The oldest form of his story is found in the Passio ascribed to Eucherius, bishop of Lyons, c. 450, who relates how the "Theban" legion commanded by Mauritius was sent to north Italy to reinforce the army of Maximinian.
Legend associated Trier with the martyrdom of part of the Theban legion (c. 286) and with the relics found by St Helena in the Holy Land.
The Theban legend, which reached its fullest development in the Thebais of Statius and in Seneca, reappeared in the Roman de Thebes (the work of an unknown imitator of Benoit de Sainte-More).
There may have been an earlier temple here, but the present structure, dedicated to the Theban triad of Ammon, Mut and Khons, was erected by Amenophis III.
- The decipherment of the inscriptions of the XVIIIth Theban Dynasty led, before the middle of the 19th century, to the discovery of the important part played in the Syrian campaigns of Tethmosis (Thothmes) III.
TEIRESIAS, in Greek legend, a famous Theban seer, son of Eueres and Chariclo.
The gross selfishness of the Spartans, herein exemplified, was emphasized by their capture of the Theban citadel, and, after their expulsion, by the raid upon Attica in time of peace by the Spartan Sphodrias, and his immunity from punishment at Sparta (summer of 378 B.C.).
In 362 Athens joined in the opposition to the Theban expedition which ended in the battle of Mantineia (July).
Standing back somewhat from the path just as it bends round up the hill is the Theban treasury.
Since 387 the Spartan party was again supreme, and after Leuctra Corinth took the field against the Theban invaders of Peloponnesus (371-366).
In the following campaign of 362 Mantineia, after narrowly escaping capture by the Theban general Epaminondas, became the scene of a decisive conflict in which the latter achieved Achaeans and jealousy of Megalopolis, was punished in 222 by a thorough devastation of the city, which was now reconstituted as a dependency of Argos and renamed Antigoneia.
MESSENE, an ancient Greek city, the capital of Messenia, founded by Epaminondas in 369 B.C., after the battle of Leuctra and the first Theban invasion of the Peloponnese.
The town was built by the combined Theban and Argive armies and the exiled Messenians who had been invited to return and found a state which should be independent of Spartan rule.
(Theban) is the " great Theban measure."
In the middle ages the story of Caesar did not undergo such extraordinary transformations as befell the history of Alexander the Great and the Theban legend.
The Theban goat, of the Sudan, which is hornless, displays the characteristic features of the last in an exaggerated degree, and in the form of the head and skull is very sheep-like.
Thanks to the great care expended on the preservation of the royal dead, although the mummies of all the other kings have disappeared, a wonderful series of the Theban kings and queens of the New Kingdom from the XVIIth Dynasty to the XXIst Dynasty has come down to us.
In 374 Pelopidas restored the Theban dominion.
32) states that they were mentioned in Hesiod and in the Epigoni, an epic of the Theban cycle.
The name Amenemhe, so common in the XIIth Dynasty, shows the importance of the Theban god at this time.
The XVIth dynasty is of thirty-two "Hellenic (sic?) shepherd kings," the seventeenth is of "shepherds and Theban kings" (reigning simultaneously).
Several Theban kings of the later part of the Middle Kingdom adopted the same name; and when the Theban family of the XVIIth dynasty drove out the Hyksos, Ammon, as the god of the royal city, was again prominent.
Such are the story of Sinhi, a fugitive to Syria in the reign of Sesostris enwosri] I., and perhaps the narrative of Unamun of his expedition in quest of cedar wood for the bark of the Theban Ammon in the XXIst Dynasty.
The above-mentioned nucleus, combined with other chapters of more recent origin, is found in the papyri of the XVIIIthXXth Dynasties, and forms the so-called Theban recension, which has been edited by Naville man important work.
(d) Among the later religious books one or two deserve a special mention, such as The Overthrowing of Apophis, the serpent enemy of the sun-god; The Lamentations of Isis and Nephthys over their murdered brother Osiris; The Book of Breathings, a favorite book among the later Theban priests.
The funerary ritual is known from texts in the Theban tombs (XVIIIthXXth Dyn.) and papyri and sarcophagi of later date; older versions are contained in the Pyramid texts and The Book of the Dead.
The form of a snake, dyn ibuted to many local goddesses, especially in later times of I Meresger of the Theban necropolis), was borrowed from trib very ancient deity Outo (Buto); the semblance of a snake the ame so characteristic of female divinities that even the prir d goddess was written with the hieroglyph of a snake.
Thus Ammon, originally the obscure local god of Thebes, was raised by the Theban monarchs of the XIIth and of the XVIIIth to XXIst Dynasties to a predominant position never equalled by any other divinity; and, by similar means, Suchos of the Fayum, IJbasti of Bubastis, and Neith of Sais, each enjoyed for a short space of time a consideration that no other cause would have secured to them.
The Theban god Ammon-Re was then supreme, and the evergrowing power of his priesthood may well have inflamed the jealousy of their Heliopolitan rivals.
CH0N5, he who travels by boat, perhaps originally a mere epithet of the moon-god Ioh or Thoth, is chiefly familiar as the third member of the Theban triad.
In the New Kingdom the might of the Theban god Ammon gradually became a serious tuenace to the throne: in the reign of Rameses III.
364 B.C.), Theban statesman and general.
In 385 B.C. he served in a Theban contingent sent to the support of the Spartans at Mantineia, where he was saved, when dangerously wounded, by Epaminondas.
Upon the seizure of the Theban citadel by the Spartans (383 or 382) he fled to Athens, and took the lead in a conspiracy to liberate Thebes.
This phase of his character was developed by the Orphic poets, he having here the name of Zagreus (" torn in pieces "), and being no longer the Theban god, but a son of Zeus and Persephone.
The title c.µno-Tns given to Dionysus in certain places, probably pointing to human sacrifice.) To connect this with the myth of the Theban birth of Dionysus, it is said that Zeus gave the child's heart to Semele, or himself swallowed it and gave birth to the new Dionysus (called Iacchus from his worshippers' cry of rejoicing), who was cradled and swung in a winnowing fan (Xikvos; see J.
ACTAEON, son of Aristaeus and Autonoe, a famous Theban hero and hunter, trained by the centaur Cheiron.
Its importance grew in the 4th century, when we find it fighting in the Theban wars (368-362 B.C.), against Philip (338) and Antipater (330).
Five main cycles of story may be distinguished: (1) the foundation of the citadel Cadmea by Cadmus, and the growth of the Sparti or "Sown Men" (probably an aetiological myth designed to explain the origin of the Theban nobility which bore that name in historical times); (2) the building of a "seven-gated" wall by Amphion, and the cognate stories of Zethus, Antiope and Dirce; (3) the tale of the "house of Laius," culminating in the adventures of Oedipus and the wars of the "Seven" and the Epigoni; (4) the advent of Dionysus; and (5) the exploits of Heracles.
This centralizing policy is as much the cardinal fact of Theban history as the counteracting effort of the smaller towns to resist absorption forms the main chapter of the story of Boeotia.
In the consequent wars with Sparta the Theban army, trained and led by Epaminondas and Pelopidas, proved itself the best in Greece.
The states which she protected were indisposed to commit themselves permanently to her tutelage, and the renewed rivalry of Athens, which had been linked with Thebes since 395 in a common fear of Sparta, but since 371 had endeavoured to maintain the balance of power against her ally, prevented the formation of a Theban empire.