In 191, however, he was routed at Thermopylae by the Romans under Manius Acilius Glabrio, and obliged to withdraw to Asia.
Strangely enough, it is not recorded what part Trachis played in the defence of Thermopylae against Xerxes.
Again in 323 they took part in the Lamian War against Antipater, and in 279 helped to defend Thermopylae against the Gauls.
It is known, too, that the meeting at Thermopylae followed that at Delphi (inscr.
'AXEa in Boeotia); and, most important of all, 'Aµqucrvovcs, at Anthela near Thermopylae, as patron-goddess of the Amphictyonic league, subsequently so well known in connexion with the temple at Delphi.
From the scanty notices of Greek legend it may be gathered that an influx of tribes from the north contributed largely to its population, which was reckoned as Aeolic. It is probable that the country was originally of greater extent, for there was a tradition that the Phocians once owned a strip of land round Daphnus on the sea opposite Euboea, and carried their frontier to Thermopylae; in addition, in early days they controlled the great sanctuary of Delphi.
During the Persian invasion of 480 the Phocians at first joined in the national defence, but by their irresolute conduct at Thermopylae lost that position for the Greeks; in the campaign of Plataea they were enrolled on the Persian side.
The time was come for Philip to assert himself in Greece, and the Phocians, who still dominated Delphi and held Thermopylae, could furnish a pretext to the champion of Pan-Hellenism and Apollo.
The Phocian mercenaries at Thermopylae were bought off and Philip crossed into central Greece.
In the great Persian war of 480 Corinth served as the Greek headquarters: her army took part at Thermopylae and Plataea and her navy distinguished itself at Salamis and Mycale.
The " Resting " (avalravOyEvos) Hercules is, as at Thermopylae and near Himera, the natural tutelar of hot springs in conjunction with his protectress Athena, who is usually depicted attending him on ancient vases.
In 191 they supported Antiochus badly, and by their slackness in the defence of Thermopylae made his position in Greece untenable.
He marched to the neighbourhood of Constantinople, but finding himself unable to undertake the siege of that superbly strong city, he retraced his steps westward and then marched southward through Thessaly and the unguarded pass of Thermopylae into Greece.
In 445 Bleda died, and two years afterwards Attila, now sole ruler, undertook one of his most important expeditions against the Eastern empire; on this occasion he pushed southwards as far as Thermopylae, Gallipoli and the walls of Constantinople; peace was cheaply purchased by tripling the yearly tribute (which accordingly now stood at 2 100 pounds of gold, or £84,000 sterling) and by the payment of a heavy indemnity.
Though a contingent of 700 was sent to Thermopylae and remained there with Leonidas to the end, the governing aristocracy soon after joined the enemy with great readiness and fought zealously on his behalf at the battle of Plataea (479).
When consul in 191 B.C. he defeated Antiochus the Great of Syria at Thermopylae, and compelled him to leave Greece.
To the south stretches the " Thermopylae of Bohemia," the scene of the battle of Kulm and Arbesau.
35) not only substitutes Thermopylae but gratuitously informs his readers that here the Pylaean assemblies were held.
At Corinth he built a theatre, at Delphi a stadium, at Thermopylae hot baths, at Canusium in Italy an aqueduct.
His personal influence and skilful diplomacy secured the wavering Achaean states, cemented the alliance with Philip, and contributed mainly to the Roman victory at Thermopylae (191).
The tomb dates from the 5th century B.C., and is probably that of the Thespians who fell at Plataea, for those who fell at Thermopylae were buried on the field.
Seven hundred Thespians accompanied Leonidas to Thermopylae and of their own free will shared his last stand and destruction.
In a second invasion of Thessaly, he had overthrown the Phocians under Onomarchus, and had advanced to Thermopylae, to find the gates of Greece closed against him by an Athenian force.
It was originally composed of twelve tribes dwelling round Thermopylae - the Thessalians, Boeotians, Dorians, Ionians, Perrhaebians, Magnetes, Locrians, Oetaeans, Phthiotes, Malians, Phocians (Aeschin.
The name of the council (pylaea) and of one set of deputies (pylagori), together with the important place held in the amphictyony by the temple of Demeter at Anthela, near Thermopylae, suggests that this shrine was the original centre of the association.
826-829) that the amphictyons met both in the spring and in the autumn at Delphi, and the literary sources should alone be sufficient authority for meetings in the same seasons at Thermopylae (Hyp. iv.
She did, indeed, join with Athens and Achaea in 353 to prevent Philip of Macedon passing Thermopylae and entering Phocis, but beyond this she took no part in the struggle of Greece with the new power which had sprung up on her northern borders.
Yet, in spite of the heroic defence of Thermopylae by the Spartan king Leonidas, the glory of the decisive victory at Salamis fell in great measure to the Athenians, and their patriotism, self-sacrifice and energy contrasted strongly with the hesitation of the Spartans and the selfish policy which they advocated of defending the Peloponnese only.