Plate-glass is manufactured in this manner in thicknesses varying from 1 in.
Again, in North America, the greatest thicknesses are found along the mountainous regions on the west and on the east - reaching 12,000 ft.
The first consists of cutting up the various fabrics and materials employed into shapes suitable for forming the leaves, petals, &c.; this may be done by scissors, but more often stamps are employed which will cut through a dozen or more thicknesses at one blow.
It is, however, equally important that the glass as a whole should be flat and remains flat during the process of gradual cooling (annealing), otherwise great thicknesses of glass would have to be ground away at the projecting parts of the sheet.
In the deeper German pits, where great thicknesses of water-bearing strata have to be traversed, the first establishment expenses are so great that in order to increase output the shaft is sometimes provided with a complete double equipment of cages and engines.
Post-Pliocene "Aral-Caspian deposits," containing the usual fossils (Hydrobia, Neritina, eight species of Cardium, two of Dreissena, three of Adacna and Lithoglyphus caspius), attain thicknesses varying from 105 ft.
In many places, but in and near the Appalachian Mountains its thickness is much greatermore than five times as great if the maximum thicknesses of all formations be made the basis of calculation.
Here clastic rocks predominate, while limestone is more abundant in the interior, If the maximum thicknesses of all Devonian formations be added together, the total for the system is as much as 15,000 ft.; but such a thickness is not found in any one pluce.
If maximum thicknesses of its several parts in different localities, as usually measured, are added together, the total would approach or reach 25,000 ft.; but the strata of any one region have scarcely more than half this thickness, and the average is much less.
The thickness of the system in the west is great, the formations of each of the several stages mentioned above running into thousands of feet, as thicknesses are commonly measured.
Thick and said to be made up largely of the secretions of organisms. Such thicknesses of such material go far to modify the former opinion that the Tertiary periods were short.
Thicknesses of several thousand feet are recorded at other points in California and elsewhere along the coast farther north.
The thicknesses, especially where the formations are metamorphosed, are uncertain.
If 1 2 and t l are thicknesses traversed by the extreme rays, t = t 2 - t,, and if, as is usually the case, the prism is filled right up to its refraction cap, = o, and t becomes equal to the greatest thickness of the medium which is made use of.
In North America, the principal region of volcanic activity lay in the west; great thicknesses of igneous rocks occur in the Lower Carboniferous rocks of British Columbia, and from the middle of the period until near its close volcanoes were active from Alaska to California.
The heavy old-fashioned country-made packages are rapidly being replaced by light-tared Boxes made from several thicknesses of veneer pressed closely together, most of which come from Russia.
Over these thicknesses they are used chiefly for the largest marine boilers.
Shares that at first represented so many dollars per foot in a tangible mine were multiplied and remultiplied until they came to represent paper thicknesses or almost nothing, yet still their prices mounted upward.
Nothing could be more striking than the difference between the thicknesses in western and eastern Europe; in Brittany the deposits are over 24,000 ft.
Both rock-salt and carbon bisulphide are extremely transparent to the luminous and also to the infra-red rays The iodine in the solution, however, has the property of absorbing the luminous rays, while transmitting the infra-red rays copiously, so that in sufficient thicknesses the solution appears nearly black.
Upper and Middle Cretaceous, containing phosphates, gypsum, naphtha, sulphur and alum, attain thicknesses of 2000 and 5000 ft.
It is clear that direct transmission through the plate at a point where the thicknesses of the prisms are d 1 and d 2 will introduce a relative retardation of (µ,; -, u o) (d l - d2) between streams polarized in planes parallel and perpendicular to the edges of the prisms,, u o, and being the ordinary and the extraordinary refractive indices; and it is hence possible by an adjustment of the thickness to reduce elliptically polarized to plane polarization at an assigned point marked off by two parallel lines.
For this reason Amici constructed objectives of a similar aperture and focus for different thicknesses of glass covers.
Granulated cork has practically the same insulating properties as silicate cotton, and the same thicknesses may be used.
If 1 2 and 1 1 be the thicknesses traversed by the extreme rays, and a denote the width of the emergent beam, the dispersion is given by 0 Sµ 0 2 - 11)/a, or, if t i be negligible, 0 = Sµt/a (6) The condition of resolution of a double line whose components subtend an angle 0 is that 0 must exceed X/a.
Later still, this portion, instead of forming a bundle of folds in the centre, was carefully folded over and carried up over the left shoulder, and in course of time these folds were carefully arranged in several thicknesses resembling boards, tabulae, hence called contabulatio (Plate, fig.
Sheets are of thicknesses of less than 4 in.
It was then customary to print with a good deal of packing, usually consisting of a thick blanket together with several thicknesses of paper, all of which intervened between the printing and the impression surface, whether the latter was flat or cylindrical.
This is particularly necessary if the blocks are woodcuts, or electrotypes of woodcuts, which require a different cutting of perhaps three different thicknesses, all on thin hard paper, to give their full effect.
The radii, thicknesses, refractive indices and distances between the lenses, was solved by L.
Of the cast-iron cylinders forming the well was provided with about 660 small orifices lined with gun-metal tubes or rings, each armed with numerous thicknesses of copper wire gauze, and temporarily closed with screwed plugs.
The maximum principal stresses are represented by the directions and thicknesses of the two systems of intersecting lines mutually at right angles.
The magnitudes of the maximum shearing stresses are indicated by the algebraic differences of the thicknesses of the lines of principal stress.
The first essential is an elevated observatory; the next is a long series of bolographs taken at different times of the year and of the day, to examine the effect of interposing different thicknesses of air and its variation in transparency (chiefly due to water vapour).
The method consists in comparing the intensity after transmission through a layer of known thickness of the absorbent with the intensity of light from the same source which has not passed through the medium, k being thus obtained for various thicknesses and found to be constant.
[The continued coexistence of various thicknesses, as evidenced by the colours in the same film, affords an instantaneous proof of this conclusion.] The phenomena of very thin liquid films deserve the most careful study, for it is in this way that we are most likely to obtain evidence by which we may test the theories of the molecular structure of liquids.
All these rules are valid, inasmuch as the thicknesses and distances of the lenses are not to be taken into account.
The radii, thicknesses and distances are continually altered until the errors of the image become sufficiently small.
These constants are determined by the data of the system (radii, thicknesses, distances, indices, &c., of the lenses); therefore their dependence on the refractive index, and consequently on the colour, are calculable (the formulae are given in Czapski-Eppenstein, G'rundziige der Theorie der optischen Instrumente (1903, p. 166).