Even at this stage the vindictive or retributive character of punishment remains, but gradually, and specially after the humanist movement under thinkers like Beccaria and Jeremy Bentham, new theories begin to emerge.
The distinguished after writers, whom we have to regard as repeating in essence pre-Kantian theories, generally know Kant, and frequently show traces of him in detail.
Theories of Sacrifice.
Several theories have been propounded by ethnologists.
In 1673 a decree of the parlement against Cartesian and other unlicensed theories was on the point of being issued, and was only checked in[time by the appearance of a burlesque mandamus against the intruder Reason, composed by Boileau and some of his brother-poets.
But when this happened, Cartesianism was no longer either interesting or dangerous; its theories, taught as ascertained and verified truths, were as worthless as the systematic verbiage which preceded them.
Fortunately the Cartesian method had already done its service, even where the theories were rejected.
The limited knowledge which we possess of the original features of the ground within the area of the city makes a reconstruction of the topographical history of the latter a difficult task; and, as a natural result, many irreconcilable theories have been suggested.
The address in reply to the speech from the throne, voted after a debate in which abstract theories had triumphed over common sense, demanded universal suffrage, the establishment of pure parliamentary government, the abolition of capital punishment, the expropriation of the landlords, a political amnesty, and the suppression of the Imperial Council.
The old tendency illustrated by the outcome of the revolutionary movements of 1848 was once more in evidence - the tendency of merely artificial theories of democratic liberty to succumb to the immemorial instinct of race and race ascendancy.
Many theories of the relation of human to animal sacrifice have been put forward, most of them on an insufficient basis of facts.
I do remember some theories concerning relativity suggesting some sort of motion in space might allow time travel if space-time geometrics are possible.
Let us consider some common phenomena in the light of these rival theories as to the nature of matter.
Especially he had written to Pere Mesland, one of the order, to show how the Catholic doctrine of the eucharist might be made compatible with his theories of matter.
The purely philosophical theories of Aquinas are explained in the article Scholasticism.
With Epiphanes, his son, he was the leader of a philosophic school basing its theories mainly upon Platonism, and striving to amalgamate Plato's Republic with the Christian ideal of human brotherhood.
" If there is a reading of the new theories of evolution in nature which revives rather than darkens hope in immortality and faith in God, Tennyson gave an early sketch of that tentative modern theism.
Flint has dealt with the following antitheistic theories: atheism, materialism, positivism, secularism, pessimism, pantheism and (in a separate volume) agnosticism.
Flint, Theism, Antitheistic Theories, Agnosticism - all with valuable notes and references, and J.
Apart from the weighty arguments which the development furnishes against the theories of Allman and Mechnikov, it may be pointed out that neither hypothesis gives a satisfactory explanation of a structure universally present in medusae of whatever class, namely the endoderm-lamella, discovered by the brothers O.
On this point the following theories have been put forward.
The general theories of Siphonophoran morphology are discussed below, but in enumerating the various types of appendages it is convenient to discuss their morphological interpretation, at the same time.
The difference between the theories of Haeckel and Chun is connected with a further divergence in the interpretation of the stem or axis of the cormus.
The many theories that have been put forward as to the interpretation of the cormus and the various parts are set forth and discussed in the treatise of Y.
Passing from mythology to speculation properly so called, we find in the early systems of philosophy of India theories of emanation which approach in some respects the idea of evolution.
In some of these we see a return to Greek theories, though the influence of physical discoveries, more especially those of Copernicus, Kepler and Galileo, is distinctly traceable.
- Another writer of this transition period deserves a passing reference here, namely, Jacob Boehme the mystic, who by his conception of a process of inner diremption as the essential character of all mind, and so of God, prepared the way for later German theories of the origin of the world as the self-differentiation and self-externalization of the absolute spirit.
These theories, however, contain little that bears directly on the hypothesis of a natural evolution of things.
Inasmuch as Lamarck attempted to frame a theory of evolution in which the principle of natural selection had no part, the interpretation placed on their work by many bionomical investigators recalls the theories of Lamarck, and the name Neo-Lamarckism has been used of such a school of biologists, particularly active in America.
Almost every side of zoology has contributed to the theory of evolution, but of special importance are the facts and theories associated with the names of Gregor Mendel, A.
Good cytological evidence has been adduced in favor of both theories, but further investigation is necessary before any definite conclusion can be arrived at.
For, in spite ofthe important controversies to which it has given birth, no one has been at the pains to distinguish between (i.) the theories which have been from time to time put forth by eminent writers, and which, though they have in some cases ultimately won a general acceptance, have for a long period remained as merely individual opinions, and (ii.) the current beliefs of the great body of Christians which are expressed in recognized formularies.
This gave immense vogue to wider and vaguer theories of evolutionary process, notably to H.
For some of these we have no certain information, and regarding others the tales narrated in the early records are so hard to reconcile with present knowledge that they are better fitted to be the battle-ground of scholars championing rival theories than the basis of definite history.
Useful and suggestive as they often are, teratological facts played, at one time, too large a part in the framing of morphological theories; for it was thought that the monstrous form gave a clue to the essential nature of the organ assuming it.
(2) As to the speculation of the errorists, it is replied that it is explicable in the lifetime of Paul, that some of the elements of it may have their source in pre-Christian Jewish theories, and that recourse to the developed gnosticism of the 2nd century is unnecessary.
Contrasting, in the second place, with the polyorgan theory are the various "polyperson " theories which interpret the Siphonophore cormus as a colony composed of more or fewer individuals in or a', Pneumatocyst.
To this attitude he offered uncompromising opposition, and by the synthetical production of numerous hydrocarbons, natural fats, sugars and other bodies he proved that organic compounds can be formed by ordinary methods of chemical manipulation and obey the same laws as inorganic substances, thus exhibiting the "creative character in virtue of which chemistry actually realizes the abstract conceptions of its theories and classifications - a prerogative so far possessed neither by the natural nor by the historical sciences."