Robespierre visited Marie Therese on the 11th of May, but no one, according to the legend, entered the dauphin's room for six months until Barras visited the prison after the 9th Thermidor (July 2 7, 1794).
He was suddenly placed under arrest owing to intrigues or suspicions of the men raised to power by the coup d'etat of Thermidor 9-10 (July 27-28) 1794.
Since the 9th of Thermidor, the republican instinct has grown weaker every day.
Carrier, who was sent to stamp out resistance in the west, he lay hidden until some time after the revolution of Thermidor (July 1794), but he was readmitted to the Convention on the 8th of March 1795.
The execution of Robespierre on the 28th of July had ended the Terror, and Babeuf - now self-styled "Gracchus" Babeuf - defended the men of Thermidor and attacked the fallen terrorists with his usual violence.
On account of his friendship with Robespierre, Saliceti was denounced at the revolution of 9 Thermidor, and was saved only by the amnesty of the year IV.
In matters of finance Cambon was now supreme; but his independence, his hatred of dictatorship, his protests against the excesses of the Revolutionary Tribunal, won him Robespierre's renewed suspicion, and on the 8th Thermidor Robespierre accused him of being antirevolutionary and an aristocrat.
Suspected of "Moderatism" on account of this incident, especially when he was recalled to Paris, Tallien increased, in appearance, his revolutionary zeal, but Therese abated his revolutionary ardour, and from the lives she saved by her entreaties she received the name of "Our Lady of Thermidor," after the 9th of Thermidor.
They determined to strike first, and on the great day of Thermidor it was Tallien who, urged on by the danger in which his beloved lay, opened the attack upon Robespierre.
On Madame Tallien see Arsene Houssaye, Notre Dame de Thermidor (Paris, 1866); J.
Arrested in the Isle of Bourbon under the Terror, he was set free by the revolution of Thermidor (July 1794).
He made no attempt to hide his monarchist sympathies, and this, together with the way in which he reported the trial and death of Louis XVI., brought him in peril of his life; to avoid this danger he enlisted in the army, but after Thermidor he returned to Paris and to his newspaper work.
The coup d'etat of Thermidor (July 28, 1794) compelled the young disciple of Robespierre hurriedly to leave St Maximin, and to accept a small post at St Chamans.
After the 9th Thermidor attempts were made to pacify the country.
Madame Tallien, daughter of Dr Cabarrus, the Lady of Thermidor, married as her second husband the prince de Chimay, and held her little court here down to her death in 1835.
He took part in the revolution of Thermidor, but protested against the establishment of the Directory, and continually pressed for severer measures against the émigrés, and even their relations who had remained in France.
But he became uneasy for his own safety and turned against Robespierre, whom he attacked on the 8th Thermidor as a "moderate" and a Dantonist.
THERMIDOR (from Gr.
As in all the other months of the Republican Calendar, each of the days of Thermidor was, in accordance with the suggestion of Fabre d'Eglantine, consecrated to some useful object.
Thus 1 Thermidor was consecrated to spelt, Io Thermidor to the watering-pot, 15 Thermidor to sheep, and 27 Thermidor to lentils.
The most important event that took place in this month was the revolution of 9 Thermidor year II.
See C. d'Hhricault, La Revolution de Thermidor (2nd ed., Paris, 1878); E.
At last, at the famous sitting of the 9th Thermidor, he ventured to present as the report of the committees of General Security and Public Safety a document expressing his own views, a sight of which, however, had been refused to the other members of committee on the previous evening.
He was thrown into prison shortly before the coup d'etat of Thermidor (July 1794) which overthrew Robespierre.
In May 1794 an attempt was made to assassinate Collot; but it only increased his popularity, and this won him the hatred of Robespierre, against whom he took sides on the 9th Thermidor, when he presided over the Convention during a part of the session.
He escaped, thanks probably to the complicity of Danton, returned to France after the 9th of Thermidor of the year II., left it in exile again after the republican coup d'etat of the 18th of Fructidor of the year V., and died at Appenzell in Switzerland in 1798.
During the crisis preceding the 9th Thermidor, Couthon showed considerable courage, giving up a journey to Auvergne in order, as he wrote, that he might either die or triumph with Robespierre and liberty.
On the 8th Thermidor (26th of July) Robespierre addressed the Convention, deploring the invectives against himself and the Revolutionary Tribunal and demanding the purification of the committees and the punishment of traitors.
On the morning of the 9th Thermidor St Just was begin ping to speak in the Convention when Tallien cut him short.
Such was the revolution of the 9th Thermidor (27th of July 1 794) which ended the Reign of Terror.
The winter months were Nivose, the snowy, Pluviose, the rainy, and Ventose, the windy month; then followed the spring months, Germinal, the month of buds, Floreal, the month of flowers, and Prairial, the month of meadows; and lastly the summer months, Messidor, the month of reaping, Thermidor, the month of heat, and Fructidor, the month of fruit.
Thus Robespierre was executed on 10 Thermidor An II., i.e.
In consequence, during the reaction which followed the 9th Thermidor (27th July 1794) he was arrested on the 22nd Messidor, year III.
On the oth Thermidor (July 27, 1794) he fell into the gulf that had opened on the 31st of May, and through which the 18th Brumaire was visible.
The remnants of Robespierres faction became alarmed at this Thermidor reaction, in which they scented royalism.
Leaning on the bourgeois, conservative, liberal and anti-clerical republicans, they were no more able than was the Thermidor party to re-establish the freedom that had been suspended by revolutionary despotism; they created a ministry of police, interdicted the clubs and popular societies, distracted the press, and with partiality undertook the separation of Church and State voted on the 18th of September 1794.
On the 9th Thermidor (July 27th, 1 794) Barere hesitated, then he drew up the report outlawing Robespierre.
He was recalled by the Committee of Public Safety on the 8th of February 1794, took part in the attack on Robespierre on the 9th Thermidor, but was himself brought before the Revolutionary Tribunal on the 11th and guillotined on the 16th of November 1794.
On the 9th Thermidor he was one of the deputies delegated to aid Barras to repress the insurrection made by the commune of Paris in favour of Robespierre.
This position, which gave him enormous power, he retained until the revolution of the 9th Thermidor (July 2 7, 1 794).
He was arrested, sentenced to death, and guillotined with Robespierre and his friends on the 10th Thermidor of the year II.