There is no place in Russia, Archangel and Astrakhan included, where the thermometer does not rise in summer nearly to 86° Fahr.
There is no difficulty in observing the temperature of the surface of the sea on board ship, the only precautions required being to draw the water in a bucket which has not been heated in the sun in summer or exposed to frost in winter, to draw it well forward of any discharge pipes of the steamer, to place it in the shade on deck, insert the thermometer immediately and make the reading without delay.
The heat in May and June is very great, and the thermometer rises considerably above too F.
Means of measuring the focal point were provided; symmetrical motion was given to the slides; scales on each slide were provided instead of screws for measuring the separation of the segments, and both scales were read by the same micrometer microscope; a metallic thermometer was added to determine the temperature of the scales.
Another form of hot-wire ammeter is a modification of the electric thermometer originally invented by Sir W.
A thermometer thrust into the middle of Walden on the 6th of March, 1847, stood at 32º, or freezing point; near the shore at 33º; in the middle of Flint's Pond, the same day, at 32º; at a dozen rods from the shore, in shallow water, under ice a foot thick, at 36º.
1903, 200, p. 105) carefully examined the behavour of a constant volume gas thermometer filled with helium.
The temperature drops so rapidly that a month later, about October the oth on the middle Urals and November the 15th throughout Russia, the thermometer ceases to rise above the freezing-point.
In the same way, whilst in the plains and hills round Naples snow is rarely seen, and never remains long, and the thermometer seldom descends to the freezing-point, 20 m.
In the districts bordering on the coast the thermometer seldom falls below 37°; and only for a few moments and at long intervals has it been known to rise as high as 105°.
In 1889, at Windsor, prizes were awarded for a fruit and vegetable evaporator, a paring and coring machine, a dairy thermometer, parcel post butter-boxes to carry different weights, and a vessel to contain preserved butter.
While in summer the thermometer goes up to 97° F., in winter it descends to 19.5°.
He covered the bulb of the thermometer with layers of non-conducting material and left it immersed at the desired depth for a very long time to enable it to take the temperature of its surroundings.
The third form is the outflow or reversing thermometer, first introduced by Aime, who used a very inconvenient form in the Mediterranean in 1841-1845, but greatly improved and simplified by Negretti and Zambra in 1875.
The mean winter reading of the thermometer is 54.7, and accompanied as this is by clear skies and an absence of snow, the season is both pleasant and invigorating.
The total quantity of liquid employed need not in general exceed half a litre if a sufficiently delicate thermometer is available.
The earliest form of testing instrument employed for this purpose was that of Giuseppe Tagliabue of New York, which consists of a glass cup placed in a copper water bath heated by a spirit lamp. The cup is filled with the oil to be tested, a thermometer placed in it and heat applied, the temperatures being noted at which, on passing a lighted splinter of wood over the surface of the oil, a flash occurs, and after further heating, the oil ignites.
Thus at high temperatures a helium thermometer is of no special advantage.
On the mainland, and more especially on the eastern slope, the temperature is cooler, the thermometer seldom rising above 93° in the shade, and falling at night below 70°.
The temperature of Cutch during the hot season is high, the thermometer frequently rising to roo° or 105° F.; and in the months of April and May clouds of dust and sand, blown about by hurricanes, envelop the houses, the glass windows scarcely affording any protection.
Its high coefficient of thermal expansion, coupled with its low freezing point, renders it a valuable thermometric fluid, especially when the temperatures to be measured are below - 39° C., for which the mercury thermometer cannot be used.
The climate is, for the greater part of the year, temperate and healthy; the thermometer records an annual mean of 67° F.
At Singapore and Batavia the thermometer very rarely falls below 70°, or rises above 90°.
The average daily variation of the thermometer is from 67° to 83° F.
During the north-east monsoon, from the middle of October to the middle of April, dry weather prevails and the thermometer averages from 77° to 80° F.
And - 10.2° respectively; while at Yakutsk and Verkhoyansk the thermometer occasionally falls as low as - 75° and - 85° F.
June, July and August are the hottest months, the thermometer often reaching 85° or 90°, though the heat of the day is to some degree compensated by the freshness of the nights.
To the establishment of this new conception the improvement and general use of the clinical thermometer gave invaluable advantages.
De Haen, and, in the United Kingdom, George Cleghorn (1716-1789) of Dublin and James Currie (1756-1805), carried on the use of the thermometer in fevers; and on the continent of Europe in later years F.
By these, and other instruments of precision, such as the thermometer, of which we have already spok en, the eminently scientific discipline of the measurement of functional movements, so difficult in the complex science of biology, has been cultivated.
In the shade and off the ground the thermometer rarely rises above 80° F.