Quercus Ilex, the evergreen oak of southern Europe, is found in forests as far east as the Sutlej, accompanied with other European forms. In the higher parts of Afghanistan and Persia Boraginaceae and thistles abound; gigantic Umbelliferae, such as Ferula, Galbanum, Dorema, Bubon, Peucedanum, Prangos, and others, also characterize the same districts, and some of them extend into Tibet.
The collar is formed of thistles, alternating with sprigs of rue, and the motto is Nemo me impune lacessit.
The leaves of the involucre are spiny in thistles and in teazel (Dipsacus), and hooked in burdock.
Geese and cranes, chicory, mildew, thistles, cleavers, caltrops, darnel and shade are farmer's enemies.
Among the advantages of enclosures, he observes, " you will gain much more labour from your servants, a great part of whose time was taken up in gathering thistles and other garbage for their horses to feed upon in their stables; and thereby the great trampling and pulling up and other destruction of the corns while they are yet tender will be prevented."
Among imported pests the rabbit and sparrow, and a numerous company of European and American thistles and other weeds, have to be systematically contended with.
The remains consist of foundations and piles of stones (in spring concealed by gigantic thistles) extending about half a mile along the shore.
Until comparatively recent times the surrounding district was in a state of nature with merely a thin coating of turf interspersed with tufts of heath and dwarf thistles, but bare of trees and shrubs and altogether devoid of the works of man, with the exception of a series of prehistoric barrows of the Bronze Age which, singly and in groups, studded the landscape.