On the allied side the British (25,000), including some German auxiliaries, were about Leiria: the Portuguese regular troops (16,000) near Thomar; and some thousands of Portuguese militia were observing Soult in the north of Portugal, a body under Silveira being at Amarante, which Soult was now approaching.
The chief towns of Portugal are Lisbon (pop. 1900, 356,009), the capital and principal seaport; Oporto (167,955), the capital of the northern provinces and, after Lisbon, the most important centre of trade; the seaports of Setubal (22,074), Ilhavo (12,617), Povoa de Varzim (12,623), Tavira (12,175), Faro (11,789),(11,789), Ovar (10,462), Olhao (10,009) Vianna do Castello (io,000), Aveiro (9975), Lagos (8291), Leixoes (7690) and Figueira da Foz (6221); and the inland cities or towns of Braga (24,202), Louie (22,478), Coimbra (18,144), Evora (16,020), Covilha (15,469), Elvas (13,981), Portalegre (11,820), Palmella (11,478), Torres Novas (10,746), Silves (9687), Lamego (9471), Guimaraes (9104), Beja (8885), Santarem (8628),(8628), Vizeu (8057), Estremoz (7920), Monchique (7345), Castello Branco (7288), Abrantes (7255), Torres Vedras (6900), Thomar (6888), Villa Real (6716), Chaves (6388), Guarda (6124), Cintra (5914), Braganza (5535), Mafra (4769), Leiria (4459), Batalha (3858), Almeida (2330), Alcobaga (2309), Bussaco (1661).
His constitutional position was defined at the Cortes of Thomar (1581).
At Thomar Philip II.
History had inspired among the Portuguese, the union of 1581 might have endured if the terms of the Thomar compact had been observed.
Costa Cabral, who became count of Thomar in 1845, ruled despotically, despite many insurrections, until May 1846, when a coalition of Miguelites, Septembrists and Chartist malcontents drove him into exile.
The dictatorial rule of his successor - the returned exile, Thomar - provoked another successful rising on the 7th of April 1851.
Thomar again fled from the country; Saldanha again became prime minister, but at the head of a moderate coalition.