(2) In the 19th century theism is generally used of positive belief in God, either with or without belief in the claim of Christianity to be a revelation, but unassociated with any peculiarities of 18thcentury deists.
If the word " deism " emphasizes a negative element - rejection of church Christianity - " theism " generally emphasizes the positive element - belief in God.
If there is any difference between " theism " or " Natural Theology " on the one hand, and Natural Religion on the other, it is to be found in the more practical character attaching to natural " religion."
This way of approaching theism is illustrated in A.
His philosophy is an attempt to reconcile monism (Hegel) and individualism (Herbart) by means of theism (Leibnitz).
Fichte, in short, advocates an ethical theism, and his arguments might easily be turned to account by the apologist of Christianity.
" Theism " was reclaimed by Theodore Parker, F.
Thus, as employed by most writers, " Natural Religion " connotes neutrality or even friendliness towards Christianity; just as is the case with theism in sense (2), or with Natural Theology.
An investigator, pledging himself to no beliefs - even perhaps one who definitely disbelieves and rejects theism - may yet interest himself in tracking out the psychology of religion.
And yet theism - or monotheism - constitutes a special locus in the history of religion.
(Usage does not allow us to rank polytheism as a form of theism.) E.
So far as this is true, theism (proper) would seem to be an accident of language.
Belief in a primitive historical revelation, once universal among Christians, has almost disappeared; but belief in a very early and highly moral theism is stoutly defended, chiefly on Australian evidence, by Andrew Lang (The Making of Religion and later works).
Legge, who finds true theism at the dawn of Chinese history, is the most authoritative representative of such views.
But this theism is lifeless - a " pale and shallow deism, which India has often confessed with the lips, but which has never won the homage of her heart.'" The thought of India is upon the side of pantheism.
So that here again theism, if theism it was, did not continue in strength.
If we understand by theism not simple belief in a divine unity, but such faith in one divine person as will constitute the basis for a popular religion, then - unless we allow a doubtful exception in Zoroastrianism.
We may probably extend this hostile judgment to the theism of the modern Samaj-es.
We have already suggested that theism covers more ground than the name at first may suggest.
Kant swept away, so far as his influence extended, such " dogmatic metaphysics " and the old-fashioned theism which it constituted or included; but Kant himself introduced, in his own more sceptical yet also more moral type of theistic doctrine, a new trichotomy - God, Freedom, Immortality, the three " postulates " of the practical reason."
Theism si'ggests at the very outset that we should rather expect to find a correlation between the two.
The mention of Christian theology may remind us that, for the majority of theists in medieval and modern times, theism proper has ranked only as a secondary wisdom.
When we do find theism dealing with the question " What is God?
Beginning with the certainties of everyday experience, it reaches theism at last by means of an analogical argument.
Mill tried to reconcile criminal law and its punishments with his very hard type of determinism by saying that law was needed in order to weight the scale, and in order to hold out a prospect of penalties which might deter from crime and impel towards good citizenship, so Paley held that virtue was not merely obedience to God but obedience " for 1 Criticism of the scheme, from the point of view of an idealist theism, will be found in John Caird's Introduc to the Phil.
2 An outline of the history of theism is reserved for Section IV.; but it has not proved possible to sketch the types of philosophy without introducing references to the history of philosophy and sometimes even to the history of theism as well.
As long as the battle of the philosophies endures, theism can hardly be unified.
Other schools of philosophy pay flying visits to theism; intuitionalism is at home there.
Moral elements must enter into theism at some point: and, as against empiricism, intuitionalism is morally strong.
Still the main weight of intuitionalist theism rests upon the conception of God as First Cause.
Or a pantheist rejecting theism altogether.
If such are our conclusions, we return to a possible basis for theism not very far removed from that of intuitionalism.
Certainly history shows that theism has generally been associated with some reduced or limited form of philosophy, usually with the intuitionalist scheme.
But no more is theism the first runnings of the stream of philosophy.
Theism then has its most habitual affinities with intuitionalism, but may fall under any one of our philosophical or quasi philosophical types.
Theism is directly interested in this, since it affirms the necessity of God's existence.
On the other hand, theism does not desire to see necessity - or Fate - ranked as superior to the living God.
And the chief contribution of Aristotle to theism is a theory, found in his Physics as well as his Metaphysics, of God as first mover of the universe, himself unmoved.
Theism can take but little interest in this peculiar type of free will doctrine, or again in Epicurus's professed admission of the existence of gods - made of atoms: inhabiting the spaces between the worlds; Stoicism.
(The senses are so far from truth that we must be content with reaching probability.) In Cicero's De Natura Deorum the burden of theism rests mainly on the Stoic interlocutor.
In the great Roman Stoics - Seneca, Epictetus; less material for theism perhaps.
In Anselm's case we have the further sanguine hope of justifying not theism merely but all Christian doctrine to the scientific reason.
The radical side of Descartes appears again in his offering his own type of theism as a substitute for the old proofs - not a supplement.
Leib nitz's Monadology - which has little influence on his theism - may be viewed as a strong recoil from Spinoza's all-swallowing substance.
At the most we might say this: If theism is a growing doctrine, Butler in England like Kant in Germany stands for a fresh ethical emphasis.
Whatever one may think of the cogency of such arguments, it seems safe to conclude that thinkers, who dislike constructive idealism, but accept time and space as boundless given quanta, reach in that way the thought of infinity, and if they are theists, necessarily connect their theism with reflexions on the nature of Time and Space.
A more entirely novel and more general principle of Kant's attack upon theism is the challenge of our right to build up the idea of God bit by bit out of different arguments.
The Three Sermons also point to a moral argument for theism, but forbear to press it (Sermon ii.; when the third sense of the word " Nature " is being explained).
A great deal of popular theism is undoubtedly hard hit by it; for popular theism is apt to throw its arguments together in very random fashion.
Mill in the tentative approach to theism found in his posthumous volume (Three Essays on Religion; 1874).
In this instance it may happen that the work of intelligence has only been mimicked in nature by blind forces which have accidentally produced organic life; and Mill is disposed to hold that if the evolution of species should be clearly established as due to natural law - if there has been no creation by special interposition - the argument falls to the ground and theism (apparently) is lost.
Winckler.2 Of more assured importance was the Zoroastrian faith - " pure moral dualism if not theism " (L.
In point of fact, as we look to history, we find that theism has been much simplified and cut down.