They are based upon theodolite traverses 15 m.
Trans., 1802, p. 378), were independently discovered, and, by means of the telescope of a theodolite, between which and a distant slit admitting the light a prism was interposed, were for the first time carefully observed by Fraunhofer, and have on that account been designated "Fraunhofer's lines."
It combines the planisphere and armillae of Hipparchus and others, and the theodolite of Theon, and was usually of brass, varying in diameter from a couple of inches to a foot or more.
If, however, a theodolite, fitted with a telescope which can rotate about a horizontal axis and having an altitude circle, is employed, so that when observing a transit the altitude of the sun or star can be read off, then the time need only be known to within a minute or so.
Hence in more recent patterns of magnetometer it is usual to do away with the transit mirror method of observing and either to use a separate theodolite to observe the azimuth of some distant object, which will then act as a fixed mark when making the declination observations, or to attach to the magnetometer an altitude telescope and circle for use when determining the geographical meridian.
THEODOLITE,' a surveying instrument consisting of two graduated circles placed at right angles to each other, for the measurement of horizontal and vertical angles, a telescope, which turns on axes mounted centrically to the circles, and an alidade for each circle, which carries two or more verniers.
When truly adjusted the theodolite measures the horizontal angle between any two objects, however much they may differ in altitude, as the pole star and any terrestrial object.
The upper plate PP is bored centrally to receive a parallel or conical pillar which supports the lower circle of the theodolite or the arm of the level which carries the telescope.
In the theodolite the edge of the plate rr is bevelled and divided into 360 or 400 degrees, and to half degrees, or to 20 minutes or 10 minutes, according to the size of the instrument.
The Y theodolite differs from the transit in that the supports for the telescope are low, that the telescope rests in a cradle the trunnions of which rest on the supports, and that a segment of a circle attached to the cradle replaces FIG.
In the Everest theodolite the supports are low and the telescope cannot be transited.
In the best telescopes, whether for theodolite or level, the diaphragm on which the image is formed is made of glass, and the cross hairs are engraved thereon.
Amongst the best-known theodolite determinations of height are those made at Bossekop in Norway by the French Expedition of 1838-1839 (16) and the Norwegian Expedition of 1882-1883, and those made in the latter year by the Swedes at Cape Thorsden and the Danes at Godthaab.
The instrument is thus a theodolite, although, compared with its other dimensions, feeble as an apparatus for the measurement of absolute altitudes and azimuths, although capable of determining these co-ordinates with considerable precision.
For instance, the position of a theodolite is fixed by the fact that its rounded feet rest in contact with six given plane surfaces.
Theodolites are designed to measure horizontal angles with greater accuracy than vertical, because it is on the former that the most important work of a survey depends; measures of vertical angles are liable to be much impaired by atmospheric refraction, more particularly on long lines, so that when heights have to be determined with much accuracy the theodolite must be discarded for a levelling instrument.