Ovi ositor gullet and a highly concentrated nervous 4' p system; in addition to the suboesophageal (side view) of Physo- ganglion, there are two thoracic ganglia pus.
Bancrofti is known to live in the lymphatic glands, and its embryos Microfilaria sanguinis hominis nocturna, passing by the thoracic duct, reach the blood-vessels and circulate in the blood.
When first sucked up by the insect from an infected man it passes into its stomach, and thence makes its way into the thoracic muscles, and there for some time it grows.
(I) Amphicoelous; each end of the centrum is concave; this, the lowest condition, is embryonic, but was retained in Archaeopteryx and in the thoracic vertebrae of Ichthyornis.
(2) Dorsals, those which begin with the first thoracic rib, and end at the last that is not fused with the ilium.
Dorsal vertebrae frequently have a ventral outgrowth of the centrum; these hypapophyses may be simple vertical blades, I-shaped, or paired knobs; they serve for the attachment of the thoracic origin of the longus collianticus muscle, reaching their greatest development in Sphenisci and Colymbidae.
In many birds some of the thoracic vertebrae are more or less coOssified, in most pigeons for instance the 15th to 17th; in most Galli the last cervical and the next three or four thoracics are coalesced, &c. The pelvic vertebrae include of course the sacrum.
The most anterior part of the ilium often overlaps one or more short lumbar ribs and fuses with them, or even a long, complete thoracic rib.
The brachial plexus is formed by four or five of the lowest cervical nerves; the last nerve of this plexus often marks the boundary of the cervical and thoracic vertebrae.
In the region of the neck lateral strands pass through the transverse canal of the cervical vertebrae; but from the thoracic region onwards, where the cardiac branch to the heart is given off, each strand is double and the basal ganglia are successively connected with the next by a branch which runs ventrally over the capitulum of the rib, and by another which passes directly through the foramen or space formed between capitulum and tuberculum.
The lungs are small and occupy only the dorsal portion of the thoracic cavity.
There are five pairs of larger sacs belonging to the pulmonary system: - (1) prebronchial or cervical, extending sometimes far up the neck, even into the cranial cavities; the throat-bags of the prairie fowls (Cupidonia and Pedioecetes) are a further development; (2) subbronchial or interclavicular; (3 and 4) anterior and posterior thoracic or intermediate; (5) abdominal sacs.
Garrod, " Major Divisions of Passerine Birds (syrinx, &c.)," P.Z.S., 1876, pp. 506519; and " On the Conformation of the Thoracic Extremity of the Trachea in the Class A y es," P.Z.S., 18 79, pp. 357-3 80; Muller, Stimmorgane der Passerinen, Mailer's Arch.
The ventral region of the thoracic skeleton is complex, each segment usually possessing a median sternum with paired episterna (in front) and epimera (behind).
The nervous system is remarkably concentrated in some beetles, the abdominal ganglia showing a tendency to become shifted forward and crowded together, and in certain chafers all the thoracic and abdominal ganglia are fused into a single nervecentre situated in the thorax, - a degree of specialization only matched in the insectan class among the Hemiptera and some muscid flies.
The head - carrying feelers, mandibles and two pairs of maxillae - is succeeded by the three thoracic segments, each bearing a pair of strong five-segmented legs, whose feet, like those of the adult, carry two claws.
For the appreciation of the sounds made by these stridulators, the ants are furnished with delicate organs of hearing (chordotonal organs) in the head, in the three thoracic and two of the abdominal segments and in the shins of the legs.
It is a remarkable and newly-ascertained fact that in regeneration (in Potamilla) the thorax is not replaced by the growth of uninjured thoracic segments; but that the anterior segments of the abdomen take on the same characters, the setae dropping out and being replaced in accordance with the plan of the setae in the thorax of uninjured worms. Among the Oligochaeta the sexually mature worm is distinguished from the immature worm by the clitellum and by the development of genital setae.
From these three pairs of thoracic legs comes the name - Hexapoda - which distinguishes the class.
- Legs and Ventral Thoracic Sclerites of Female Cockroach (Blatta).
A wing is an outgrowth from the dorsal and pleural regions of the thoracic segment that bears it, and microscopic examination shows it to consist of a double layer of cuticularized skin, the two layers being in contact except where they are thickened and folded to form the firm tubular nervures, which serve as a supporting framework for the wing membrane, enclose air-tubes, and convey blood.
A pair of ganglia in each thoracic segment is usual (fig.
The legs, wings and other organs of the trunk receive their nerves from the thoracic and abdominal ganglia, and the fusion of several pairs of these ganglia may be regarded as corresponding to a centralization of individuality.
Ing the dorsal with the ventral sclerites of the Lateral thoracic abdomen, lessens t he capacity of the abdo ternal femoral minal region, while the contraction of the power Longit.
Tergal ful muscles arising from the thoracic walls, and inserted into the proximal ends of the thighs, N.
From these facts it appears that the anterior three divisions of the head differ strongly from the posterior three, which greatly resemble thoracic segments; hence it has been thought possible that the anterior divisions may represent a primitive head, to which three segments and their leg-like appendages were subsequently added to form the head as it now exists.
Though the T hx, thoracic segments bear the wings, no trace of these appendages exists till the close of the embryonic life, 8 `' nor even, in many cases, till much later.
The thoracic segments, as seen in an early stage of the ventral plate, display in a well-marked manner the essential elements of the insect segment.
In the embryos of many insects there are projections from the segments of the abdomen similar, to a considerable extent, to the rudimentary thoracic legs.
The nervous system of the embryonic head exhibits three ganglionic masses, anterior to the thoracic ganglionic masses; these three masses subsequently amalgamate and form the sub-oesophageal ganglion, which supplies the trophal segments.
A, anus; Abx 1 Abx 11, appendage of 1st and of 11th abdominal segments; Ans, anal piece=telson or 12th abdominal segment; Ant, antenna; De, deuterencephalon; Md, mandible; Mx1, first maxilla; Mx2, second maxilla or labium; 0, mouth; Obcl, rudimentary labrum and clypeus; Pre, protencephalon; St t, Stu), stigmata i and io; Terg, tergite; Thx1, appendage of first thoracic segment; Tre, tritencephalon; Ul, a thickening at hinder margin of the mouth.
22) of the two hinder thoracic segments and are visible externally throughout the life-history, becoming larger after each moult or casting of the cuticle.
I., II., III., vomitories) the imaginal disks are to all the three thoracic segments appearance completely separated from of the larva; I, 2, 3, buds the hypodermis, with which they are, of the legs of the imago; la, however, really organically connected bud of head-lobes; f, of by strings or pedicels.
21, e) or saw-fly, with its long cylindrical body, bearing the six shortened thoracic legs and a variable number of pairs of " pro-legs " on the abdomen (this being the eruciform type of larva); the soft, white, wood?
Boring grub of a longhorn-beetle or of the saw-fly Sires, with its stumpy vestiges of thoracic legs; the large-headed but entirely legless, fleshy grub of a weevil; and the legless larva, with greatly reduced head, of a bee.
But the pupa hangs from the surface by means of paired respiratory trumpets on the prothorax, the dorsal thoracic surface, where the cuticle splits to allow the emergence of the fly, being thus directed towards the upper air.
Young resembling parents, but aquatic in habit, breathing dissolved air by thoracic tracheal gills.
Larvae eruciform without thoracic legs, or vermiform without head-capsule.
Insect wings are specialized outgrowths of certain thoracic segments, and are quite unrepresented in any other class of Arthropods.
The origin of insect wings remains, therefore, a mystery, deepened by the difficulty of imagining any probable use for thoracic outgrowths, comparable to the wingrudiments of the Exopterygota, in the early stages of their evolution.
As shown by the number and variety of species, the Orthoptera are the most dominant order of this group. Eminently terrestrial in habit, the differentiation of their fore-wings and hindwings can be traced from Carboniferous, isopteroid ancestors through intermediate Mesozoic forms. The Plecoptera resemble the Ephemeroptera and Odonata in the aquatic habits of their larvae, and by the occasional presence of tufted thoracic gills in the imago exhibit an aquatic character unknown in any other winged insects.
There are three distinct and large thoracic segments, whereof the prothorax is narrower than the others; the legs are much shorter and stouter than in the winged insect, with monomerous tarsi terminated by a single claw.
A, Restored thoracic limbs in transverse section of the animal; b, section across a posterior somite; c, section across one of the sub-terminal somites.
- Deiphon Forbesii, Dorsal view of second thoracic leg Barr.
St, Thoracic tracheal aperture.
His results, so far, have been confirmed by Starling, who finds that the amount of lymph-flow from the thoracic duct is dependent upon difference in pressure.
In the treatment of effusions into the pleura and, though with less advantage, of pericardial effusions, direct mechanical interference was practised by one physician and another, till these means of attaining rapid and complete cure took their places as indispensable, and were extended from thoracic diseases to those of the abdominal and other inner parts formerly beyond the reach of direct therapeutics.
The discovery of the Rntgen rays has also extended the physician's power of vision, as in cases of aortic aneurysm, and other thoracic diseases.
H, Head; 1, 2, 3, the thoracic segments; i., ii., the first and second abdominal segments; i., being the propodeum.
But the most natural division is obtained by the separation of the saw-flies as a primitive sub-order, characterized by the imperfect union of the first abdominal segment with the thorax, and by the broad base of the abdomen, so that there is no median constriction or " waist," and by the presence of thoracic legs - usually also of abdominal pro-legs - in the larva.