Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
In 1673 a decree of the parlement against Cartesian and other unlicensed theories was on the point of being issued, and was only checked in[time by the appearance of a burlesque mandamus against the intruder Reason, composed by Boileau and some of his brother-poets.
But when this happened, Cartesianism was no longer either interesting or dangerous; its theories, taught as ascertained and verified truths, were as worthless as the systematic verbiage which preceded them.
Fortunately the Cartesian method had already done its service, even where the theories were rejected.
The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.
The old tendency illustrated by the outcome of the revolutionary movements of 1848 was once more in evidence - the tendency of merely artificial theories of democratic liberty to succumb to the immemorial instinct of race and race ascendancy.
Many theories of the relation of human to animal sacrifice have been put forward, most of them on an insufficient basis of facts.
I do remember some theories concerning relativity suggesting some sort of motion in space might allow time travel if space-time geometrics are possible.
Let us consider some common phenomena in the light of these rival theories as to the nature of matter.
Modern theories date from the 18th century, when the humanitarian movement began to teach the dignity of the individual and to emphasize his rationality and responsibility.
Especially he had written to Pere Mesland, one of the order, to show how the Catholic doctrine of the eucharist might be made compatible with his theories of matter.
The purely philosophical theories of Aquinas are explained in the article Scholasticism.
Several theories have been propounded by ethnologists.
With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and striving to amalgamate Plato's Republic with the Christian ideal of human brotherhood.
The distinguished after writers, whom we have to regard as repeating in essence pre-Kantian theories, generally know Kant, and frequently show traces of him in detail.
" If there is a reading of the new theories of evolution in nature which revives rather than darkens hope in immortality and faith in God, Tennyson gave an early sketch of that tentative modern theism.
Flint has dealt with the following antitheistic theories: atheism, materialism, positivism, secularism, pessimism, pantheism and (in a separate volume) agnosticism.
Flint, Theism, Antitheistic Theories, Agnosticism - all with valuable notes and references, and J.
Apart from the weighty arguments which the development furnishes against the theories of Allman and Mechnikov, it may be pointed out that neither hypothesis gives a satisfactory explanation of a structure universally present in medusae of whatever class, namely the endoderm-lamella, discovered by the brothers O.
On this point the following theories have been put forward.
The general theories of Siphonophoran morphology are discussed below, but in enumerating the various types of appendages it is convenient to discuss their morphological interpretation, at the same time.
The difference between the theories of Haeckel and Chun is connected with a further divergence in the interpretation of the stem or axis of the cormus.
The many theories that have been put forward as to the interpretation of the cormus and the various parts are set forth and discussed in the treatise of Y.
Contrasting, in the second place, with the polyorgan theory are the various "polyperson " theories which interpret the Siphonophore cormus as a colony composed of more or fewer individuals in or a', Pneumatocyst.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
In some of these we see a return to Greek theories, though the influence of physical discoveries, more especially those of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, is distinctly traceable.
- Another writer of this transition period deserves a passing reference here, namely, Jacob Boehme the mystic, who by his conception of a process of inner diremption as the essential character of all mind, and so of God, prepared the way for later German theories of the origin of the world as the self-differentiation and self-externalization of the absolute spirit.
These theories, however, contain little that bears directly on the hypothesis of a natural evolution of things.
Inasmuch as Lamarck attempted to frame a theory of evolution in which the principle of natural selection had no part, the interpretation placed on their work by many bionomical investigators recalls the theories of Lamarck, and the name Neo-Lamarckism has been used of such a school of biologists, particularly active in America.
Almost every side of zoology has contributed to the theory of evolution, but of special importance are the facts and theories associated with the names of Gregor Mendel, A.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
For, in spite ofthe important controversies to which it has given birth, no one has been at the pains to distinguish between (i.) the theories which have been from time to time put forth by eminent writers, and which, though they have in some cases ultimately won a general acceptance, have for a long period remained as merely individual opinions, and (ii.) the current beliefs of the great body of Christians which are expressed in recognized formularies.
Theories of Sacrifice.
These were, in fact, simply the popular theories of sacrifice put on an evidential basis by facts drawn from various stages of culture.
THE] were practically powerless, the more so as their political activity consisted mainly in " building theories for an imaginary world."
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
To enter here into an exhaustive account of the various theories which even before, though especially after, the appearance of the Constitution of Athens have been propounded as to the chronology of the Peisistratean tyranny, is impossible.
This gave immense vogue to wider and vaguer theories of evolutionary process, notably to H.
In fact, he belonged to the old Ionian school, whose doctrines he modified by the theories of his contemporary Anaxagoras, although he avoided his dualism.
In 1746 he published his treatise Les Beaux-Arts adults a un meme Principe, an attempt to find a unity among the various theories of beauty and taste, and his views were widely accepted.
Investigations of every kind which have been based on original sources of knowledge may be styled "research," and it may be said that without "research" no authoritative works have been written, no scientific discoveries or inventions made, no theories of any value propounded; but the word also has a somewhat restricted meaning attached to it in current usage.
Dealing less with theories than with facts, and illustrating rather than formdating the principles of the science.