What James Martineau calls A Study of Religion is really in the main a re-statement of old theistic arguments.'
If Lang is right, " primitive " peoples drew typical theistic inferences, and argued to God from nature and from conscience, though without displacing other types of religious belief and practice.
Kant swept away, so far as his influence extended, such " dogmatic metaphysics " and the old-fashioned theism which it constituted or included; but Kant himself introduced, in his own more sceptical yet also more moral type of theistic doctrine, a new trichotomy - God, Freedom, Immortality, the three " postulates " of the practical reason."
And to theistic proofs as answering " Yes."
Either the fuller or the narrower way of dealing with theism will differ according to the philosophical stand rather the history of many and diverse theistic schemes.
It may help us if we rapidly review at this point the leading types of philosophy in their application to the theistic problem.
For good or for evil, so far as there is an accepted line of theistic doctrine, that doctrine is intuitionalist.
In the Critique of Judgment, Kant restates his new type of theistic argument in a way which has had great subsequent influence.
Or, to state this as a theistic argument: we are bound to postulate a God who overrules Critique nature for moral ends.
It is not the first runnings of the stream of religious thinking which have given the world its theistic philosophies.
And whether its teaching be theistic or pantheistic, pantheism or theism, whichever turns out victorious, must henceforth rank as a demonstrated certainty.
7 It does not seem as if James's " Pragmatism " could lend itself to anything so concrete as a theistic conclusion.
One great change and only one since Kant's day has affected the outlook upon theistic problems - the increasing belief in evolution.
So far as a coherent body of theistic doctrine exists, it did not grow out of the great systems, but out of the lesser men who stood nearer to the apprehension of practical citizens.
The more Spinozistic side of Leibnitz's thought - God as Monad of Monads - is a theistic postulate if hardly a theistic proof.
The disciple, Christian W Wolff, is one of the most typical figures in the history of theistic thought.
Intuitionalism also has its restatements of theistic reasoning little modified by Kant.
The theistic writers are usually intuitionalists; but it has been urged above that a fruitful study of theism must in each case inquire what is the writer's philosophical basis.
Of Religion (translated) is one of the most original books under that title, but it cannot be called theistic. F.
James, opens up new suggestions in philosophy; the bearing of these upon theistic (or other) beliefs is hard to define.
His philosophical standpoint may be characterized as a reaction from the pantheistic tendency of Hegel's idealistic rationalism towards a more pronouncedly theistic position.
In The Idea of God as affected by Modern Knowledge (1885) Fiske discusses the theistic problem, and declares that the mind of man, as developed, becomes an illuminating indication of the mind of God, which as a great immanent cause includes and controls both physical and moral forces.
It is only the theistic view of God as personal power - that is as free-wild ever present and ever active in the world, which leaves room for miracles.
The prophetic office ceased to exist when its work was done, and part of the intellectual energy of the people was thus set free for other tasks than the establishment of theistic dogma.
Though the intellectual world of the sages is different from that of the prophetic and legal Hebraism, they do not break with the fundamental Jewish theistic and ethical creeds.
Their monotheism remains Semitic - even in their conception of the cosmogonic and illuminating function of Wisdom they regard God as standing outside the world of physical nature and man, and do not grasp or accept the idea of the identity of the human and the divine; there is thus a sharp distinction between their general theistic position and that of Greek philosophy.
This was no isolated phenomenon; for in every progressive period of the history of religion we have on the one side the doctrine of God advancing in depth and fulness: on the other we have cosmological, eschatological and other survivals, which, however justifiable in earlier stages, are in unmistakable antagonism with the theistic beliefs of the time.
Accordingly his assertion of the unity of God was at the same time a declaration of the unity of Being, and in virtue of this declaration he is entitled to rank as the founder of Eleaticism, inasmuch as the philosophy of Parmenides was his forerunner's pantheism divested of its theistic element.
In 1816 he established a society, consisting only of Hindus, in which texts from the Vedas were recited and theistic hymns chanted.
But he did more than interpret to his age the significance of man's ultimate theistic beliefs, he gave them vitality by reading them through the consciousness of Jesus Christ.
The rise of evolution, and the new scientific way of looking at nature and her creative methods, compelled him to rethink and reformulate his theistic principles and conclusions, especially as to the forms under which the relation of God to the world and His action within it could be conceived.
Later, especially when scientific speculation had made the theistic problem urgent, he was a frequent contributor to the literary monthlies.
But if we pass from this criticism of form to the actual contents of the two books, we are bound to confess that they constitute a wonderfully cogent and persuasive theistic argument.
It was not possible, however, that the theistic idea could be discussed in relation to nature only.
Within the Church there was a departure from the great experimental truths of the Gospel, their place being taken by the preaching of nature and morality on a theistic basis.
In this connexion it is usual to distinguish three types of atheism: - the dogmatic, which denies the existence of God positively; the sceptical, which distrusts the capacity of the human mind to discover the existence of God; and the critical, which doubts the validity of the theistic argument, the proofs for the existence of God.
It neither affirms nor denies the theistic premises of religion, and is thus a particular variety of utilitarianism.
It presents itself historically as an intellectual revolt against the difficulties involved in the presupposition of theistic and polytheistic systems, and in philosophy as an attempt to solve the dualism of the one and the many, unity and difference, thought and extension.
The task as it presented itself may be analysed as follows: (r) to replace the caste system and especially the oppressive supremacy of the Brahmins by a spirit of universal brotherhood and the establishment of social and religious liberty; (2) to correct and raise the standard of conduct; (3) to attack polytheistic idolatry with its attendant immoralities; (4) to replace the pantheistic by a theistic standpoint; (5) to elevate woman and the pariah.
Such a view is essential to any theistic view of the universe which postulates God as the Creator, omniscient and all-good.
The example of Stoicism, as Cudworth points out, shows that corporealism may be theistic. Into the history of atomism Cudworth plunges with vast erudition.
Chaumette (q.v.) the "worship of Reason," in opposition to the theistic cult inaugurated by Robespierre, against whom he tried to excite a popular movement.
His theological conception of God, at any rate, was not abstractly pantheistic, in spite of the abstractness of his language about " being," but frankly theistic and trinitarian.
Theistic Contents philosophy thinks of God as the absolute being; and of every monotheistic religion insists, not indeed that theology.
Any type of highly wrought feeling may make a man religious, whether it be theistic or pantheistic; indeed, as a child of Romanticism, Schleiermacher puts a peculiarly high estimate upon the pantheistic type.
P. 2 4), "that the sum total of scientific knowledge is equally intelligible whether we accept the theistic hypothesis or not.
But the quasi-theistic assumption that what is natural must be reasonable remained in the minds of Hobbes's most docile readers, and in combination with his thesis that egoism is natural, tended to produce results which were dangerous to social well-being.
Whether we are justified in identifying that self-consciousness which is capable of grasping the principle of unity with the principle of unity which it grasps is a metaphysical and theistic problem comparatively irrelevant to Green's moral theory.
Thus the pantheistic and the theistic conceptions of God as the supreme power, as the first cause, as a person, are alike unallowable, since they all bring God within the sphere of antithesis and preclude His absolute unity.