Attica being one of the chief seats of the worship of Artemis, this explains why Iphigeneia is sometimes called a daughter of Theseus and Helen, and thereby connected with the national hero.
The slaying of the Minotaur by Theseus in that case indicates the abolition of such sacrifice by the advance of Greek civilization.
He then, with Telamon, Peleus and Theseus, took Troy.
38; Plutarch, Theseus, Pausanias i.
When the third sacrifice came round Theseus volunteered to go, and with the help of Ariadne slew the Minotaur (Plutarch, Theseus, 15-19; Diod.
The contest between Theseus and the Minotaur was frequently represented in Greek art.
Conze, Theseus and Minotauros (1878); L.
Various derivations are given by the ancient grammarians - one from the town of Aegae; another from Aegea, a queen of the Amazons who perished in this sea; and a third from Aegeus, the father of Theseus, who, supposing his son dead, drowned himself in it.
The situation of the Acropolis, dominating the surrounding plain and possessing easy communication with the sea, favoured the formation of a relatively powerful state - inferior, however, to Tiryns and Mycenae; the myths of Cecrops, Erechtheus and Theseus bear witness to the might of the princes who ruled in the Athenian citadel, and here we may naturally expect to find traces of massive fortifications resembling in some degree those of the great Argolid cities.
The Theseum or temple of Theseus, which lay to the east of the Agora near the Acropolis, was built by Cimon: here he deposited the bones of the national hero which he brought from Scyros about 470 B.C. The only building in the city which can with certainty be assigned to the administration of Pericles is the Odeum, beneath the southern declivity of the Acropolis, a structure mainly of wood, said to have been built in imitation of the tent of Xerxes: it was used for musical contests and the though not established, may be regarded as practically certain, notwithstanding the difficulty presented by the subjects of the sculptures, which bear no relation to Hephaestus.
When Theseus landed on the island to slay the Minotaur, Ariadne fell in love with him, and gave him a clue of thread to guide him through the mazes of the labyrinth.
In the later legend, she was abandoned, while asleep on the island of Naxos, by Theseus, who had fallen a victim to the charms of Aegle (Plutarch, Theseus, 20; Diodorus, iv.
In keeping with this, her festivals at Naxos present a double character; the one, full of mourning and sadness, represents her death or abandonment by Theseus, the other, full of joy and revelry, celebrates her awakening from sleep and marriage with Dionysus.
Theseus himself was said to have founded a festival at Athens in honour of Ariadne and Dionysus after his return from Crete.
The scene where she is holding the clue to Theseus occurs on a very early vase in the British Museum.
He was deposed by his nephews, but Theseus defeated them and reinstated his father.
When Theseus set out for Crete to deliver Athens from the tribute to the Minotaur he promised Aegeus that, if he were successful, he would change the black sail carried by his ship for a white one.
Plutarch, Theseus; Pausanias i.
But when the legend became common property, other and better-known heroes were added to their number - Orpheus, Castor and Polydeuces (Pollux), Zetes and Calais, the winged sons of Boreas, Meleager, Theseus, Heracles.
But the discovery of an attempt on the life of Theseus, the son of Aegeus, forced her to leave Athens (Apollodorus i.
Cimon brought those of Theseus from Scyros), or if they could not be procured, at least a cenotaph was erected in his honour.
Tradition ascribes to Theseus, whom it also regards as the author of the union (synoecism) of Attica round Athens as a political centre, the division of the Attic population into three classes, Eupatridae, Geomori and Demiurgi.
The division attributed to Theseus is always spoken of by ancient authorities as a division of the entire population; but Busolt has recently maintained the view that the three classes represent three elements in the Attic nobility, namely, the city nobility, the landed nobility and the commercial nobility, and exclude altogether the mass of the population.
Capture of the Cretan bull subsequently slain by Theseus at Marathon.
Dedicated to him one of his famous epigrams, and Prudentius(Peristephanon, i i) drew a highly coloured picture of his gruesome death, the details of which are certainly purely legendary: the myth of Hippolytus the son of Theseus was transferred to the Christian martyr.
When a child she was carried off from Sparta by Theseus to Attica, but was recovered and taken back by her brothers.
Minos himself is said to have died at Camicus in Sicily, whither he had gone in pursuit of Daedalus, who had given Ariadne the clue by which she guided Theseus through the labyrinth.
It is said that when Theseus united the whole land under one government he made the festival of the city-goddess common to the entire country, and changed the older name Athenaea to Panathenaea (Plutarch, Theseus, 24).
THESEUS, the great hero of Attic legend,' son of Aegeus, king of Athens, and Aethra, daughter of Pittheus, king of Troezen.
For his tutor and guardian young Theseus had one Cannidas, to whom, down to Plutarch's time, the Athenians were wont to sacrifice a black ram on the eve of the festival of Theseus.
On passing out of boyhood Theseus was sent by his mother to Athens.
Theseus hoisted the Pine-Bender on his own pine-tree.
Next Theseus despatched the Crommyonian sow (or boar).
In Eleusis Theseus wrestled with Cercyon and killed him.
In reply Theseus took the bullocks out of their cart and flung them higher than the roof of the temple.
Next came the adventure of the Cretan Minotaur, whom Theseus slew by the aid of Ariadne.
Theseus now carried out a political revolution in Attica by abolishing the semi-independent powers of the separate townships and concentrating those powers at Athens, and he instituted the festival of the Panathenaea,3 as a symbol of the unity of the Attic race.
Antiope fell fighting on the side of Theseus, and her tomb was pointed out on the south side of the acropolis.
By Antiope Theseus had a son, Hippolytus.
On the death of Antiope, ' Theseus married Phaedra.
She fell in love with her stepson Hippolytus, who, resisting her advances, was accused by her to Theseus of having attempted her virtue.
Theseus in a rage imprecated on his son the wrath of Poseidon.
This tragic story is the subject of one of the extant plays of Euripides.4 The famous friendship between Theseus and Pirithous, king of the Lapiths, originated thus.
3 Besides the Panathenaea Theseus is said to have instituted the festival of the Synoikia or Metoikia.
4 Theseus is also said to have taken part in the Argonautic expedition and the Calydonian boar-hunt.
Theseus and Pirithous now carried off Helen from Sparta, and when they drew lots for her she fell to the lot of Theseus, who took her to Aphidnae, and left her in charge of his mother Aethra and his friend Aphidnus.
When Theseus returned to Athens he found that a sedition had been stirred up by Menestheus, a descendant of Erechtheus, one of the old kings of Athens.
Failing to quell the outbreak, Theseus in despair sent his children to Euboea, and after solemnly cursing the Athenians sailed away to the island of Scyrus, where he had ancestral estates.
When the Persian war was over the Delphic oracle bade the Athenians fetch the bones of Theseus from Scyrus, and' lay them in Attic earth.
His chief festival, called Theseia, was on the 8th of the month Pyanepsion (October 21st), but the 8th day of every other month was also sacred to him.5 Whatever we may think of the historical reality of Theseus, his legend almost certainly contains recollections of historical events, e.g.
While Theseus was in Crete, Minos, 1 The story of Theseus is a strange mixture of (mostly fictitious) political tradition, of aetiological myths invented to explain misunderstood acts of ritual and of a cycle of tales of adventure analogous to the story of the labours of Heracles.
Wishing to see whether Theseus was really the son of Poseidon, flung his ring into the sea.
Theseus dived and brought it up, together with a golden crown, the gift of Amphitrite.
On the return voyage the ship touched at Naxos, and there Theseus abandoned Ariadne.
Theseus had promised Aegeus that, if he returned successful, the.
Hence at the festival which commemorated the return of Theseus there was always weeping and lamentation.
Hearing of the strength and courage of Theseus, Pirithous desired to put them to the test.