An apparent, but not real, exception is Halecium halecinum, in which the blastostyle is produced from the side of a nutritive polyp, and both are enclosed in a common theca without a partition between them (Allman  p. 50, fig.
A-D are stages common to both; from D arises the hydrotheca (E) or the gonotheca (F); th, theca; st, stomach; 1, tentacles; m, mouth; mb, medusa-buds.
In B the spadix of the upper bud has protruded itself through the top of the gonoat the base of the theca and the acrocyst (ac) is secreted round it.
- Corallum of Caryophyllia; semi-diagrammatic. th, Theca; c, costae; sp, septa; p, palus; col, columella.
(3) The theca or wall, which in many corals is not an independent structure, but is formed by the conjoined thickened peripheral ends of the septa.
(6) Epitheca, an offset of the basal plate which surrounds the base of the theca in a ring-like manner, and in some corals may take the place of a true theca.
When fully extended, the upper part of the zooid projects for some distance out of the calicle, and its wall is reflected for some distance over the lip of the latter, forming a fold of soft tissue extending to a greater or less distance over the theca, and containing in most cases a cavity continuous over the lip of the calicle with the coelenteron.
In others the peripheral ends of the septa are united only by bars or trabeculae, so that the theca is perforate, and in many such perforate corals the septa themselves are pierced by numerous perforations.
(C original; the rest after von Koch.) aporose corals, the only communication between the cavity of the edge-zone and the general cavity of the zooid is by way of the lip of the calicle; in the latter, or perforate corals, the theca is permeated by numerous branching and anastomosing canals lined by endoderm, which place the cavity of the edge-zone in communication with the general cavity of the zooid.
In the former case the young daughter zooid, with its corallum, arises wholly outside the cavity of the parent zooid, and the component parts of the young corallum, septa, theca, columella, &c., are formed anew in every individual produced.
18, B), but the presence of the canal system in the perforate theca leads to a modification of the process.
As the buds develop the canal system becomes much extended, and calcareous tissue is deposited between the network of canals, the confluent edgezones of mother zooid and bud forming a coenosarc. As the process continues a number of calicles are formed, imbedded in a spongy tissue in which the canals ramify, and it is impossible to say where the theca of one corallite ends and that of another begins.
Corals have been divided into A porosa and Perforata, according as the theca and septa are compact and solid, or are perforated by pores containing canals lined by endoderm.
Various attempts have been made to classify corals according to the arrangement of the septa, the characters of the theca, the microscopic structure of the corallurn, and the anatomy of the soft parts.
On the other hand, the study of the anatomy and development of the zooids has thrown much light upon the manner in which the corallum is formed, and it is now possible to infer the structure of the soft parts from a microscopical examination of the septa, theca, &c., with the result that unexpected relationships have been shown to exist between corals previously supposed to stand far apart.
Theca porous; septa compact and reduced in number.
Theca and septa perforate.
Each Graptolite represents the common horny or chitinous investment or supporting structure of a colony of zooids, each tooth-like projection marking the position of the sheath or theca of an individual zooid.
From this bud is developed the first zooid and first serial theca of the colony.
This theca grows in the direction of the apex of the sicula, to which it adheres by its dorsal wall.
Thus while the mouth of the sicula is directed downwards, that of the first serial theca is pointed upwards, making a theoretical angle of about 180° with the direction of that of the sicula.
From this first theca originates a second, opening in the same direction, and from the second a third, and so on, in a continuous linear series until the polypary is complete.
The sicula itself ceases to grow soon after the earliest theca have been.
2, Monograptus dubius, sicula and first serial theca (partly restored).
The thecae in the earliest family - Dichograptidae - are so similar in form to the sicula itself that the polypary has been compared to a colony of siculae; there is the greatest variation in shape in those of the latest family - Monograptidae--in some species of which the terminal portion of each theca becomes isolated (Rastrites) and in some coiled into a rounded lobe.
A crinoid reduced to its simplest elements consists of three principal portions - (i.) a theca or test enclosing the viscera; (ii.) five arms stretching upwards or outwards from the theca, sometimes single, sometimes branching; (iii.) a stem stretching downwards from the theca and attaching it to the sea-floor (see fig.
That part of the theca below the origins of the free arms is called the "dorsal cup"; the ventral part above the origins of the arms, serving as cover to the cup, is known as the "tegmen."
Thus, the mouth is central and turned away from the sea-floor; the animal does not seize its food by tentacles, limbs or jaws, neither does it move in search of it, but a series of ciliated grooves which radiate from the mouth sweep along currents of water, in the eddies of which minute food-particles are caught up and carried down into the gullet; the undigested food is driven out through an anus which is on the upper or oral side of the theca, but as far distant as practicable from the mouth and ciliated grooves.
Such characters are found in any primitive, sedentary group. More peculiarly Echinoderm features, in which the Pelmatozoan nature is manifest, are the enclosing of the viscera in a calcified and plated theca, for protection against those enemies from which a fixed animal cannot flee; the development, at the aboral pole of this theca, of a motor nerve-centre giving off branches to the stroma connecting the various plates of the theca and of its brachial, anal, and columnar extensions, and thus coordinating the movements of the whole skeleton; the absence of suckers from the podia, which, when present, are respiratory, not locomotor, in function.
Although, in the extreme correlation of the radial food-grooves, nerves, watervessels, and so forth, with a radiate symmetry of the theca, such a type differs from the Cystidea, while in the possession of jointed processes from the radial plates, bearing the grooves and the various body-systems outwards from the theca, it differs from all other Echinoderms, nevertheless ancient forms are known which, if they are not themselves the actual links, suggest how the crinoid type may have been evolved from some of the more regular cystids.
In the other group the grooves do not tend so much to stretch over the theca as to be raised away from it on relatively larger brachioles, arising close around the mouth (fig.
These gradually impressed themselves on the theca and influenced the arrangement of the internal organs: it is fairly safe to assume that nerves, blood-vessels and branches from the water-sac stretched out along with these grooves, each system starting from a ring around the gullet.
At last a quinqueradiate symmetry influenced the plates of the theca, partly through the development of a plate at the end of each groove (terminal), partly through plates at the aboral pole of the theca (basals and infrabasals) arising in response to mechanical pressure, but soon intimately connected with the cords of an aboral nervous system.
Before the latter plates arose, the stem had developed by the elongation and constriction of the fixed end of the theca, the gradual regularization of the plates involved, and their coalescence into rings.
The crinoid type was differentiated by the extension of the food-grooves and associated organs along radial outgrowths from the theca itself.
These constituted the arms (brachia), and five definite radial plates of the theca were specialized for their support.
In this development of brachial extensions of the theca the genital organs were involved, and their ripe products formed at the ends of the brachia or in the branches therefrom.
The remains of the original genital gland within the theca became the "axial organ" surrounded by the "axial sinus" derived from the anterior coelom, and this again by structures derived from the right posterior coelom, which, as explained above, had been depressed to the aboral pole.
The theca became sessile, and in its later developments much flattened (fig.
- Echinoderma with the viscera enclosed in a calcified and plated theca, of which the oral surface is uppermost, and which is usually attached, either temporarily or permanently, by the aboral surface.
Food brought to the mouth by a subvective system of ciliated grooves, radiating from the mouth either between the plates of the theca (endothecal), or over the theca (epithecal), or along processes from the theca (exothecal: arms, pinnules, &c.), or, in part, and as a secondary development, below the theca (hypothecal).
Anus usually in the upper or oral half of the theca, and never aboral.
An aborally-placed motor nerve-centre gives off branches to the stroma connecting the various plates of the theca and of its brachial, anal and columnar extensions, and thus co-ordinates the movements of the whole skeleton.
- Pelmatozoa in which radial polymeric symmetry of the theca is developed either not at all or not in complete correlation with the radial symmetry of the ambulacra (such as obtains in Blastoidea and Crinoidea); in which extensions of the food-grooves are exothecal or epithecal or both combined, but neither endothecal nor pierced by podia (as in some Edrioasteroidea).
Are stretched out from the theca on jointed skeletal processes (brachioles).
The Protocrinidae lead up to Proteroblastus, in which the theca is ovoid, sometimes prolonged into a stem, the plates differentiated into (a) smooth, irregular, depressed interambulacrals, (b) transversely elongate brachioliferous adambulacrals, to which the diplopores, which lie at right angles to the main food-groove, are confined.
Are either incorporated in, or pressed below, the tegmen by interambulacrals; all thecal plates united by suture, somewhat loose in the earliest forms, but speedily becoming close, and producing a rigid theca; mouth and tegminal food-grooves closed; arms pinnulate.
- Theca compressed in the oro-anal and a bilateral symmetry thus induced, affecting th and, usually, the thecal plates and stem.
- Pelmatozoa in which the theca is composed of an indefinite number of irregular plates, some of which are variously differentiated in different genera; with no subvective skeletal appendages, but with central mouth, from which there radiate through the theca five unbranched ambulacra, composed of a double series of alternating plates (covering-plates), sometimes supported by an outer series of larger alternating plates (sideplates or flooring-plates).
- Echinoderma in which the theca, which may be but slightly or not at all calcified, is not attached by any portion of its surface, but is usually placed with the oral surface downwards or in the direction of forward locomotion.
Ehrenberg), a genus of suctorial Infusoria characterized by the possession of a stalk and cupshaped sheath or theca for the body, and endogenous budding.