In height until the lower parts are well thickened, when it may be allowed to acquire the allotted height by moderate annual increments.
In relation to its characteristic function of protection, the epidermis, which, as above defined, consists of a single layer of cells has typically thickened and cuticularized outer walls.
Isolated celh (idioblasts), thickened in various ways, are not uncommonly founc supporting the tissues of the leaf.
This consists of elongated cells with cellulose walls, which are locall~ thickened along the original corners of the cells, reducing the lumer to a cylinder, so that a number of vertical pillars of cellulose con nected by comparatively thin walls form the framework of th~ tissue.
Thus the structure of an old thickened root approximates to that of an old thickened stem, and so far as the vascular tissue is concerned can often only be distinguished from the latter by the position and orientation of the primary xylems. The cambium of the primary root, together with the tissues which it forms, is always directly continuous with that of the primary stem, just in the same way as the tissues of the primary stele.
During the process the thin walls are stretched and the turns of the spiral become pulled apart without rupturing the wall of the tracheid or vessel, If the pitted type of tracheal element were similarly stretched its continuously thickened walls would resist the stretching and eventually break.
It is thickened more in some places than in others, and thus are formed the spiral, annular and other markings, as well as the pits which occur on various cells and vessels.
Besides the internal or centripetal growth, some cell-walls are thickened on the outside, such as pollen grains, oospores of Fungi, cells of Peridineae, &c. This centrifugal growth must apparently take place by the activity of protoplasm external to the cell.
As might be expected, in thickened and highly embossed valves thin spaces occur over the visual organ.
This outer wall was thickened about the IInd or IIIrd dynasty.
Along this surface stretches a groove which is surrounded by thickened cuticle and practically formed into a tube by numerous fine hairs.
She joined the Germans and other backpackers in an Irish dance as the cigarette smoke thickened and the rock band grew louder.
As a result of this extension of the umbrellar margin, all structures belonging to this region, namely, the ring-canal, the nerve-rings, and the rim of thickened ectoderm, do not run an even course, but are thrown into festoons, caught up under the insertion of each tentacle in such a way that the ring-canal and its accompaniments form in each notch of the umbrellar margin an inverted V, the apex of which corresponds to the insertion of the tentacle; in some cases the limbs of the V may run for some distance parallel to one another, and may be fused into one, giving a figure better compared to an inverted Y.
The beetles have feelers with eleven segments, whereof the terminal few are thickened so as to form a club.
This may be associated with mud-eating habits; but it is not wholly certain that this is the case; for in Chaetogaster and Agriodrilus, which are predaceous worms, there is no protrusible pharynx, though in the latter the oesophagus is thickened through its extent with muscular fibres.
In the neck of the proboscis the fibrous layer is greatly thickened, and other intensifications of this layer occur in the dorsal and ventral middle lines of the trunk extending to the posterior end of the body.
P, a thickened line on the walls forming the placenta; c, calyx; d, ovary; s, hooded stigma terminating the short style.
It must always be remembered that we are liable (especially in the case of fossilized integuments) to attach an unwarranted interpretation to the mere discontinuity or continuity of the thickened plates of chitinous cuticle on the back of an Arthropod.
The earliest is that of Quincke, who coated a glass grating with a chemical silver deposit, subsequently thickened with copper in an electrolytic bath.
During the latter they remain dormant beneath the ground in the form of a short thickened stem protected by the scaly remains of the bases of last season's leaves (known botanically as a.
The genus Machaeropterus, consisting of four species, is very remarkable for the extraordinary form of some of the secondary wingfeathers in the males, in which the shaft is thickened and the webs changed in shape, as described and illustrated by P. L.
The seeds or grape-stones are somewhat club-shaped, with a narrow neck-like portion beneath, which expands into a rounded and thickened portion above.
During this period the bacteria multiply and most of them assume a peculiar thickened or branched form, in which state they are spoken of as bacteroids.
- Zooecia, long and coherent, prismatic or cylindrical, with terminal orifices, their wall thin and simple in structure proximally, thickened and complicated distally.
Ect, Thickened part of the ectoderm, which will give rise to the inner layer of the polypidebud.
The body is divided into eleven segments and the protrusible proboscis apparently into two, and the cuticle of the central segment is thickened to form three plates, one dorsal and two ventrolateral.
The feelers have one or more thickened basal segments, while the remaining segments are slender and threadlike.
The Cicadidae are for the most part large insects with ample wings; they are distinguished from other Homoptera by the front thighs being thickened and toothed beneath.
The blanks are then passed to an edge rolling machine, by which they are thickened at the edge so as to form a rim to protect the finished coin from wear.
Were not only thickened but were also marked with an inscription.
- Flagellates, in the great majority of instances haemal parasites, derived from a biflagellate, Bodo-like type, in which the posteriorly-directed (trailing) flagellum is always present and attached to the body by an undulating membrane, of which it constitutes the thickened edge.
U, The thickened muscular pallial margin which adheres to the shell and forms the pallial line of the left side.
I [i]) is called the umbonal area; the great anterior muscular surface h is that of the anterior adductor muscle, the posterior similar surface i is that of the posterior adductor muscle; the long line of attachment u is the simple " pallial muscle," - a thickened ridge which is seen to run parallel to the margin of the mantle-skirt in this Lamellibranch.
The chitinous substance ch is observed to be greatly thickened as compared with what it is in fig.
In Anodonta, besides being thickened, the skeletal substance of the filament develops a specially dense, rod-like body on each side of each filament.
This opening in a uterus which has never been pregnant is a narrow transverse slit, rarely a circular aperture, but in those uteri in which pregnancy has occurred the slit is much wider and its lips are thickened and gaping and often scarred.
On the outside of the shell is a non-calcified layer of conchiolin called the periostracum, secreted by the thickened edge of the mantle.
Constricted between the oesophagus and pylorus; while in the dormouse the oesophagus immediately before entering the stomach is much dilated, forming a large egg-shaped bag with thickened glandular walls; and in certain other species, as in Lophiomys and.
Avellanarius, the common dormouse, distinguished by the cylindrical bushy tail, and thickened glandular walls of the cardiac extremity of the oesophagus; thirdly, Eliomys, containing several species, with tufted and doubly vaned tails, simple stomachs and smaller molar teeth, having concave crowns and faintly marked enamel-folds; and lastly, the African Graphiurus, represented by several species, with short cylindrical tails ending in a pencil of hairs, and very small molars almost without trace of enamel-folds.
Spadella P. Langerhans, with a pair of lateral fins on the tail and a thickened ectodermic ridge running back on each side from the head to the anterior end of the fin.
These were afterwards thickened and raised.
Spores usually two-celled, either with a strongly thickened cross-wall often perforated by a narrow canal or with crosswall only slightly thickened.
The verdure had thickened and its bright green stood out sharply against the brownish strips of winter rye trodden down by the cattle, and against the pale-yellow stubble of the spring buckwheat.
A streak of thickened ectoderm supporting the tentacle.
In the leaf-blade this sometimes aopears as a layer of thickened subepidermal cells, tht hypoderm, often also as subepidermal bundles of sclerenchymatou~ fibres, or as similar bundles extending right across the leaf from mu epidermis to the other and thus acting as struts.
They also undergo cutting up by numerous septa into short cells, and these often divide again in all planes, so that a pseudoparenchyma results, the walls of which may be thickened and swollen internally, or hardened and black on the exterior.
In leaves having a very firm texture, as those of Coniferae and Cycadaceae, the cells of the parenchyma immediately beneath the epidermis are very much thickened and elongated in a direction parallel to the surface of the leaf, so as to be fibre-like.
In connexion with cheese dairies pigs are largely fed on sour whey thickened with mixed meal produced from any or all of the grains or pulses, the choice depending upon the market price.
7rLru), a name given by the ancients to some of the resinous cone-bearing trees to which it is now applied, and, as limited by modern botanists, the designation of a large genus of true conifers, differing from the firs in their hard woody cone-scales being thickened at the apex, and in their slender needle - shaped leaves growing from a membranous sheath, either in pairs or from three to five together - each tuft representing an abortive branch, springing from the axil of a partially deciduous scale-leaf, the base of which remains closely adherent to the stem.
(vi.) Aspidosiphon, with 19 species, is easily distinguished by a calcareous deposit and thickened shield at the posterior end and at the base of the introvert, which is eccentric. (vii.) Cloeosiphon has a calcareous ring, made up of lozenge-shaped plates, round the base of its centric introvert.
Frequently, as in many Dicotyledons, the primary root, the original root of the seedling, persists throughout the life of the plant, forming, as often in biennials, a thickened tap-root, as in carrot, or in perennials, a much-branched root system.
Long; in the earlier stages of growth it has a pyramidal form, in open glades the lower boughs often touching the ground, but in old age it acquires a wide almost cedar-like top. The light bluish-green foliage is somewhat lax, very dense in young trees; the cones are long and rather curved, with thin smooth scales a little thickened at the apex, and generally more or less covered with exuding white resin; they are about 5 or 6 in.
The umbrella is shallow and has the margin supported by a rim of thickened ectoderm, as in the Trachomedusae, but not so strongly developed.
36 to 45, where the folded or curved lines represent the leaves, the thickened part being the midrib.
Mite-galls, or acarocecidia, are abnormal growths of the leaves of plants, produced by microscopic Acaridea of the genus Phytoptus (gall-mites), and consist of little tufts of hairs, or of thickened portions of the leaves, usually most hypertrophied on the upper surface, so that the lower is drawn up into the interior, producing a bursiform cavity.
The distance between the block and the plate is adjusted so as to be slightly less than the diameter of the blank, and the result is that the edge of the blank is thickened and its diameter reduced before it escapes from the machine.