Thus they presented in fact a theodicy, a rudimentary philosophy of religion.
Contemplating the position of recent philosophy from Locke to Hegel, and having his eye directed to the ancient and fundamental problem of the origin, truth and certainty of our ideas, he wrote: "If philosophy is to be restored to love and respect, I think it will be necessary, in part, to return to the teachings of the ancients, and in part to give those teachings the benefit of modern methods" (Theodicy, n.
Cousin made no reply to Hamilton's criticism beyond alleging that Hamilton's doctrine necessarily restricted human knowledge and certainty to psychology and logic, and destroyed metaphysics by introducing nescience and uncertainty into its highest sphere - theodicy.
Beside the Dilucidationes, he wrote: - De harmonia animi et corporis humani commentatio (Frankfort and Leipzig, 1735; Tubingen, 1741); De origine et permissione mall (1724), an account of the Leibnitzian theodicy.
Gordon, Immortality and the New Theodicy (1897); Henry Buckle, The After Life (1907).
In his Theodicy Leibnitz argues, like not a few predecessors, that this universe must be regarded as the best of all possible universes.
(c) Theodicy - the tradition of Leibnitz is preserved (on libertarian lines) by Martineau (A Study of Religion, 1883).
This theodicy of Cousin laid him open obviously enough to the charge of pantheism.
His most important works, all of which were written in French, are: Lettre sur la sculpture (1769), in which occurs the well-known definition of the Beautiful as "that which gives us the greatest number of ideas in the shortest space of time"; its continuation, Lettre sur les desirs (1770); Lettre sur l'homme et ses rapports (1772), in which the "moral organ" and the theory of knowledge are discussed; Sopyle (1778), a dialogue on the relation between the soul and the body, and also an attack on materialism; Aristee (1779), the "theodicy" of Hemsterhuis, discussing the existence of God and his relation to man; Simon (1787), on the four faculties of the soul, which are the will, the imagination, the moral principle (which is both passive and active); Alexis (1787), an attempt to prove that :here are three golden ages, the last being the life beyond the grave; Lettre sur l'atheisme (1787).
Delegated freedom to human wills; and there follows a theodicy, repeating Leibnitz in more modern form.