis, Wepwawet in Assiut, Neith in Sais, and Mm in Coptos.
In other cases the transitional steps are shrouded nystery; we do not know, for example, why the ibis Thoth 1equently became the patron of the fine arts, the inventor ~riting, and the scribe of the gods.
The ibis-god Thoth was early identified with the moon.
Certain of the carri al gods early became identified with cosmic divinities, and inst latter thus became the objects of a cult; so, for instance, in t Horus of Edfu was a sun-god, and Thoth in Hermopolis as gna was held to be the moon.
Eve 09- from Rim, it is said, emanated Horus as heart or mind and Thoth as tongue, and through the conjoint action of these two, the mind conceiving the design and the tongue uttering the creative command, all gods and men and beasts obtained their being.
For information as to Ammon, Anubis, Apis, Bes, Bubastis, Buto, Isis and Thoth, reference must be made to the special articles on these gods.
CH0N5, he who travels by boat, perhaps originally a mere epithet of the moon-god Ioh or Thoth, is chiefly familiar as the third member of the Theban triad.
There was indeed a certain justification for this contention, even when a contrary theory vssigned to the divinity a place in the sky, as in the case of the, unar divinity Thoth; for in the inmost sanctuary stood a statue)f the god, which served as his representative for the purposes)f the cult.
It was related how Seth had brought an accusation against Osiris in the great judgment hail of Heliopolis, and how the latter, helped by the skilful speaker Thoth, had emerged from the ordeal acquitted and triumphant.
In a shrine sits Osiris, the ruler and judge of the dead, accompanied by forty-two assessors; and before him stands the balance on which the heart of the deceased man is to be weighed against Truth; Thoth stands behind and registers the result.
Ultimately the Egyptians gave names to the months taken from festivals celebrated in them, in order as follows:Thoth, Paophi, Athyr, Choiak, Tobi, Mechir, PhamenOth, Pharmuthi, Pachons, Payni, Epiphi, Mesore, the epagomenal days being then called the short year.
1st Thoth in the later calendar).
In Ptolemaic times not only were Macedonian dates sometimes given in Greek documents, but there were certainly two native modes of dating current; down to the reign of Euergetes there was a fiscal dating in papyri, according to which the yotr began in Paophi, besides a civil dating probably from Thoth; later, all the dates in papyri start from Thoth.
The fixed year of the Canopic decree under Euergetes (with 1St Thoth on Oct.
The capture of Alexandria having taken place on the 1st of August 30 s.c., the era began nominally in 30 B.C., but it was not actually introduced till some years later, from which time the Ist Thoth corresponded with the 29th of August in the Julian year.
1st Thoth, and thirdly that this year subsequently underwent no readjustment or other alteration before the reign of Euergetes.
Thoth, the god of wisdom.
In late hieroglyphic the name of Thoth often has the epithet " the twice very great," sometimes " the thrice very great "; in the popular language (demotic) the corresponding epithet is " the five times very great," found as early as the 3rd century B.C. Greek translations give o p..iyas Kai ' Alias and p. yco-Tos: T pio-jeyas occurs in a late magical text.
Thoth was " the scribe of the gods," " Lord of divine words," and to Hermes was attributed the authorship of all the strictly sacred books generally called by Greek authors Hermetic. These, according to Clemens Alexandrinus, our sole ancient authority (Strom.
Works are extant in papyri and on temple walls, treating of geography, astronomy, ritual, myths, medicine, &c. It is probable that the native priests would have been ready to ascribe the authorship or inspiration, as well as the care and protection of all their books of sacred lore to Thoth, although there were a goddess of writing (Seshit), and the ancient deified scribes Imuthes and Amenophis, and later inspired doctors Petosiris, Nechepso, &c., to be reckoned with; there are indeed some definite traces of such an attribution extant in individual cases.
Besides Thoth, Anubis was constantly identified with Hermes; see also Horus.
Egyptian thought ascribed this function to Thoth, who played somewhat different parts in different systems, but emerges as the representative of the immanent intelligence (1888); Siebeck, Lehrbuch der Religionsphilosophie (1893); Dorner, Grundriss der Religionsphilosophie (1903).
Thoth " the thrice-great " passed into Hermes Trismegistus whom Christian fathers could recognize, 2 when the supremely beautiful figure of Greek theology, Apollo, had lost his dignity and ceased to be desired.
Thoth was a voluminous author, and the collection of forty-two books which bore his name was a kind of primitive cyclopaedia of theology, astronomy, geography and physiology.
THOTH, the Greek name of the Egyptian god of letters, invention and wisdom (e.g.
Thoth is found on the earliest monuments symbolized by an ibis (Ibis aethio pica, still not uncommon in Nubia), which bird was sacred to him.
In the Pyramid texts Thoth is already closely associated with the Osiris myth, having aided the god by his science and knowledge of magic, and demonstrated the justice of his claims in the contest with Set.
Thoth presided over writing, measuring and calculation, and is prominent in the scene of the weighing of the soul.
Thoth was identified by the Greeks with Hermes, and Hermes Trismegistus is a late development of the Egyptian god.
Geographically the worship of Thoth in Lower Egypt centred in the Hermopolite nome, contiguous to the Busirite and Mendesian nomes.