This he followed up by an encyclical on the unity of the Church (Sails cognitum, 29th June 1896); and the question of the validity of Anglican ordinations from the Roman Catholic point of view having been raised in Rome by Viscount Halifax, with whom the abbe Louis Duchesne and one or two other French priests were in sympathy, a commission was appointed to consider the subject, and on the 15th of September 1896 a condemnation of the Anglican form as theologically insufficient was issued, and was directed to be taken as final.
The theory that it is possible for a thing to be theologically true and philosophically false, and the doctrine of the mortality of the human soul, were both repudiated; while a three years' tithe on all church property was set apart to provide funds for a war against the Turks.
A reaction against Lollardy, however, had already begun in the days of Henry IV., and both he and his son felt obliged to discountenance opinions which were believed to be politically and theologically dangerous.
(b) Theologically, as a stage in the history of Christian doctrine, their value is as great negatively as positively.
Theologically he has been classed as a precursor of the New England Unitarians.
Historically, this proceeded from the labours of Jean de Launoy (1603-1678), "le denicheur des saints," and Louis Sebastien le Nain de Tillemont, who had shown the falsity of numerous lives of the saints; while theologically it was produced by the Port Royal school, which led men to dwell more on communion with God as contrasted with the invocation of the saints.
Theologically, the Thomistic system approximates to pantheism, while that of Scotus inclines distinctly to Pelagianism.