He also published Lives of Maria Theresa and Joseph II.
Its ancient gates, walls and towers have disappeared, but it still possesses a few medieval edifices.
Spain reconquered the duchies in the war of succession (1745); they were recovered by Austria in 1746; and Maria Theresa again surrendered them to Don Philip, infante of Spain, in 1748.
But he was now transferred to the Two Sicilies, while Francis of Lorraine, the husband of Maria Theresa, took Tuscany and Parma.
Worse complications ensued for the Italians when the emperor Charles VI., father of Maria Theresa, died in i74o.
The three branches of the Bourbon house, ruling in France, Austrian Spain and the Sicilies, joined with Prussia, Bavaria and the kingdom of Sardinia to despoil Maria Theresa of her heritage.
On the death of Maria Theresa in 1780, the emperor Joseph II.
By marrying her daughter, Maria Amelia, to the young duke of Parma, and another daughter, Maria Carolina, to Ferdinand of Naples, Maria Theresa consolidated Habsburg influence in the north and south of the peninsula.
Der Maria Theresa (to vols., ib.
1863-1879); Maria Theresa u.
And Leopold II., ihr Briefwechsel (1866); Maria Theresa and Joseph II., ihre Korrespondenz samt Briefen Josephs an seinen Bruder Leopold (3 vols., 1867); Beaumarchais and Sonnenfels (1868); Joseph II.
And Leopold von Toskana, ihr Briefwechsel (2 vols., 1872); Briefe der Kaiserin Maria Theresa an ihre Kinder and Freunde (4 vols., 1881); Marie Antoinette: Correspondance secrete entre Marie-Therese et le comte de Mercy-Argenteau (3 vols., Paris, 1875), in collaboration with Auguste Geffroy; Graf Philipp Cobenzl and seine Memoiren (1885); Correspondance secrete du comte de Mercy-Argenteau avec l'empereur Joseph II.
Distinguished the other Spanish mystics, St Theresa, Luis de Leon or Raimon Lull.
Gregory founded the Congregation of the Propaganda, encouraged missions, fixed the order to be observed in conclaves, and canonized Ignatius Loyola, Francis Xavier, Philip Neri and Theresa de Jesus.
But Maria Theresa (1740-1780) was distinguished for her enmity to the Jews, and in 1744 made a futile attempt to secure their expulsion from Bohemia.
In October 1740, Augustus was among the enemies of his daughter Maria Theresa, and, as a son-in-law of the emperor Joseph I., claimed a portion of the Habsburg territories.
In 1742, however, he was induced to transfer his support to Maria Theresa, and his troops took part in the struggle against Frederick the Great during the Silesian wars, and again when the Seven Years' War began in 1756.
In St Theresa (1515-1582) and John of the Cross Other the counter-reformation can boast of saints second Forms of to none in the calendar for the austerity of their Mysticism.
When the War of the Austrian Succession approached, his sympathies were entirely with Maria Theresa - mainly on the ground that the fall of the house of Austria would dangerously increase the power of France, even if she gained no accession of territory.
He succeeded in promoting an agreement between Maria Theresa and Frederick.
MARIE LOUISE (1791-1847), second wife of Napoleon I., was the daughter of Francis I., emperor of Austria, and of the princess Theresa of Naples, and was born on the 12th of December 1791.
It possesses a famous academy of mining and forestry, founded by Maria Theresa in 1760, to which are attached a remarkable collection of minerals, and a chemical laboratory.
MARIA THERESA (1 717-1780), archduchess of Austria, queen of Hungary and Bohemia, and wife of the Holy Roman emperor Francis was born at Vienna on the 13th of May 1717.
From the date of her father's death on the 20th of October 1740, till her own death in 1780, Maria Theresa was one of the central figures in the wars and politics of Europe.
But unlike some sovereigns, whose reigns have been agitated, but whose personal character has left little trace, Maria Theresa had a strong and in the main a noble individuality.
Maria Theresa had undoubtedly an instinctive histrionic sense of the perspective of the theatre, and could adopt the appropriate attitude and gesture, passionate, dignified or pathetic, required to impress those she wished to influence.
Maria Theresa considered herself first and foremost as the heiress of the rights of the house of Austria.
In her private life Maria Theresa was equally the servant of the state and the sovereign of all about her.
The signing of the peace of Teschen, which averted a great war with Prussia, on the 13th of May 1779, was the last great act of her reign, and so Maria Theresa judged it to be in a letter to Prince Kaunitz; she said that she had now finished her life's journey and could sing a for she had secured the repose of her people at whatever cost to herself.
Bright, Maria Theresa (London, 1897); also the article Austria.
His father, Claude Babeuf, had deserted the French army in 1738 and taken service under Maria Theresa, rising, it is said, to the rank of major.
Throughout Arabia and in Tripoli (Africa) the principal money used is the silver Maria Theresa dollar tariffed by the Ottoman government at 12 piastres.
In the war of the Austrian Succession, which followed the accession of Maria Theresa to the Habsburg throne, Turkey, in spite of the urgency of France, would take no share, and she maintained the same attitude in the disorders in Persia following the death of Nadir Shah.
From several European crowned heads he received, at various times, marks of special distinction, and the empress Maria Theresa granted him a yearly pension of Too sequins (50).
His father, Joseph Louis Lagrange, married Maria Theresa Gros, only daughter of a rich physician at Cambiano, and had by her eleven children, of whom only the eldest (the subject of this notice) and the youngest survived infancy.
With Maria Theresa (1740-1780) began the age of enlightened despotism.
It was the cardinal Louis de Rohan, formerly ambassador at Vienna, whence he had been recalled in 1774, having incurred the queen's displeasure by revealing to the empress Maria Theresa the frivolous actions of her daughter, a disclosure which brought a maternal reprimand, and for having spoken lightly of Maria Theresa in a letter of which Marie Antoinette learned the contents.
Nieremberg has not the enraptured vision of St Theresa, nor the philosophic significance of Luis de Leon, and the unvarying sweetness of his style is cloying; but he has exaltation, unction, insight, and his book forms no unworthy close to a great literary tradition.
He met with much opposition in his efforts to introduce the reforms proposed by St Theresa, and was more than once imprisoned.
By Mary of Modena he had seven children, among them being James Francis Edward (the Old Pretender) and Louisa Maria Theresa, who died at St Germain in 1712.
It received the title of Banat after the peace of Passarowitz (1718), and remained under a military administration until 1751, when Maria Theresa introduced a civil administration.
Maria Theresa also took a great interest in the Banat, colonized the land belonging to the crown with German peasants, founded many villages, encouraged the exploitation of the mineral wealth of the country, and generally developed the measures introduced by Mercy.
Temesvar is the seat of a Roman Catholic and a Greek Orthodox bishop. Amongst its principal buildings are the Roman Catholic cathedral, built (1735-57) by Maria Theresa; the Greek Orthodox cathedral; a castle built by Hunyady Janos in 1442, now used as an arsenal; the town and county hall, the museum and large barracks.
But it was governed by a regency until 1753, when it was conferred by the empress Maria Theresa on his son Peter Leopold.
Opposite the Hof burg, the main body of which is separated from the Ring-Strasse by the Hofgarten and Volksgarten, rise the handsome monument of the empress Maria Theresa (erected 1888) and the imperial museums of art and natural history, two extensive Renaissance edifices with domes (erected 1870-89), matching each other in every particular and grouping finely with the new part of the palace.
The town was originally fortified by Maria Theresa during the wars with Frederick the Great, who besieged the town unsuccessfully for seven weeks in 1758.
In the war of the Austrian Succession, which broke out on the death of the Emperor Charles VI., he took the side of Maria Theresa (1742).
His wife Maria Theresa bore him children but there was no community of.
Through her influence the king was reconciled to his wife, and, when Maria Theresa died in 1683, Madame de Maintenon shortly afterwards (in 1684) became the king's wife, though this was never officially declared.
MARIE ANTOINETTE (1755-1793), queen of France, ninth child of Maria Theresa and the emperor Francis I., was born at Vienna, on the 2nd of November 1755.
She was brought up under a simple and austere regime and educated with a view to the French marriage arranged by Maria Theresa, the abbe Vermond being appointed as her tutor in 1769.
Thus the young princess was surrounded by enemies both at court and in the dauphin's household, and came to rely almost entirely upon the Austrian ambassador, the comte de Mercy-Argenteau, whom Maria Theresa had instructed to act as her mentor, at the same time arranging that she herself should be kept informed of all that concerned her daughter, so that she might at once advise her and safeguard the alliance.
Hence arose the famous secret correspondence of Mercy-Argenteau, an invaluable record of all the details of Marie Antoinette's life from her marriage in 1770 till the death of Maria Theresa in 1780.
Marie Antoinette soon won the affection and confidence of the dauphin and endeared herself to the king, but her position was precarious, and both Mercy and Maria Theresa had continually to urge her to conquer her violent dislike for the favourite and try to conciliate her.
The death of Maria Theresa (Nov.
Maria Theresa and Joseph II.
The department of the civil list, formerly the residence of the marquis d'Assche, and the Hotel de Bellevue, held under a kind of perpetual lease granted by the empress Maria Theresa, were absorbed in the palace, and a new façade was constructed which occupies the entire length of the Place du Palais.
His only daughter, Maria Beatrice, married Ferdinand of Austria (son of Maria Theresa), and in 1814 their eldest son, Francis, received back the Stati Estensi.
But at that instant a tall Austrian general in a greatcoat, with the order of Maria Theresa on his neck and a black bandage round his head, who had evidently just arrived, entered quickly, slamming the door.
The Minister of War came up and congratulated him on the Maria Theresa Order of the third grade, which the Emperor was conferring on him.
A thanksgiving service was arranged, Kutuzov was awarded the Grand Cross of Maria Theresa, and the whole army received rewards.