SentencesSentence examples

The Sentence Examples

  • The horse did not stir.
  • This might be the most difficult decision she would ever make.
  • As it came to a stop the conductor called out in a loud voice.
  • The boy flicked the big, boney horse with his whip and looked thoughtful.
  • But all along, they believed they would ultimately prevail—and not just win the war, but also do something epic that would change the course of history for all time.
  • The sky had grown darker again and the wind made queer sobbing sounds as it swept over the valley.
  • But I wish we could find a way to get to the ground.
  • "Cheep! cheep! cheep!" came from the wet grass.
  • She had the most expressive face he had ever seen.
  • And yet, didn't clinical words like selective reduction and gestational carrier mask the facts?
  • These they could not see, but they could feel them pelting the buggy top, and Jim screamed almost like a human being when a stone overtook him and struck his boney body.
  • The rainbow tints from the colored suns fell upon the glass city softly and gave to the buildings many delicate, shifting hues which were very pretty to see.
  • The man had taken a step or two across the glass roof before he noticed the presence of the strangers; but then he stopped abruptly.
  • "Look out!" cried Dorothy, who noticed that the beautiful man did not look where he was going; "be careful, or you'll fall off!"
  • Soon he reached the street and disappeared through a glass doorway into one of the glass buildings.
  • "Of course; can't you see?" and again the kitten wandered into the air and back to the edge of the roof.
  • "Maybe Jim will go," continued Dorothy, looking at the horse.
  • Eureka walks on the air all right.
  • "He eats enough to get fat, I'm sure," said the boy, gravely.
  • "None of us has had breakfast," said the boy; "and in a time of danger like this it's foolish to talk about eating."
  • I can see plenty of nice gardens and fields down below us, at the edge of this city.
  • The storm has blown two of the little ones out of the nest.
  • She smiled to herself - and not always because he rubbed her the wrong way.
  • They even agreed to take care of the animals while Alex and Carmen took their first vacation.
  • It should have arrived at Hugson's Siding at midnight, but it was already five o'clock and the gray dawn was breaking in the east when the little train slowly rumbled up to the open shed that served for the station-house.
  • The conductor helped her off the car and then the engineer started his train again, so that it puffed and groaned and moved slowly away up the track.
  • The shed at Hugson's Siding was bare save for an old wooden bench, and did not look very inviting.
  • As she peered through the soft gray light not a house of any sort was visible near the station, nor was any person in sight; but after a while the child discovered a horse and buggy standing near a group of trees a short distance away.
  • She walked toward it and found the horse tied to a tree and standing motionless, with its head hanging down almost to the ground.
  • Getting around in front, so that she could look inside, the girl saw a boy curled up on the seat, fast asleep.
  • She set down the bird-cage and poked the boy with her parasol.
  • Jumping out of the buggy he put Dorothy's suit-case under the seat and her bird-cage on the floor in front.
  • I thought that was the best way to carry her.
  • She climbed into the buggy and he followed her.
  • Then the boy picked up the reins, shook them, and said "Gid-dap!"
  • "Thought that train would never come," observed the boy.
  • Didn't you feel the ground shake?
  • The conductor said it was the worst quake he ever knew.
  • "How is Uncle Henry?" she enquired, after a pause during which the horse continued to trot with long, regular strides.
  • Next minute there was a roar and a sharp crash, and at her side Dorothy saw the ground open in a wide crack and then come together again.
  • Zeb shook the reins and urged him to go, but Jim was stubborn.
  • With a wild neigh of terror the animal fell bodily into the pit, drawing the buggy and its occupants after him.
  • Dorothy grabbed fast hold of the buggy top and the boy did the same.
  • The sudden rush into space confused them so that they could not think.
  • The top of the buggy caught the air like a parachute or an umbrella filled with wind, and held them back so that they floated downward with a gentle motion that was not so very disagreeable to bear.
  • The worst thing was their terror of reaching the bottom of this great crack in the earth, and the natural fear that sudden death was about to overtake them at any moment.
  • Far below her she found six great glowing balls suspended in the air.
  • The central and largest one was white, and reminded her of the sun.
  • Around it were arranged, like the five points of a star, the other five brilliant balls; one being rose colored, one violet, one yellow, one blue and one orange.
  • Dorothy was too dazed to say much, but she watched one of Jim's big ears turn to violet and the other to rose, and wondered that his tail should be yellow and his body striped with blue and orange like the stripes of a zebra.
  • The boy was startled and his eyes were big.
  • Just then the buggy tipped slowly over upon its side, the body of the horse tipping also.
  • "As for that, we are in the same scrape ourselves," answered Dorothy, cheerfully.
  • "Of course," growled the horse, "and then we shall be sorry it happened."
  • We are somewhere in the middle of the earth, and the chances are we'll reach the other side of it before long.
  • "Awful big!" answered the boy.
  • "We're coming to something now," announced the horse.
  • At this they both put their heads over the side of the buggy and looked down.
  • They seemed to be falling right into the middle of a big city which had many tall buildings with glass domes and sharp-pointed spires.
  • Jim the horse had seen these spires, also, and his ears stood straight up with fear, while Dorothy and Zeb held their breaths in suspense.
  • Isn't it funny? asked the kitten.
  • "I don't know," answered the boy, looking around him curiously.
  • The houses of the city were all made of glass, so clear and transparent that one could look through the walls as easily as through a window.
  • The roof beside them had a great hole smashed through it, and pieces of glass were lying scattered in every direction.
  • A nearby steeple had been broken off short and the fragments lay heaped beside it.
  • But not a sound had broken the stillness since the strangers had arrived, except that of their own voices.
  • The girl, greatly astonished, ran to lean over the edge of the roof, and saw the man walking rapidly through the air toward the ground.
  • "Yes; but it's lots of fun, if it IS strange," remarked the small voice of the kitten, and Dorothy turned to find her pet walking in the air a foot or so away from the edge of the roof.
  • I'm as hungry as the horse is, and I want my milk.
  • But he did not wish the little girl to think him a coward, so he advanced slowly to the edge of the roof.
  • The family on my father's side is descended from Caspar Keller, a native of Switzerland, who settled in Maryland.
  • Then he got into the buggy again and took the reins, and the horse at once backed away from the tree, turned slowly around, and began to trot down the sandy road which was just visible in the dim light.
  • "Goodness!" she cried, grasping the iron rail of the seat.
  • Swiftly they drew near to the flaming colored suns, and passed close beside them.
  • They saw a landscape with mountains and plains, lakes and rivers, very like those upon the earth's surface; but all the scene was splendidly colored by the variegated lights from the six suns.
  • "Where's my milk?" asked the kitten, looking up into Dorothy's face.
  • His clothing fitted his form snugly and was gorgeously colored in brilliant shades of green, which varied as the sunbeams touched them but was not wholly influenced by the solar rays.
  • I've tumbled through the air long enough to make me contented on this roof.
  • "Oh, it's only some old robins!" said the second lawyer, whose name was Hardin.
  • But the fourth lawyer, whose name was Abraham Lincoln, stopped.
  • He got down from his horse and very gently took the little ones up in his big warm hands.
  • The Regular Worker who Risks it All and Strikes it Rich.
  • From the garden it looked like an arbour.
  • "Heavens! what a virulent attack!" replied the prince, not in the least disconcerted by this reception.
  • He parked the truck in front of the house and headed down the hill.
  • This would be the only attempt they would make.
  • The conductor helped her off the car and then the engineer started his train again, so that it puffed and groaned and moved slowly away up the track.
  • So he moved the cars slowly and with caution.
  • The little girl stood still to watch until the train had disappeared around a curve; then she turned to see where she was.
  • The little girl stood still to watch until the train had disappeared around a curve; then she turned to see where she was.
  • The conductor said it was the worst quake he ever knew.
  • The boy flicked the big, boney horse with his whip and looked thoughtful.
  • There was a breath of danger in the very air, and every few moments the earth would shake violently.
  • The sky had grown darker again and the wind made queer sobbing sounds as it swept over the valley.
  • The top of the buggy caught the air like a parachute or an umbrella filled with wind, and held them back so that they floated downward with a gentle motion that was not so very disagreeable to bear.
  • The worst thing was their terror of reaching the bottom of this great crack in the earth, and the natural fear that sudden death was about to overtake them at any moment.
  • The central and largest one was white, and reminded her of the sun.
  • But they continued to fall, all together, and the boy and girl had no difficulty in remaining upon the seat, just as they were before.
  • "We've got to come to the bottom some time," remarked Zeb, with a deep sigh.
  • The houses of the city were all made of glass, so clear and transparent that one could look through the walls as easily as through a window.
  • The rainbow tints from the colored suns fell upon the glass city softly and gave to the buildings many delicate, shifting hues which were very pretty to see.
  • The man had taken a step or two across the glass roof before he noticed the presence of the strangers; but then he stopped abruptly.
  • The girl, greatly astonished, ran to lean over the edge of the roof, and saw the man walking rapidly through the air toward the ground.
  • "Does the air bear up your weight?" asked the girl.
  • "Eureka weights only about half a pound," replied the horse, in a scornful tone, "while I weigh about half a ton."
  • Dorothy kept hold of his hand and followed him, and soon they were both walking through the air, with the kitten frisking beside them.
  • "Come on, Jim!" called the boy.
  • So, with a snort and a neigh and a whisk of his short tail he trotted off the roof into the air and at once began floating downward to the street.
  • There were men and women, but no children at all, and the folks were all beautifully formed and attractively dressed and had wonderfully handsome faces.
  • There was not an ugly person in all the throng.
  • For a moment the boy did not know what he meant by this question.
  • Then, remembering the stones that had fallen with them and passed them long before they had reached this place, he answered:
  • It was the earthquake.
  • The man with the star stood for a time quietly thinking over this speech.
  • The man with the star stood for a time quietly thinking over this speech.
  • It's a shaking of the earth.
  • In this quake a big crack opened and we fell through--horse and buggy, and all--and the stones got loose and came down with us.
  • The man with the star regarded her with his calm, expressionless eyes.
  • The man with the star regarded her with his calm, expressionless eyes.
  • "The Rain of Stones has done much damage to our city," he said, "and we shall hold you responsible for it unless you can prove your innocence."
  • "How can we do that?" asked the girl.
  • He turned and walked down the street, and after a moment's hesitation Dorothy caught Eureka in her arms and climbed into the buggy.
  • The boy took his seat beside her and said: "Gid-dap Jim."
  • As the horse ambled along, drawing the buggy, the people of the glass city made way for them and formed a procession in their rear.
  • "Come to us, oh, Gwig!" called the man, in a loud voice.
  • There was even a thorn upon the tip of his nose and he looked so funny that Dorothy laughed when she saw him.
  • "Why have you dared to intrude your unwelcome persons into the secluded Land of the Mangaboos?" he asked, sternly.
  • "Why did you wickedly and viciously send the Rain of Stones to crack and break our houses?" he continued.
  • "We didn't," declared the girl.
  • "Prove it!" cried the Sorcerer.
  • If you had any sense at all you'd known it was the earthquake.
  • "By the way," said the man with the star, looking steadily at the Sorcerer, "you told us yesterday that there would not be a second Rain of Stones.
  • Yet one has just occurred that was even worse than the first.
  • What is your sorcery good for if it cannot tell us the truth?
  • "My sorcery does tell the truth!" declared the thorn-covered man.
  • "Will there be any more Rains?" asked the man with the star.
  • Just then a man came running into the hall and addressed the Prince after making a low bow.
  • "More wonders in the air, my Lord," said he.
  • Immediately the Prince and all of his people flocked out of the hall into the street, that they might see what was about to happen.
  • Dorothy and Zeb jumped out of the buggy and ran after them, but the Sorcerer remained calmly in his throne.
  • Far up in the air was an object that looked like a balloon.
  • The throng stood still and waited.
  • Gradually the balloon grew bigger, which was proof that it was settling down upon the Land of the Mangaboos.
  • Dorothy was surprised to find how patient the people were, for her own little heart was beating rapidly with excitement.
  • A balloon meant to her some other arrival from the surface of the earth, and she hoped it would be some one able to assist her and Zeb out of their difficulties.
  • Then a little man jumped out of the basket, took off his tall hat, and bowed very gracefully to the crowd of Mangaboos around him.
  • The little man looked toward her and seemed as much surprised as she was.
  • Yes, my dear; I am Oz, the Great and Terrible.
  • "Who did you say it was?" whispered Zeb to the girl.
  • It's the wonderful Wizard of Oz.
  • Just then the man with the star came and stood before the Wizard.
  • I had let so much gas out of my balloon that I could not rise again, and in a few minutes the earth closed over my head.
  • The Prince had listened with attention.
  • This child, who is from the crust of the earth, like yourself, called you a Wizard.
  • "Ah, you shall prove that," said the Prince.
  • "Never!" declared the Wizard, boldly.
  • "Nonsense!" said the little man, turning red--although just then a ray of violet sunlight was on his round face.
  • "Come with me," said the Prince to him.
  • So he followed the Prince into the great domed hall, and Dorothy and Zeb came after them, while the throng of people trooped in also.
  • There sat the thorny Sorcerer in his chair of state, and when the Wizard saw him he began to laugh, uttering comical little chuckles.
  • "I am never wrong," answered the Sorcerer.
  • Here is another person descended from the air to prove you were wrong.
  • "One person cannot be called 'people,'" said the Sorcerer.
  • "Very clever," said the Wizard, nodding his head as if pleased.
  • I am delighted to find humbugs inside the earth, just the same as on top of it.
  • "No," said the Sorcerer.
  • "You ought to join one," declared the little man seriously.
  • I belong to Bailum & Barney's Great Consolidated Shows--three rings in one tent and a menagerie on the side.
  • "What do you do?" asked the Sorcerer.
  • I go up in a balloon, usually, to draw the crowds to the circus.
  • But I've just had the bad luck to come out of the sky, skip the solid earth, and land lower down than I intended.
  • It isn't everybody who gets a chance to see your Land of the Gabazoos.
  • "Mangaboos," said the Sorcerer, correcting him.
  • "That remains to be seen," said the other.
  • "What will happen otherwise?" asked the Wizard.
  • "That does not sound especially pleasant," said the little man, looking at the one with the star uneasily.
  • "My name is Gwig," said the Sorcerer, turning his heartless, cruel eyes upon his rival.
  • Let me see you equal the sorcery I am about to perform.
  • He waved a thorny hand and at once the tinkling of bells was heard, playing sweet music.
  • Yet, look where she would, Dorothy could discover no bells at all in the great glass hall.
  • The Mangaboo people listened, but showed no great interest.
  • It was one of the things Gwig usually did to prove he was a sorcerer.
  • Now was the Wizard's turn, so he smiled upon the assemblage and asked:
  • No one did, because the Mangaboos did not wear hats, and Zeb had lost his, somehow, in his flight through the air.
  • "Ahem!" said the Wizard, "will somebody please loan me a handkerchief?"
  • "Very good," remarked the Wizard.
  • "Let me see it," said the Sorcerer.
  • He took the hat and examined it carefully, returning it afterward to the Wizard.
  • The Wizard reached out, caught the wee creature in his hand, and holding its head between one thumb and finger and its tail between the other thumb and finger he pulled it apart, each of the two parts becoming a whole and separate piglet in an instant.
  • The Wizard reached out, caught the wee creature in his hand, and holding its head between one thumb and finger and its tail between the other thumb and finger he pulled it apart, each of the two parts becoming a whole and separate piglet in an instant.
  • He placed one upon the floor, so that it could run around, and pulled apart the other, making three piglets in all; and then one of these was pulled apart, making four piglets.
  • "Now," said the Wizard of Oz, "having created something from nothing, I will make something nothing again."
  • With this he caught up two of the piglets and pushed them together, so that the two were one.
  • Then he caught up another piglet and pushed it into the first, where it disappeared.
  • And so, one by one, the nine tiny piglets were pushed together until but a single one of the creatures remained.
  • This the Wizard placed underneath his hat and made a mystic sign above it.
  • When he removed his hat the last piglet had disappeared entirely.
  • The little man gave a bow to the silent throng that had watched him, and then the Prince said, in his cold, calm voice:
  • The little man gave a bow to the silent throng that had watched him, and then the Prince said, in his cold, calm voice:
  • "Why not?" enquired the Wizard.
  • "Because I am going to stop your breath," was the reply.
  • He began making queer signs and passes toward the Wizard; but the little man did not watch him long.
  • By the time he had attached a handle to this sword he was having much trouble to breathe, as the charm of the Sorcerer was beginning to take effect.
  • "Why, he's vegetable!" cried the Wizard, astonished.
  • "Of course," said the Prince.
  • "No," answered the Wizard.
  • People on top of the earth are all meat.
  • "What do you mean by that?" asked the little Wizard, greatly puzzled.
  • There were paths through these gardens, and over some of the brooks were ornamental glass bridges.
  • Dorothy and Zeb now got out of the buggy and walked beside the Prince, so that they might see and examine the flowers and plants better.
  • "Who built these lovely bridges?" asked the little girl.
  • "No one built them," answered the man with the star.
  • Did the glass houses in your city grow, too?
  • "It's violet," said the Wizard, who was in the buggy.
  • "Now it's blue," complained the horse.
  • "How does it taste?" asked the Wizard.
  • By this time the party had reached a freshly plowed field, and the Prince said to Dorothy:
  • Several Mangaboos came forward with glass spades and dug a hole in the ground.
  • After that other people brought water from a brook and sprinkled the earth.
  • "He will sprout very soon," said the Prince, "and grow into a large bush, from which we shall in time be able to pick several very good sorcerers."
  • "Do all your people grow on bushes?" asked the boy.
  • "Certainly," was the reply.
  • Do not all people grow upon bushes where you came from, on the outside of the earth?
  • Inside the hedge they came upon row after row of large and handsome plants with broad leaves gracefully curving until their points nearly reached the ground.
  • In the center of each plant grew a daintily dressed Mangaboo, for the clothing of all these creatures grew upon them and was attached to their bodies.
  • On some of the bushes might be seen a bud, a blossom, a baby, a half-grown person and a ripe one; but even those ready to pluck were motionless and silent, as if devoid of life.
  • "Our people do not acquire their real life until they leave their bushes," said the Prince.
  • "That depends upon the care we take of ourselves," he replied.
  • "Do you eat?" asked the boy.
  • "Where did you grow?" asked the Wizard.
  • "I will show you," was the reply.
  • "This," said he, "is the Royal Bush of the Mangaboos.
  • The maiden's gown was soft as satin and fell about her in ample folds, while dainty lace-like traceries trimmed the bodice and sleeves.
  • The maiden's gown was soft as satin and fell about her in ample folds, while dainty lace-like traceries trimmed the bodice and sleeves.
  • "Who is this?" asked the Wizard, curiously.
  • She is the Ruler destined to be my successor, for she is a Royal Princess.
  • "Probably not," declared the Wizard, nodding.
  • "I'm sure the Princess is ready to be picked," asserted Dorothy, gazing hard at the beautiful girl on the bush.
  • "That is a matter I have not quite decided upon," was the reply.
  • "But why destroy my friends?" asked the little Wizard.
  • "They do not belong here," returned the Prince.
  • They have no right to be inside the earth at all.
  • "That is no excuse," declared the Prince, coldly.
  • The children looked at each other in perplexity, and the Wizard sighed.
  • The children looked at each other in perplexity, and the Wizard sighed.
  • He won't need to destroy ME, for if I don't get something to eat pretty soon I shall starve to death, and so save him the trouble.
  • "If he planted you, he might grow some cat-tails," suggested the Wizard.
  • "Phoo!" snarled the kitten; "I wouldn't touch the nasty things!"
  • But I noticed some strawberries growing in one of the gardens, and some melons in another place.
  • "Never mind your hunger," interrupted the Prince.
  • The words of the cold and moist vegetable Prince were not very comforting, and as he spoke them he turned away and left the enclosure.
  • The words of the cold and moist vegetable Prince were not very comforting, and as he spoke them he turned away and left the enclosure.
  • The children, feeling sad and despondent, were about to follow him when the Wizard touched Dorothy softly on her shoulder.
  • The children, feeling sad and despondent, were about to follow him when the Wizard touched Dorothy softly on her shoulder.
  • "What for?" asked the girl.
  • "Suppose we pick the Royal Princess," said the Wizard.
  • Let's pick her while we have the chance, before the man with the star comes back.
  • "Pull!" cried Dorothy, and as they did so the royal lady leaned toward them and the stems snapped and separated from her feet.
  • She was not at all heavy, so the Wizard and Dorothy managed to lift her gently to the ground.
  • The beautiful creature passed her hands over her eyes an instant, tucked in a stray lock of hair that had become disarranged, and after a look around the garden made those present a gracious bow and said, in a sweet but even toned voice:
  • The beautiful creature passed her hands over her eyes an instant, tucked in a stray lock of hair that had become disarranged, and after a look around the garden made those present a gracious bow and said, in a sweet but even toned voice:
  • "We salute your Royal Highness!" cried the Wizard, kneeling and kissing her hand.
  • Instantly the Princess turned and faced him, and when he saw that she was picked the Prince stood still and began to tremble.
  • "I did not know that you were ripe," answered the Prince, in a low voice.
  • "Give me the Star of Royalty!" she commanded.
  • Slowly he took the shining star from his own brow and placed it upon that of the Princess.
  • Then all the people bowed low to her, and the Prince turned and walked away alone.
  • The people of Mangaboo now formed themselves into a procession and marched toward the glass city to escort their new ruler to her palace and to perform those ceremonies proper to the occasion.
  • The people of Mangaboo now formed themselves into a procession and marched toward the glass city to escort their new ruler to her palace and to perform those ceremonies proper to the occasion.
  • No one now seemed to pay any attention to the strangers, so Dorothy and Zeb and the Wizard let the train pass on and then wandered by themselves into the vegetable gardens.
  • They did not bother to cross the bridges over the brooks, but when they came to a stream they stepped high and walked in the air to the other side.
  • I wonder why it is that we can walk so easily in the air.
  • "Is this a fairy country?" asked the boy.
  • In the vegetable gardens they found the strawberries and melons, and several other unknown but delicious fruits, of which they ate heartily.
  • As they sat upon the grass watching Jim, who was still busily eating, Eureka said:
  • "No," answered the little man, "you are quite right.
  • In the strict sense of the word I am not a Wizard, but only a humbug.
  • "The Wizard of Oz has always been a humbug," agreed Dorothy.
  • "If that is so," said the boy, "how could he do that wonderful trick with the nine tiny piglets?"
  • "Very true," declared the Wizard, nodding at her.
  • "But I saw the little pigs with my own eyes!" exclaimed Zeb.
  • "So did I," purred the kitten.
  • "To be sure," answered the Wizard.
  • But the pulling of them apart and pushing them together again was only a sleight-of-hand trick.
  • "Let's see the pigs," said Eureka, eagerly.
  • The little man felt carefully in his pocket and pulled out the tiny piglets, setting them upon the grass one by one, where they ran around and nibbled the tender blades.
  • The little man felt carefully in his pocket and pulled out the tiny piglets, setting them upon the grass one by one, where they ran around and nibbled the tender blades.
  • "Dear me!" murmured the Wizard, looking at his pets in astonishment.
  • "May I eat one of them?" asked the kitten, in a pleading voice.
  • "I should say so!" grunted another of the piglets, looking uneasily at the kitten; "cats are cruel things."
  • "I'm not cruel," replied the kitten, yawning.
  • "They are from the Island of Teenty-Weent," said the Wizard, "where everything is small because it's a small island.
  • A sailor brought them to Los Angeles and I gave him nine tickets to the circus for them.
  • And if I can't eat the piglets you may as well plant me at once and raise catsup.
  • "I have an idea," said the Wizard, "that there are fishes in these brooks.
  • "Fish!" cried the kitten.
  • "But won't they be veg'table, like everything else here?" asked the kitten.
  • Fishes are not animals, and they are as cold and moist as the vegetables themselves.
  • There is no reason, that I can see, why they may not exist in the waters of this strange country.
  • Then the Wizard bent a pin for a hook and took a long piece of string from his pocket for a fish-line.
  • The only bait he could find was a bright red blossom from a flower; but he knew fishes are easy to fool if anything bright attracts their attention, so he decided to try the blossom.
  • "Oh, Eureka!" cried Dorothy, "did you eat the bones?"
  • "If it had any bones, I ate them," replied the kitten, composedly, as it washed its face after the meal.
  • "You were very greedy," said the girl.
  • "I was very hungry," replied the kitten.
  • The little pigs had stood huddled in a group, watching this scene with frightened eyes.
  • "Don't worry," Dorothy murmured, soothingly, "I'll not let the kitten hurt you."
  • Then she happened to remember that in a corner of her suit-case were one or two crackers that were left over from her luncheon on the train, and she went to the buggy and brought them.
  • Eureka stuck up her nose at such food, but the tiny piglets squealed delightedly at the sight of the crackers and ate them up in a jiffy.
  • "Now let us go back to the city," suggested the Wizard.
  • That is, if Jim has had enough of the pink grass.
  • The cab-horse, who was browsing near, lifted his head with a sigh.
  • "Where shall we stay?" asked the girl.
  • They agreed to this plan, and when they reached the great square Jim drew the buggy into the big door of the domed hall.
  • "It doesn't look very homelike," said Dorothy, gazing around at the bare room.
  • "What are those holes up there?" enquired the boy, pointing to some openings that appeared near the top of the dome.
  • "You forget that stairs are unnecessary," observed the Wizard.
  • Let us walk up, and see where the doors lead to.
  • With this he began walking in the air toward the high openings, and Dorothy and Zeb followed him.
  • "I wonder if these people never sleep," said the girl.
  • Those colored suns are exactly in the same place they were when we came, and if there is no sunset there can be no night.
  • "Very true," agreed the Wizard.
  • Then the boy returned to one of the upper rooms, and in spite of the hardness of the glass bench was soon deep in slumberland.
  • The little man, having had a good sleep, felt rested and refreshed, and looking through the glass partition of the room he saw Zeb sitting up on his bench and yawning.
  • The little man, having had a good sleep, felt rested and refreshed, and looking through the glass partition of the room he saw Zeb sitting up on his bench and yawning.
  • So the Wizard went in to him.
  • But in the basket-car are some things I would like to keep with me.
  • I wish you would go and fetch my satchel, two lanterns, and a can of kerosene oil that is under the seat.
  • So the boy went willingly upon the errand, and by the time he had returned Dorothy was awake.
  • Then the three held a counsel to decide what they should do next, but could think of no way to better their condition.
  • "I don't like these veg'table people," said the little girl.
  • It is because there is no warm blood in them, remarked the Wizard.
  • "And they have no hearts; so they can't love anyone – not even themselves," declared the boy.
  • "The Princess is lovely to look at," continued Dorothy, thoughtfully; "but I don't care much for her, after all.
  • "But IS there any other place?" asked the Wizard.
  • Just then they heard the big voice of Jim the cab-horse calling to them, and going to the doorway leading to the dome they found the Princess and a throng of her people had entered the House of the Sorcerer.
  • So they went down to greet the beautiful vegetable lady, who said to them:
  • "Oh, you cannot go away, of course; so you must be destroyed," was the answer.
  • "In what way?" enquired the Wizard.
  • "We shall throw you three people into the Garden of the Twining Vines," said the Princess, "and they will soon crush you and devour your bodies to make themselves grow bigger.
  • Let us see your arts, and the sorceries you are able to perform.
  • He did it very cleverly, indeed, and the Princess looked at the strange piglets as if she were as truly astonished as any vegetable person could be.
  • The Wizard tried to think.
  • Then he jointed together the blades of his sword and balanced it very skillfully upon the end of his nose.
  • But even that did not satisfy the Princess.
  • Just then his eye fell upon the lanterns and the can of kerosene oil which Zeb had brought from the car of his balloon, and he got a clever idea from those commonplace things.
  • So he placed Dorothy upon one side of him and the boy upon the other and set a lantern upon each of their heads.
  • The Mangaboos were much impressed because they had never before seen any light that did not come directly from their suns.
  • Next the Wizard poured a pool of oil from the can upon the glass floor, where it covered quite a broad surface.
  • When he lighted the oil a hundred tongues of flame shot up, and the effect was really imposing.
  • "Now, Princess," exclaimed the Wizard, "those of your advisors who wished to throw us into the Garden of Clinging Vines must step within this circle of light.
  • The advisors of the Princess did not like this test; but she commanded them to step into the flame and one by one they did so, and were scorched so badly that the air was soon filled with an odor like that of baked potatoes.
  • The advisors of the Princess did not like this test; but she commanded them to step into the flame and one by one they did so, and were scorched so badly that the air was soon filled with an odor like that of baked potatoes.
  • Some of the Mangaboos fell down and had to be dragged from the fire, and all were so withered that it would be necessary to plant them at once.
  • Once they came near to the enclosed Garden of the Clinging Vines, and walking high into the air looked down upon it with much interest.
  • Everything the vines touched they crushed, and our adventurers were indeed thankful to have escaped being cast among them.
  • They knew the kitten, by this time, so they scampered over to where she lay beside Jim and commenced to frisk and play with her.
  • The cab-horse, who never slept long at a time, sat upon his haunches and watched the tiny piglets and the kitten with much approval.
  • The cab-horse, who never slept long at a time, sat upon his haunches and watched the tiny piglets and the kitten with much approval.
  • "Don't be rough!" he would call out, if Eureka knocked over one of the round, fat piglets with her paw; but the pigs never minded, and enjoyed the sport very greatly.
  • Suddenly they looked up to find the room filled with the silent, solemn-eyed Mangaboos.
  • Here were more of the vegetable people with thorns, and silently they urged the now frightened creatures down the street.
  • Slowly but steadily the heartless Mangaboos drove them on, until they had passed through the city and the gardens and come to the broad plains leading to the mountain.
  • "What does all this mean, anyhow?" asked the horse, jumping to escape a thorn.
  • "Why, they are driving us toward the Black Pit, into which they threatened to cast us," replied the kitten.
  • "All right," said the horse; "I'll do it."
  • An instant later he suddenly backed toward the crowd of Mangaboos and kicked out his hind legs as hard as he could.
  • A dozen of them smashed together and tumbled to the ground, and seeing his success Jim kicked again and again, charging into the vegetable crowd, knocking them in all directions and sending the others scattering to escape his iron heels.
  • Eureka helped him by flying into the faces of the enemy and scratching and biting furiously, and the kitten ruined so many vegetable complexions that the Mangaboos feared her as much as they did the horse.
  • But the foes were too many to be repulsed for long.
  • Half way up the steep was a yawning cave, black as night beyond the point where the rainbow rays of the colored suns reached into it.
  • It will be about the end of our adventures, I guess.
  • "If the Wizard was here," said one of the piglets, sobbing bitterly, "he would not see us suffer so."
  • The mouth of the hole was nearly filled up now, but the kitten gave a leap through the remaining opening and at once scampered up into the air.
  • The mouth of the hole was nearly filled up now, but the kitten gave a leap through the remaining opening and at once scampered up into the air.
  • The Mangaboos saw her escape, and several of them caught up their thorns and gave chase, mounting through the air after her.
  • The Mangaboos saw her escape, and several of them caught up their thorns and gave chase, mounting through the air after her.
  • So she ran along over their heads until she had left them far behind and below and had come to the city and the House of the Sorcerer.
  • There she entered in at Dorothy's window in the dome and aroused her from her sleep.
  • The Wizard carried his satchel, which was quite heavy, and Zeb carried the two lanterns and the oil can.
  • The Wizard carried his satchel, which was quite heavy, and Zeb carried the two lanterns and the oil can.
  • Before long they neared the Black Pit, where a busy swarm of Mangaboos, headed by their Princess, was engaged in piling up glass rocks before the entrance.
  • "Stop, I command you!" cried the Wizard, in an angry tone, and at once began pulling down the rocks to liberate Jim and the piglets.
  • At once the Mangaboos began piling up the rocks of glass again, and as the little man realized that they were all about to be entombed in the mountain he said to the children:
  • "What's the use?" replied Dorothy.
  • "That's the way I feel about it," remarked Zeb, rubbing his wounds.
  • "All right," said the Wizard; "I'm with you, whatever you decide.
  • Noticing that the light was growing dim he picked up his nine piglets, patted each one lovingly on its fat little head, and placed them carefully in his inside pocket.
  • Zeb struck a match and lighted one of the lanterns.
  • "I'll explore it and see," replied the boy.
  • So he carried the lantern back for quite a distance, while Dorothy and the Wizard followed at his side.
  • The cavern did not come to an end, as they had expected it would, but slanted upward through the great glass mountain, running in a direction that promised to lead them to the side opposite the Mangaboo country.
  • The cavern did not come to an end, as they had expected it would, but slanted upward through the great glass mountain, running in a direction that promised to lead them to the side opposite the Mangaboo country.
  • The others agreed readily to this sensible suggestion, and at once the boy began to harness Jim to the buggy.
  • The others agreed readily to this sensible suggestion, and at once the boy began to harness Jim to the buggy.
  • Jim stopped sometimes to rest, for the climb was rather steep and tiresome.
  • "We must be nearly as high as the six colored suns, by this time," said Dorothy.
  • The sides of the tunnel showed before them like the inside of a long spy-glass, and the floor became more level.
  • The sides of the tunnel showed before them like the inside of a long spy-glass, and the floor became more level.
  • Jim hastened his lagging steps at this assurance of a quick relief from the dark passage.
  • It was all laid out into lovely lawns and gardens, with pebble paths leading through them and groves of beautiful and stately trees dotting the landscape here and there.
  • Alluring brooks of crystal water flowed sparkling between their flower-strewn banks, while scattered over the valley were dozens of the quaintest and most picturesque cottages our travelers had ever beheld.
  • The second and even more singular fact was the absence of any inhabitant of this splendid place.
  • The second and even more singular fact was the absence of any inhabitant of this splendid place.
  • From their elevated position they could overlook the entire valley, but not a single moving object could they see.
  • With some difficulty and danger Jim drew the buggy over the loose rocks until he reached the green lawns below, where the paths and orchards and gardens began.
  • The nearest cottage was still some distance away.
  • "Isn't it fine?" cried Dorothy, in a joyous voice, as she sprang out of the buggy and let Eureka run frolicking over the velvety grass.
  • "It wouldn't be so bad," remarked the Wizard, gazing around him, "if we were obliged to live here always.
  • "But where are the people?" asked Dorothy.
  • The little man shook his bald head.
  • They heard the sudden twittering of a bird, but could not find the creature anywhere.
  • Presently they came to a low plant which had broad, spreading leaves, in the center of which grew a single fruit about as large as a peach.
  • The fruit was so daintily colored and so fragrant, and looked so appetizing and delicious that Dorothy stopped and exclaimed:
  • They all looked around, but the piglets had disappeared.
  • Several squeals and grunts were instantly heard at his feet, but the Wizard could not discover a single piglet.
  • "No," answered the little man, in a puzzled tone.
  • "We can see you," said another of the piglets.
  • "I'll bet it's because they ate that peach!" cried the kitten.
  • "It was fine, Dorothy," called one of the piglets.
  • "But WE mus'n't eat them," the Wizard warned the children, "or we too may become invisible, and lose each other.
  • If we come across another of the strange fruit we must avoid it.
  • The travellers now resumed their walk toward the cottage, which they presently reached.
  • The travellers now resumed their walk toward the cottage, which they presently reached.
  • It was a pretty place, with vines growing thickly over the broad front porch.
  • The door stood open and a table was set in the front room, with four chairs drawn up to it.
  • The door stood open and a table was set in the front room, with four chairs drawn up to it.
  • On the table were plates, knives and forks, and dishes of bread, meat and fruits.
  • The meat was smoking hot and the knives and forks were performing strange antics and jumping here and there in quite a puzzling way.
  • The meat was smoking hot and the knives and forks were performing strange antics and jumping here and there in quite a puzzling way.
  • But not a single person appeared to be in the room.
  • "How funny!" exclaimed Dorothy, who with Zeb and the Wizard now stood in the doorway.
  • A peal of merry laughter answered her, and the knives and forks fell to the plates with a clatter.
  • One of the chairs pushed back from the table, and this was so astonishing and mysterious that Dorothy was almost tempted to run away in fright.
  • "Here are strangers, mama!" cried the shrill and childish voice of some unseen person.
  • "Well, well!" said the Wizard; "are there really people in this room?"
  • "Of course," replied the man's voice.
  • And--pardon me for the foolish question--but, are you all invisible?
  • "Surely," the woman answered, repeating her low, rippling laughter.
  • Are you surprised that you are unable to see the people of Voe?
  • "Why, yes," stammered the Wizard.
  • All the people I have ever met before were very plain to see.
  • "Where do you come from, then?" asked the woman, in a curious tone.
  • "We belong upon the face of the earth," explained the Wizard, "but recently, during an earthquake, we fell down a crack and landed in the Country of the Mangaboos."
  • "Dreadful creatures!" exclaimed the woman's voice.
  • "They walled us up in a mountain," continued the Wizard; "but we found there was a tunnel through to this side, so we came here.
  • It is the Valley of Voe.
  • "Are you hungry?" asked the woman's voice.
  • "But we do not wish to intrude, I assure you," the Wizard hastened to say.
  • "That's all right," returned the man's voice, more pleasantly than before.
  • As he spoke the voice came so near to Zeb that he jumped back in alarm.
  • "What curious animal is that which is eating the grass on my lawn?" enquired the man's voice.
  • "That's Jim," said the girl.
  • "What is he good for?" was the next question.
  • "He draws the buggy you see fastened to him, and we ride in the buggy instead of walking," she explained.
  • "Can he fight?" asked the man's voice.
  • "That is the one evil of our country," answered the invisible man.
  • Many large and fierce bears roam in the Valley of Voe, and when they can catch any of us they eat us up; but as they cannot see us, we seldom get caught.
  • "Are the bears invis'ble, too?" asked the girl.
  • Yes; for they eat of the dama-fruit, as we all do, and that keeps them from being seen by any eye, whether human or animal.
  • "Does the dama-fruit grow on a low bush, and look something like a peach?" asked the Wizard.
  • "Yes," was the reply.
  • "For two reasons, my dear," the woman's voice answered.
  • The dama-fruit is the most delicious thing that grows, and when it makes us invisible the bears cannot find us to eat us up.
  • The dama-fruit is the most delicious thing that grows, and when it makes us invisible the bears cannot find us to eat us up.
  • But now, good wanderers, your luncheon is on the table, so please sit down and eat as much as you like.
  • The strangers took their seats at the table willingly enough, for they were all hungry and the platters were now heaped with good things to eat.
  • The strangers took their seats at the table willingly enough, for they were all hungry and the platters were now heaped with good things to eat.
  • In front of each place was a plate bearing one of the delicious dama-fruit, and the perfume that rose from these was so enticing and sweet that they were sorely tempted to eat of them and become invisible.
  • "Why do you not eat the damas?" asked the woman's voice.
  • "We don't want to get invis'ble," answered the girl.
  • We who live here much prefer to be invisible; for we can still hug and kiss one another, and are quite safe from the bears.
  • "And we do not have to be so particular about our dress," remarked the man.
  • "And mama can't tell whether my face is dirty or not!" added the other childish voice, gleefully.
  • "But I make you wash it, every time I think of it," said the mother; "for it stands to reason your face is dirty, Ianu, whether I can see it or not."
  • The girl's hair was soft and fluffy and her skin as smooth as satin.
  • "How about the birds and beasts and fishes?" asked Zeb.
  • Neither can we see the cruel bears, for they also eat the fruit.
  • But the fishes that swim in our brooks we can see, and often we catch them to eat.
  • "It occurs to me you have a great deal to make you happy, even while invisible," remarked the Wizard.
  • The children were inclined to be frightened by the sight of the small animal, which reminded them of the bears; but Dorothy reassured them by explaining that Eureka was a pet and could do no harm even if she wished to.
  • The children were inclined to be frightened by the sight of the small animal, which reminded them of the bears; but Dorothy reassured them by explaining that Eureka was a pet and could do no harm even if she wished to.
  • To her surprise an unseen hand clutched her and held her suspended in the air.
  • She placed a plate of food upon the floor and the kitten ate greedily.
  • The kitten gazed wistfully at the forbidden fruit.
  • The kitten gazed wistfully at the forbidden fruit.
  • "Very well, I won't touch it," decided the kitten; "but you must keep it away from me, for the smell is very tempting."
  • As for reaching the top of the earth, I have never heard that it is possible to do that, and if you succeeded in getting there you would probably fall off.
  • "The Valley of Voe is certainly a charming place," resumed the Wizard; "but we cannot be contented in any other land than our own, for long."
  • "The Valley of Voe is certainly a charming place," resumed the Wizard; "but we cannot be contented in any other land than our own, for long."
  • Even if we should come to unpleasant places on our way it is necessary, in order to reach the earth's surface, to keep moving on toward it.
  • Our greatest Champion, Overman-Anu, once climbed the spiral stairway and fought nine days with the Gargoyles before he could escape them and come back; but he could never be induced to describe the dreadful creatures, and soon afterward a bear caught him and ate him up.
  • The wanders were rather discouraged by this gloomy report, but Dorothy said with a sigh:
  • Couldn't you, Zeb? asked the little girl.
  • "What the Gargoyles most dread is a noise," said the man's voice.
  • But they were in great numbers, and the Champion could not shout much because he had to save his breath for fighting.
  • "Very good," said the Wizard; "we can all yell better than we can fight, so we ought to defeat the Gargoyles."
  • "But tell me," said Dorothy, "how did such a brave Champion happen to let the bears eat him?
  • And if he was invis'ble, and the bears invis'ble, who knows that they really ate him up?
  • They now bade farewell to the kind but unseen people of the cottage, and after the man had called their attention to a high, pyramid-shaped mountain on the opposite side of the Valley, and told them how to travel in order to reach it, they again started upon their journey.
  • They followed the course of a broad stream and passed several more pretty cottages; but of course they saw no one, nor did any one speak to them.
  • Fruits and flowers grew plentifully all about, and there were many of the delicious damas that the people of Voe were so fond of.
  • About noon they stopped to allow Jim to rest in the shade of a pretty orchard.
  • The Wizard got out his sword at once, and Zeb grabbed the horse-whip.
  • The Wizard got out his sword at once, and Zeb grabbed the horse-whip.
  • Dorothy climbed into the buggy, although Jim had been unharnessed from it and was grazing some distance away.
  • The owner of the unseen voice laughed lightly and said:
  • The owner of the unseen voice laughed lightly and said:
  • You cannot escape the bears that way.
  • "How CAN we 'scape?" asked Dorothy, nervously, for an unseen danger is always the hardest to face.
  • "You must take to the river," was the reply.
  • "But we would be drowned!" exclaimed the girl.
  • "Oh, there is no need of that," said the voice, which from its gentle tones seemed to belong to a young girl.
  • You are strangers in the Valley of Voe, and do not seem to know our ways; so I will try to save you.
  • The next moment a broad-leaved plant was jerked from the ground where it grew and held suspended in the air before the Wizard.
  • The next moment a broad-leaved plant was jerked from the ground where it grew and held suspended in the air before the Wizard.
  • It is a secret the bears do not know, and we people of Voe usually walk upon the water when we travel, and so escape our enemies.
  • "Thank you!" cried the Wizard, joyfully, and at once rubbed a leaf upon the soles of Dorothy's shoes and then upon his own.
  • He had nearly finished this last task when a low growling was suddenly heard and the horse began to jump around and kick viciously with his heels.
  • The horse was plunging madly about, and two or three deep gashes appeared upon its flanks, from which the blood flowed freely.
  • The horse was plunging madly about, and two or three deep gashes appeared upon its flanks, from which the blood flowed freely.
  • "Run for the river!" shouted the Wizard, and Jim quickly freed himself from his unseen tormenters by a few vicious kicks and then obeyed.
  • As soon as he trotted out upon the surface of the river he found himself safe from pursuit, and Zeb was already running across the water toward Dorothy.
  • As the little Wizard turned to follow them he felt a hot breath against his cheek and heard a low, fierce growl.
  • The third time that he thrust out the weapon there was a loud roar and a fall, and suddenly at his feet appeared the form of a great red bear, which was nearly as big as the horse and much stronger and fiercer.
  • The third time that he thrust out the weapon there was a loud roar and a fall, and suddenly at his feet appeared the form of a great red bear, which was nearly as big as the horse and much stronger and fiercer.
  • On the river, however, the adventurers seemed to be perfectly safe.
  • Dorothy and the buggy had floated slowly down stream with the current of the water, and the others made haste to join her.
  • The Wizard opened his satchel and got out some sticking-plaster with which he mended the cuts Jim had received from the claws of the bears.
  • The Wizard opened his satchel and got out some sticking-plaster with which he mended the cuts Jim had received from the claws of the bears.
  • "I think we'd better stick to the river, after this," said Dorothy.
  • "That is true," agreed the Wizard, "and as the river seems to be flowing in the direction of the Pyramid Mountain it will be the easiest way for us to travel."
  • Zeb hitched Jim to the buggy again, and the horse trotted along and drew them rapidly over the smooth water.
  • Once a little fish swam too near the surface, and the kitten grabbed it in her mouth and ate it up as quick as a wink; but Dorothy cautioned her to be careful what she ate in this valley of enchantments, and no more fishes were careless enough to swim within reach.
  • "You'll have to make a dash, Jim," said the Wizard, "and run as fast as you can go."
  • "All right," answered the horse; "I'll do my best.
  • All three got into the buggy and Zeb picked up the reins, though Jim needed no guidance of any sort.
  • His boney legs moved so fast they could scarcely be seen, and the Wizard clung fast to the seat and yelled "Whoa!" at the top of his voice.
  • Dorothy nearly went with them, but she was holding fast to the iron rail of the seat, and that saved her.
  • The mountain before them was shaped like a cone and was so tall that its point was lost in the clouds.
  • The mountain before them was shaped like a cone and was so tall that its point was lost in the clouds.
  • Directly facing the place where Jim had stopped was an arched opening leading to a broad stairway.
  • At the foot of the stairs was a sign reading:
  • These steps lead to the Land of the Gargoyles.
  • "Suppose the stairs get steeper?" suggested Zeb, doubtfully.
  • "We'll try it, anyway," said the Wizard.
  • It's the only way to get out of the Valley of Voe.
  • So they began to ascend the stairs, Dorothy and the Wizard first, Jim next, drawing the buggy, and then Zeb to watch that nothing happened to the harness.
  • The light was dim, and soon they mounted into total darkness, so that the Wizard was obliged to get out his lanterns to light the way.
  • The light was dim, and soon they mounted into total darkness, so that the Wizard was obliged to get out his lanterns to light the way.
  • But this enabled them to proceed steadily until they came to a landing where there was a rift in the side of the mountain that let in both light and air.
  • Looking through this opening they could see the Valley of Voe lying far below them, the cottages seeming like toy houses from that distance.
  • The old horse panted a little, and had to stop often to get his breath.
  • Here one side of the mountain had a great hole in it, like the mouth of a cavern, and the stairs stopped at the near edge of the floor and commenced ascending again at the opposite edge.
  • The opening in the mountain was on the side opposite to the Valley of Voe, and our travellers looked out upon a strange scene.
  • The opening in the mountain was on the side opposite to the Valley of Voe, and our travellers looked out upon a strange scene.
  • Below them was a vast space, at the bottom of which was a black sea with rolling billows, through which little tongues of flame constantly shot up.
  • Mortals who stand upon the earth and look up at the sky cannot often distinguish these forms, but our friends were now so near to the clouds that they observed the dainty fairies very clearly.
  • They are the Cloud Fairies.
  • "They seem like open-work," remarked the boy, gazing intently.
  • In the open space between the clouds and the black, bubbling sea far beneath, could be seen an occasional strange bird winging its way swiftly through the air.
  • These birds were of enormous size, and reminded Zeb of the rocs he had read about in the Arabian Nights.
  • They had fierce eyes and sharp talons and beaks, and the children hoped none of them would venture into the cavern.
  • What in the world is this?
  • He was a very old man, bent nearly double; but the queerest thing about him was his white hair and beard.
  • "No place at all," answered the man with the braids; "that is, not recently.
  • Once I lived on top the earth, but for many years I have had my factory in this spot--half way up Pyramid Mountain.
  • "Are we only half way up?" enquired the boy, in a discouraged tone.
  • "I believe so, my lad," replied the braided man.
  • "Have you a factory in this place?" asked the Wizard, who had been examining the strange personage carefully.
  • "To be sure," said the other.
  • "What are your products?" enquired the Wizard.
  • "I thought so," said the Wizard, with a sigh.
  • "Yes, indeed; come into my shop, please," and the braided man turned and led the way into a smaller cave, where he evidently lived.
  • "This," said the man, taking up a box and handling it gently, "contains twelve dozen rustles--enough to last any lady a year.
  • "I have no money with me," said the Wizard, evasively.
  • "I do not want money," returned the braided man, "for I could not spend it in this deserted place if I had it.
  • It did her good to see how the braided man's eyes sparkled when he received this treasure.
  • "Why did you leave the surface of the earth?" enquired the Wizard.
  • That made an extraordinary long hole, as you may imagine, and reached far down into the earth; and, as I leaned over it to try to see to the bottom, I lost my balance and tumbled in.
  • So they politely bade him good day, and went back to the outer cavern to resume their journey.
  • Another breathless climb brought our adventurers to a third landing where there was a rift in the mountain.
  • But the travellers were obliged to rest, and while they were sitting on the rocky floor the Wizard felt in his pocket and brought out the nine tiny piglets.
  • To his delight they were now plainly visible, which proved that they had passed beyond the influence of the magical Valley of Voe.
  • "Yes," sighed Eureka; "and I also can see you again, and the sight makes me dreadfully hungry.
  • Please, Mr. Wizard, may I eat just one of the fat little piglets?
  • "And we trusted you so!" said another of the nine, reproachfully.
  • "It seems we were mistaken," declared a third, looking at the kitten timorously, "no one with such murderous desires should belong to our party, I'm sure."
  • "It isn't the bigness, dear; its the variety," replied the girl.
  • "And that's just what I shall do if you don't let those little balls of pork alone," said Jim, glaring at the kitten with his round, big eyes.
  • The kitten looked at the horse thoughtfully, as if trying to decide whether he meant it or not.
  • The kitten looked at the horse thoughtfully, as if trying to decide whether he meant it or not.
  • You haven't many teeth left, Jim, but the few you have are sharp enough to make me shudder.
  • So the piglets will be perfectly safe, hereafter, as far as I am concerned.
  • "That is right, Eureka," remarked the Wizard, earnestly.
  • "I've always loved the piglets," she said; "but they don't love me."
  • If you behave, and don't scare the little pigs, I'm sure they'll grow very fond of you.
  • The Wizard now put the nine tiny ones back into his pocket and the journey was resumed.
  • The Wizard now put the nine tiny ones back into his pocket and the journey was resumed.
  • "The Country of the Gurgles can't be far from the top of the earth," remarked Dorothy.
  • "The Country of the Gurgles can't be far from the top of the earth," remarked Dorothy.
  • No one replied to this, because they found they needed all their breath for the climb.
  • The stairs had become narrower and Zeb and the Wizard often had to help Jim pull the buggy from one step to another, or keep it from jamming against the rocky walls.
  • The stairs had become narrower and Zeb and the Wizard often had to help Jim pull the buggy from one step to another, or keep it from jamming against the rocky walls.
  • "Thank goodness we're nearly there!" panted the little Wizard.
  • Jim, who was in advance, saw the last stair before him and stuck his head above the rocky sides of the stairway.
  • Then he halted, ducked down and began to back up, so that he nearly fell with the buggy onto the others.
  • "Nonsense!" snapped the tired Wizard.
  • What's the matter with you, old man?
  • "Everything," grumbled the horse.
  • With this speech he bent forward and dragged the buggy up the remaining steps.
  • "The Country of the Gargoyles is all wooden!" exclaimed Zeb; and so it was.
  • "The Country of the Gargoyles is all wooden!" exclaimed Zeb; and so it was.
  • The ground was sawdust and the pebbles scattered around were hard knots from trees, worn smooth in course of time.
  • The ground was sawdust and the pebbles scattered around were hard knots from trees, worn smooth in course of time.
  • There were odd wooden houses, with carved wooden flowers in the front yards.
  • The patches of grass were splinters of wood, and where neither grass nor sawdust showed was a solid wooden flooring.
  • Wooden birds fluttered among the trees and wooden cows were browsing upon the wooden grass; but the most amazing things of all were the wooden people--the creatures known as Gargoyles.
  • These were very numerous, for the place was thickly inhabited, and a large group of the queer people clustered near, gazing sharply upon the strangers who had emerged from the long spiral stairway.
  • The Gargoyles were very small of stature, being less than three feet in height.
  • The tops of their heads had no hair, but were carved into a variety of fantastic shapes, some having a row of points or balls around the top, others designs resembling flowers or vegetables, and still others having squares that looked like waffles cut criss-cross on their heads.
  • The tops of their heads had no hair, but were carved into a variety of fantastic shapes, some having a row of points or balls around the top, others designs resembling flowers or vegetables, and still others having squares that looked like waffles cut criss-cross on their heads.
  • There was no sound to be heard anywhere throughout the country.
  • The birds did not sing, nor did the cows moo; yet there was more than ordinary activity everywhere.
  • The birds did not sing, nor did the cows moo; yet there was more than ordinary activity everywhere.
  • The group of these queer creatures which was discovered clustered near the stairs at first remained staring and motionless, glaring with evil eyes at the intruders who had so suddenly appeared in their land.
  • The group of these queer creatures which was discovered clustered near the stairs at first remained staring and motionless, glaring with evil eyes at the intruders who had so suddenly appeared in their land.
  • In turn the Wizard and the children, the horse and the kitten, examined the Gargoyles with the same silent attention.
  • "There's going to be trouble, I'm sure," remarked the horse.
  • Unhitch those tugs, Zeb, and set me free from the buggy, so I can fight comfortably.
  • "Jim's right," sighed the Wizard.
  • He got his satchel from the buggy and, opening it, took out two deadly looking revolvers that made the children shrink back in alarm just to look at.
  • "What harm can the Gurgles do?" asked Dorothy.
  • "Each of their arms is a wooden club," answered the little man, "and I'm sure the creatures mean mischief, by the looks of their eyes.
  • "But why fight at all, in that case?" asked the girl.
  • It's every man's duty to do the best he knows how; and I'm going to do it.
  • "Wish I had an axe," said Zeb, who by now had unhitched the horse.
  • "If we had known we were coming we might have brought along several other useful things," responded the Wizard.
  • The horse had especially attracted their notice, because it was the biggest and strangest creature they had ever seen; so it became the center of their first attack.
  • The horse had especially attracted their notice, because it was the biggest and strangest creature they had ever seen; so it became the center of their first attack.
  • Crack! crash! bang! went his iron-shod hoofs against the wooden bodies of the Gargoyles, and they were battered right and left with such force that they scattered like straws in the wind.
  • But the noise and clatter seemed as dreadful to them as Jim's heels, for all who were able swiftly turned and flew away to a great distance.
  • The others picked themselves up from the ground one by one and quickly rejoined their fellows, so for a moment the horse thought he had won the fight with ease.
  • The others picked themselves up from the ground one by one and quickly rejoined their fellows, so for a moment the horse thought he had won the fight with ease.
  • But the Wizard was not so confident.
  • "Those wooden things are impossible to hurt," he said, "and all the damage Jim has done to them is to knock a few splinters from their noses and ears.
  • The noise, of course.
  • Don't you remember how the Champion escaped them by shouting his battle-cry?
  • "Suppose we escape down the stairs, too," suggested the boy.
  • We have time, just now, and I'd rather face the invis'ble bears than those wooden imps.
  • "That is what I advise," said the Wizard.
  • But the Gargoyles were clever enough not to attack the horse the next time.
  • They advanced in a great swarm, having been joined by many more of their kind, and they flew straight over Jim's head to where the others were standing.
  • The Wizard raised one of his revolvers and fired into the throng of his enemies, and the shot resounded like a clap of thunder in that silent place.
  • The Wizard raised one of his revolvers and fired into the throng of his enemies, and the shot resounded like a clap of thunder in that silent place.
  • Some of the wooden beings fell flat upon the ground, where they quivered and trembled in every limb; but most of them managed to wheel and escape again to a distance.
  • Zeb ran and picked up one of the Gargoyles that lay nearest to him.
  • The top of its head was carved into a crown and the Wizard's bullet had struck it exactly in the left eye, which was a hard wooden knot.
  • The top of its head was carved into a crown and the Wizard's bullet had struck it exactly in the left eye, which was a hard wooden knot.
  • Then, having tied the wooden creature securely, the boy buckled the strap and tossed his prisoner into the buggy.
  • By that time, the others had all retired.
  • Then a few of them advanced until another shot from the Wizard's revolver made them retreat.
  • We've got 'em on the run now, sure enough.
  • "But only for a time," replied the Wizard, shaking his head gloomily.
  • "And fight at the same time," added the Wizard.
  • Dorothy must take her parasol and open it suddenly when the wooden folks attack her.
  • "I'll use the king," said the boy, and pulled his prisoner out of the buggy.
  • When the next company of Gargoyles advanced, our adventurers began yelling as if they had gone mad.
  • Even the kitten gave a dreadfully shrill scream and at the same time Jim the cab-horse neighed loudly.
  • This daunted the enemy for a time, but the defenders were soon out of breath.
  • The Wizard's sword-blade snapped into a dozen pieces at the first blow he struck against the wooden people.
  • The Wizard's sword-blade snapped into a dozen pieces at the first blow he struck against the wooden people.
  • The wooden things wound their long arms around Zeb and the Wizard and held them fast.
  • The wooden things wound their long arms around Zeb and the Wizard and held them fast.
  • Dorothy was captured in the same way, and numbers of the Gargoyles clung to Jim's legs, so weighting him down that the poor beast was helpless.
  • The houses of this city had many corners, being square and six-sided and eight-sided.
  • To one of these houses which had neither doors nor windows, but only one broad opening far up underneath the roof, the prisoners were brought by their captors.
  • The Gargoyles roughly pushed them into the opening, where there was a platform, and then flew away and left them.
  • The Gargoyles roughly pushed them into the opening, where there was a platform, and then flew away and left them.
  • As they had no wings the strangers could not fly away, and if they jumped down from such a height they would surely be killed.
  • The creatures had sense enough to reason that way, and the only mistake they made was in supposing the earth people were unable to overcome such ordinary difficulties.
  • The creatures had sense enough to reason that way, and the only mistake they made was in supposing the earth people were unable to overcome such ordinary difficulties.
  • When Eureka's captor had thrown the kitten after the others the last Gargoyle silently disappeared, leaving our friends to breathe freely once more.
  • "Thank goodness we are together again, even if we are prisoners," sighed the little girl.
  • "They are probably keeping us for some ceremony," the Wizard answered, reflectively; "but there is no doubt they intend to kill us as dead as possible in a short time."
  • The space underneath the roof, where they stood, permitted them to see on all sides of the tall building, and they looked with much curiosity at the city spread out beneath them.
  • The space underneath the roof, where they stood, permitted them to see on all sides of the tall building, and they looked with much curiosity at the city spread out beneath them.
  • Everything visible was made of wood, and the scene seemed stiff and extremely unnatural.
  • From their platform a stair descended into the house, and the children and the Wizard explored it after lighting a lantern to show them the way.
  • Several stories of empty rooms rewarded their search, but nothing more; so after a time they came back to the platform again.
  • In this country, as in all others they had visited underneath the earth's surface, there was no night, a constant and strong light coming from some unknown source.
  • Looking out, they could see into some of the houses near them, where there were open windows in abundance, and were able to mark the forms of the wooden Gargoyles moving about in their dwellings.
  • "This seems to be their time of rest," observed the Wizard.
  • All people need rest, even if they are made of wood, and as there is no night here they select a certain time of the day in which to sleep or doze.
  • They all looked around, but the kitten was no place to be seen.
  • On the roof? asked the girl.
  • No; she just dug her claws into the wood and climbed down the sides of this house to the ground.
  • "To 'climb down' is sometimes used as a figure of speech," remarked the Wizard.
  • "Ha, ha!" chuckled the old cab-horse; "they're not 'Gurgles,' little maid; they're Gargoyles."
  • "No they won't," said the voice of the kitten, and Eureka herself crawled over the edge of the platform and sat down quietly upon the floor.
  • Watching the wooden folks.
  • The Wizard had listened intently to what Eureka had said.
  • If the Gargoyles can unhook the wings then the power to fly lies in the wings themselves, and not in the wooden bodies of the people who wear them.
  • "But how would it help us to be able to fly?" questioned the girl.
  • "Come here," said the little man, and took her to one of the corners of the building.
  • "Do you see that big rock standing on the hillside yonder?" he continued, pointing with his finger.
  • So, if we had the wings, and could escape the Gargoyles, we might fly to that rock and be saved.
  • "But how can you get down?" enquired the girl, wonderingly.
  • "Well, I'll climb up when I get back, then," said the boy, with a laugh.
  • Now, Eureka, you'll have to show me the way to those wings.
  • He had fastened one end of the strap to a wheel of the buggy, and now he let the line dangle over the side of the house.
  • "I will," said the boy, and let himself slide over the edge.
  • Eureka clung with her claws to the wooden side of the house and let herself down easily.
  • Then together they crept away to enter the low doorway of a neighboring dwelling.
  • Then the line was let down again for Zeb to climb up by.
  • Eureka quickly followed him, and soon they were all standing together upon the platform, with eight of the much prized wooden wings beside them.
  • The boy was no longer sleepy, but full of energy and excitement.
  • He put the harness together again and hitched Jim to the buggy.
  • Then, with the Wizard's help, he tried to fasten some of the wings to the old cab-horse.
  • However, the Wizard went once more to his satchel--which seemed to contain a surprising variety of odds and ends--and brought out a spool of strong wire, by means of which they managed to fasten four of the wings to Jim's harness, two near his head and two near his tail.
  • They were a bit wiggley, but secure enough if only the harness held together.
  • These preparations had not consumed a great deal of time, but the sleeping Gargoyles were beginning to wake up and move around, and soon some of them would be hunting for their missing wings.
  • So the prisoners resolved to leave their prison at once.
  • They mounted into the buggy, Dorothy holding Eureka safe in her lap.
  • The girl sat in the middle of the seat, with Zeb and the Wizard on each side of her.
  • The girl sat in the middle of the seat, with Zeb and the Wizard on each side of her.
  • "Which wings must I flop first?" asked the cab-horse, undecidedly.
  • "Flop them all together," suggested the Wizard.
  • "Some of them are crooked," objected the horse.
  • So the horse gave a groan, flopped its four wings all together, and flew away from the platform.
  • Dorothy was a little anxious about the success of their trip, for the way Jim arched his long neck and spread out his bony legs as he fluttered and floundered through the air was enough to make anybody nervous.
  • The main point, however, was that they flew, and flew swiftly, if a bit unevenly, toward the rock for which they had headed.
  • The main point, however, was that they flew, and flew swiftly, if a bit unevenly, toward the rock for which they had headed.
  • Our friends had a good start and were able to maintain it, for with their eight wings they could go just as fast as could the Gargoyles.
  • All the way to the great rock the wooden people followed them, and when Jim finally alighted at the mouth of the cavern the pursuers were still some distance away.
  • Then he poured over them all the kerosene oil that was left in his oil-can, and lighting a match set fire to the pile.
  • The flames leaped up at once and the bonfire began to smoke and roar and crackle just as the great army of wooden Gargoyles arrived.
  • The flames leaped up at once and the bonfire began to smoke and roar and crackle just as the great army of wooden Gargoyles arrived.
  • Inside the archway were several doors, leading to different rooms built into the mountain, and Zeb and the Wizard lifted these wooden doors from their hinges and tossed them all on the flames.
  • "That will prove a barrier for some time to come," said the little man, smiling pleasantly all over his wrinkled face at the success of their stratagem.
  • But come, my children; let us explore the mountain and discover which way we must go in order to escape from this cavern, which is getting to be almost as hot as a bake-oven.
  • To their disappointment there was within this mountain no regular flight of steps by means of which they could mount to the earth's surface.
  • A sort of inclined tunnel led upward for a way, and they found the floor of it both rough and steep.
  • Then a sudden turn brought them to a narrow gallery where the buggy could not pass.
  • "Probably the Gargoyles are still busy trying to put out the fire," returned the Wizard.
  • Sometimes they had to climb over heaps of loose rock, where Jim could scarcely drag the buggy.
  • At such times Dorothy, Zeb and the Wizard all pushed behind, and lifted the wheels over the roughest places; so they managed, by dint of hard work, to keep going.
  • "What sort of place is this?" asked the boy, trying to see more clearly through the gloom.
  • "I cannot imagine, I'm sure," answered the Wizard, also peering about.
  • "Eureka sees better in the dark than we can," whispered Dorothy.
  • "Tell us, dear, what do the creatures look like?" she asked, addressing her pet.
  • "I simply can't describe 'em," answered the kitten, shuddering.
  • "Where are they?" enquired the girl.
  • They are in little pockets all around the edge of this cavern.
  • They're uglier than the Gargoyles.
  • Hearing these words our friends turned in the direction of the sound, and the Wizard held his lanterns so that their light would flood one of the little pockets in the rock.
  • "No," answered the owner of the big yellow eyes which were blinking at them so steadily; "you are wrong about that.
  • "What's that?" asked Dorothy, gazing fearfully at the great scaley head, the yawning mouth and the big eyes.
  • "Young dragons, of course; but we are not allowed to call ourselves real dragons until we get our full growth," was the reply.
  • "Where is your mother?" asked the Wizard, anxiously looking around.
  • She has gone up to the top of the earth to hunt for our dinner.
  • "Very," said the dragonette, snapping its jaws.
  • But they've been very scarce for a few years and we usually have to be content with elephants or buffaloes, answered the creature, in a regretful tone.
  • "How old are you?" enquired Zeb, who stared at the yellow eyes as if fascinated.
  • If I remember rightly, we were sixty-six years old the day before yesterday.
  • "No?" drawled the dragonette; "it seems to me very babyish."
  • "How old is your mother?" asked the girl.
  • There was a regretful accent in the creature's voice, and at the words all the other dragonettes sighed dismally.
  • Oh, she is sometimes gone for several weeks on her hunting trips, and if we were not tied we would crawl all over the mountain and fight with each other and get into a lot of mischief.
  • "No, indeed!" said the little girl.
  • "Permit me to say," returned the dragonette, "that you are rather impolite to call us names, knowing that we cannot resent your insults.
  • "Tastes differ," murmured the dragonette, slowly drooping its scaley eyelids over its yellow eyes, until they looked like half-moons.
  • The heads of the dragonettes were as big as barrels and covered with hard, greenish scales that glittered brightly under the light of the lanterns.
  • The heads of the dragonettes were as big as barrels and covered with hard, greenish scales that glittered brightly under the light of the lanterns.
  • "It occurs to me," said the Wizard, "that we ought to get out of this place before the mother dragon comes back."
  • "You may be right," replied the Wizard, "but we're a little particular about associating with strangers.
  • Will you kindly tell us which way your mother went to get on top the earth?
  • But at length they came unexpectedly upon a huge rock that shut off the passage and blocked them from proceeding a single step farther.
  • This rock was separate from the rest of the mountain and was in motion, turning slowly around and around as if upon a pivot.
  • This appeared so unexpectedly that they were unprepared to take advantage of it at first, and allowed the rocky wall to swing around again before they had decided to pass over.
  • But they knew now that there was a means of escape and so waited patiently until the path appeared for the second time.
  • The children and the Wizard rushed across the moving rock and sprang into the passage beyond, landing safely though a little out of breath.
  • The children and the Wizard rushed across the moving rock and sprang into the passage beyond, landing safely though a little out of breath.
  • They heard a crunching, grinding sound, a loud snap, and the turn-table came to a stop with its broadest surface shutting off the path from which they had come.
  • The mother dragon may come down and catch us here.
  • "It is possible," agreed the Wizard, "if this proves to be the path she usually takes.
  • "Then we're all right," said the girl, "for if the dragon went the other way she can't poss'bly get to us now."
  • The mother dragon probably knows the road to the earth's surface, and if she went the other way then we have come the wrong way, said the Wizard, thoughtfully.
  • The mother dragon probably knows the road to the earth's surface, and if she went the other way then we have come the wrong way, said the Wizard, thoughtfully.
  • "Very. Unless this passage also leads to the top of the earth," said Zeb.
  • For my part, if we manage to get out of here I'll be glad it isn't the way the dragon goes.
  • No one knows what the mother might do.
  • The lanterns were beginning to grow dim, and the Wizard poured the remaining oil from one into the other, so that the one light would last longer.
  • The lanterns were beginning to grow dim, and the Wizard poured the remaining oil from one into the other, so that the one light would last longer.
  • That meant that their world--the real world--was not very far away, and that the succession of perilous adventures they had encountered had at last brought them near the earth's surface, which meant home to them.
  • "But we're ALMOST on earth again," cried Dorothy, "for there is the sun--the most BEAU'FUL sun that shines!" and she pointed eagerly at the crack in the distant roof.
  • "Almost on earth isn't being there," said the kitten, in a discontented tone.
  • "It appears that the path ends here," announced the Wizard, gloomily.
  • "I was sure it would come to this, in the end," remarked the old cab-horse.
  • Folks don't fall into the middle of the earth and then get back again to tell of their adventures--not in real life.
  • And the whole thing has been unnatural because that cat and I are both able to talk your language, and to understand the words you say.
  • "And so can the nine tiny piglets," added Eureka.
  • "Were you ever before shut up in a cave, far under the earth, with no way of getting out?" enquired the horse, seriously.
  • But don't you lose heart, Jim, for I'm sure this isn't the end of our story, by any means.
  • So he sat down upon the floor of the cave, brought the piglets out one by one, and allowed them to run around as much as they pleased.
  • We've been in the dark quite a while, and you may as well explain what has happened.
  • The Wizard told them of the misfortune that had overtaken the wanderers.
  • The Wizard told them of the misfortune that had overtaken the wanderers.
  • "I am," replied the little man.
  • "I could if I happened to be a real wizard," returned the master sadly.
  • "Nonsense!" cried several of the piglets, together.
  • "You can ask Dorothy," said the little man, in an injured tone.
  • "It's true enough," returned the girl, earnestly.
  • But he can't wiz a single thing if he hasn't the tools and machinery to work with.
  • "Thank you, my dear, for doing me justice," responded the Wizard, gratefully.
  • "Ozma!" exclaimed the Wizard.
  • "The girl that rules the marvelous Land of Oz," was the reply.
  • "The girl that rules the marvelous Land of Oz," was the reply.
  • She's a friend of mine, for I met her in the Land of Ev, not long ago, and went to Oz with her.
  • "For the second time?" asked the Wizard, with great interest.
  • Yes. The first time I went to Oz I found you there, ruling the Emerald City.
  • Yes. The first time I went to Oz I found you there, ruling the Emerald City.
  • "I remember those shoes," said the little man, nodding.
  • They once belonged to the Wicked Witch.
  • "No; I lost them somewhere in the air," explained the child.
  • "Where is that Magic Belt?" enquired the Wizard, who had listened with great interest.
  • Ozma has it; for its powers won't work in a common, ordinary country like the United States.
  • That's it, exactly; by means of the Magic Belt.
  • "I won't die cheerfully!" protested the kitten.
  • "Take us, too!" cried the nine tiny piglets, all in one breath.
  • "Couldn't you manage to hold me in your arms?" asked the cab-horse.
  • By using the Magic Belt.
  • All I need do is to wish you with me, and there you'll be--safe in the royal palace!
  • "Who are they?" asked the boy.
  • And the Cowardly Lion?
  • "I'm afraid I don't know the Hungry Tiger and Billina," said the Wizard, shaking his head.
  • "Don't worry," replied the girl.
  • You'll just love the folks in Oz, when you get acquainted.
  • The little man looked at his watch--a big silver one that he carried in his vest pocket.
  • "Then we must wait for half an hour," she continued; "but it won't take long, after that, to carry us all to the Emerald City."
  • But she's a girl now, and the sweetest, loveliest girl in all the world.
  • "It is when it's not alive," acknowledged the girl.
  • I'll race the miserable wooden donkey any day in the week! cried the cab-horse.
  • She felt that Jim would know more about the Saw-Horse later on.
  • She had scarcely spoken the words then she suddenly disappeared from the cave, and with her went the kitten.
  • One moment Dorothy sat beside them with the kitten in her lap, and a moment later the horse, the piglets, the Wizard and the boy were all that remained in the underground prison.
  • "I believe we will soon follow her," announced the Wizard, in a tone of great relief; "for I know something about the magic of the fairyland that is called the Land of Oz.
  • "Will it hurt?" asked the boy, in a voice that trembled a little.
  • "Not at all," replied the Wizard.
  • And that was the way it did happen.
  • The cab-horse gave a nervous start and Zeb began to rub his eyes to make sure he was not asleep.
  • For they were in the streets of a beautiful emerald-green city, bathed in a grateful green light that was especially pleasing to their eyes, and surrounded by merry faced people in gorgeous green-and-gold costumes of many extraordinary designs.
  • "Gid-dap!" cried the boy, and at the word Jim slowly trotted into the courtyard and drew the buggy along the jewelled driveway to the great entrance of the royal palace.
  • Why, it's Oz, the Wonderful Wizard, come back again!
  • The little man looked at her closely and then took both the maiden's hands in his and shook them cordially.
  • The little man looked at her closely and then took both the maiden's hands in his and shook them cordially.
  • But I'm afraid you cannot rule the Emerald City, as you used to, because we now have a beautiful Princess whom everyone loves dearly.
  • The Wizard turned to look at him.
  • "Yes," said the soldier; "but I shaved them off long ago, and since then I have risen from a private to be the Chief General of the Royal Armies."
  • "That's nice," said the little man.
  • "But I assure you, my good people, that I do not wish to rule the Emerald City," he added, earnestly.
  • "In that case you are very welcome!" cried all the servants, and it pleased the Wizard to note the respect with which the royal retainers bowed before him.
  • His fame had not been forgotten in the Land of Oz, by any means.
  • "Where is Dorothy?" enquired Zeb, anxiously, as he left the buggy and stood beside his friend the little Wizard.
  • "She is with the Princess Ozma, in the private rooms of the palace," replied Jellia Jamb.
  • The boy looked around him with wondering eyes.
  • "What's to become of me?" asked the horse, uneasily.
  • He had seen considerable of life in the cities in his younger days, and knew that this regal palace was no place for him.
  • It perplexed even Jellia Jamb, for a time, to know what to do with the animal.
  • "There are no stables here," said the Wizard, "unless some have been built since I went away."
  • This mollified Jim a little, and after some thought the green maiden decided to give the cab-horse a room in the palace, such a big building having many rooms that were seldom in use.
  • So Zeb unharnessed Jim, and several of the servants then led the horse around to the rear, where they selected a nice large apartment that he could have all to himself.
  • Then Jellia said to the Wizard:
  • "Yes, indeed!" returned the little man.
  • He knew the way to it, and a servant followed him, carrying his satchel.
  • Zeb was also escorted to a room--so grand and beautiful that he almost feared to sit in the chairs or lie upon the bed, lest he might dim their splendor.
  • In the closets he discovered many fancy costumes of rich velvets and brocades, and one of the attendants told him to dress himself in any of the clothes that pleased him and to be prepared to dine with the Princess and Dorothy in an hour's time.
  • But Dorothy sprang up and ran to seize her friend's hand drawing him impulsively toward the lovely Princess, who smiled most graciously upon her guest.
  • Then the Wizard entered, and his presence relieved the boy's embarrassment.
  • Taken altogether, it was a dreadfully long name to weigh down a poor innocent child, and one of the hardest lessons I ever learned was to remember my own name.
  • "What does that mean?" asked the Princess.
  • Throwing my voice into any object I pleased, to make it appear that the object was speaking instead of me.
  • One day my balloon ran away with me and brought me across the deserts to this beautiful country.
  • When the people saw me come from the sky they naturally thought me some superior creature, and bowed down before me.
  • I told them I was a Wizard, and showed them some easy tricks that amazed them; and when they saw the initials painted on the balloon they called me Oz.
  • "Now I begin to understand," said the Princess, smiling.
  • "That is quite a history," said Ozma; "but there is a little more history about the Land of Oz that you do not seem to understand--perhaps for the reason that no one ever told it you.
  • Many years before you came here this Land was united under one Ruler, as it is now, and the Ruler's name was always 'Oz,' which means in our language 'Great and Good'; or, if the Ruler happened to be a woman, her name was always 'Ozma.'
  • One wicked witch named Mombi stole him and carried him away, keeping him as a prisoner.
  • Then the Witches divided up the kingdom, and ruled the four parts of it until you came here.
  • That was why the people were so glad to see you, and why they thought from your initials that you were their rightful ruler.
  • "But, at that time," said the Wizard, thoughtfully, "there were two Good Witches and two Wicked Witches ruling in the land."
  • But I escaped from her and am now the Ruler of my people.
  • "We owe a great deal to the Wonderful Wizard," continued the Princess, "for it was you who built this splendid Emerald City."
  • I only bossed the job, as we say in Omaha.
  • "But you ruled it wisely and well for many years," said she, "and made the people proud of your magical art.
  • You shall be the Official Wizard of my kingdom, and be treated with every respect and consideration.
  • "And that is the safest kind of a Wizard to have," replied Ozma, promptly.
  • "He shall amuse us with his tricks tomorrow," said the Princess.
  • The Wizard was also most heartily welcomed by the straw man, who was an important personage in the Land of Oz.
  • The Wizard was also most heartily welcomed by the straw man, who was an important personage in the Land of Oz.
  • "How are your brains?" enquired the little humbug, as he grasped the soft, stuffed hands of his old friend.
  • "Working finely," answered the Scarecrow.
  • I'm very certain, Oz, that you gave me the best brains in the world, for I can think with them day and night, when all other brains are fast asleep.
  • "How long did you rule the Emerald City, after I left here?" was the next question.
  • But Ozma soon conquered her, with the help of Glinda the Good, and after that I went to live with Nick Chopper, the Tin Woodman.
  • Just then a loud cackling was heard outside; and, when a servant threw open the door with a low bow, a yellow hen strutted in.
  • Dorothy sprang forward and caught the fluffy fowl in her arms, uttering at the same time a glad cry.
  • I live on the fat of the land--don't I, Ozma?
  • "You have everything you wish for," said the Princess.
  • She nestled herself comfortably in Dorothy's lap until the kitten gave a snarl of jealous anger and leaped up with a sharp claw fiercely bared to strike Billina a blow.
  • But the little girl gave the angry kitten such a severe cuff that it jumped down again without daring to scratch.
  • Is that the way to treat my friends?
  • "You have queer friends, seems to me," replied the kitten, in a surly tone.
  • "Seems to me the same way," said Billina, scornfully, "if that beastly cat is one of them."
  • I won't have any quarrelling in the Land of Oz, I can tell you!
  • And now the Tin Woodman arrived, his body most beautifully nickle-plated, so that it shone splendidly in the brilliant light of the room.
  • The Tin Woodman loved Dorothy most tenderly, and welcomed with joy the return of the little old Wizard.
  • The Tin Woodman loved Dorothy most tenderly, and welcomed with joy the return of the little old Wizard.
  • "I'm glad to hear that," said the Wizard.
  • But he became nervous again when the next visitor was announced.
  • "Ah," said the Wizard; "I'm pleased to meet so distinguished a personage."
  • "How well you disguise it," said the Wizard.
  • But I don't doubt your word in the least.
  • Jim accepted it as a mere detail, and at his command the attendants gave his coat a good rubbing, combed his mane and tail, and washed his hoofs and fetlocks.
  • The servants were a little discouraged, but soon they brought in a great tray containing two dozen nicely roasted quail on toast.
  • "Well, well!" said the horse, now thoroughly provoked.
  • "You are at least six feet high, and that is higher than any other animal in this country," said the Steward.
  • "Well, my Highness would like some oats," declared the horse.
  • But the royal attendants did not heed the animal's ill temper.
  • Then the servants heaped a lot of rugs upon the floor and the old horse slept on the softest bed he had ever known in his life.
  • The Sawhorse stopped at the same time and stared at the other with its queer protruding eyes, which were mere knots in the log that formed its body.
  • The Sawhorse stopped at the same time and stared at the other with its queer protruding eyes, which were mere knots in the log that formed its body.
  • The ends of the wooden legs were shod with plates of solid gold, and the saddle of the Princess Ozma, which was of red leather set with sparkling diamonds, was strapped to the clumsy body.
  • The ends of the wooden legs were shod with plates of solid gold, and the saddle of the Princess Ozma, which was of red leather set with sparkling diamonds, was strapped to the clumsy body.
  • Jim's eyes stuck out as much as those of the Sawhorse, and he stared at the creature with his ears erect and his long head drawn back until it rested against his arched neck.
  • "I'm a Sawhorse," replied the other.
  • "I do not doubt it," the Sawhorse observed, with a tone of pride.
  • "I couldn't help it," returned the other, rather crestfallen.
  • I know I'm not much account; but I'm the only horse in all the Land of Oz, so they treat me with great respect.
  • The wooden animal gave a start, and then examined the other intently.
  • The wooden animal gave a start, and then examined the other intently.
  • "Not only possible, but true," replied Jim, who was gratified by the impression he had created.
  • "The flies never trouble me," said the Saw-Horse.
  • "The flies never trouble me," said the Saw-Horse.
  • "It is not necessary for me to eat," observed the Sawhorse.
  • "I have no need to breathe," returned the other.
  • "No; you miss many pleasures," remarked the cab-horse, pityingly.
  • You do not know the relief of brushing away a fly that has bitten you, nor the delight of eating delicious food, nor the satisfaction of drawing a long breath of fresh, pure air.
  • "Oh, I cannot hope ever to be like you," sighed the Sawhorse.
  • You are certainly the most beautiful creature I ever beheld.
  • "I can see the bones all right," replied the Sawhorse, "and they are admirable and distinct.
  • Also I can see the flesh.
  • "What good is it?" asked the Sawhorse.
  • Jim did not know, but he would not tell the Sawhorse that.
  • "But I am never hurt," said the Sawhorse.
  • And I never feel a break or a splinter in the least.
  • "Princess Ozma did that," was the reply; "and it saves my legs from wearing out.
  • The cab-horse was about to reply when suddenly he gave a start and a neigh of terror and stood trembling like a leaf.
  • Jim was in the act of plunging down the path to escape when the Sawhorse cried out:
  • Jim hesitated, eyeing the beasts fearfully.
  • But the Sawhorse introduced the stranger in a calm tone, saying:
  • This, noble Horse, is my friend the Cowardly Lion, who is the valiant King of the Forest, but at the same time a faithful vassal of Princess Ozma.
  • And this is the Hungry Tiger, the terror of the jungle, who longs to devour fat babies but is prevented by his conscience from doing so.
  • These royal beasts are both warm friends of little Dorothy and have come to the Emerald City this morning to welcome her to our fairyland.
  • "Is not the Real Horse a beautiful animal?" asked the Sawhorse admiringly.
  • "That is doubtless a matter of taste," returned the Lion.
  • In the forest he would be thought ungainly, because his face is stretched out and his neck is uselessly long.
  • "And dreadfully tough," added the Hungry Tiger, in a sad voice.
  • If he thought to frighten the striped beast by such language he was mistaken.
  • "He's a vegetarian," remarked the Tiger, as the horse began to munch the clover.
  • Just then Dorothy, who had risen early and heard the voices of the animals, ran out to greet her old friends.
  • As she entered the great hall a voice called out, in a rather harsh tone:
  • "Yes, I am," she answered, looking all around to see where the voice came from.
  • "What brought you back?" was the next question, and Dorothy's eye rested on an antlered head hanging on the wall just over the fireplace, and caught its lips in the act of moving.
  • "So I am," replied the head.
  • I was then for a time the Head of the finest Flying Machine that was ever known to exist, and we did many wonderful things.
  • "It's very strange," said the girl.
  • "That I have forgotten," replied the Gump's Head, "and I do not think it is of much importance.
  • But here comes Ozma; so I'd better hush up, for the Princess doesn't like me to chatter since she changed her name from Tip to Ozma.
  • Just then the girlish Ruler of Oz opened the door and greeted Dorothy with a good-morning kiss.
  • The little Princess seemed fresh and rosy and in good spirits.
  • After breakfast Ozma announced that she had ordered a holiday to be observed throughout the Emerald City, in honor of her visitors.
  • In the afternoon there were to be games and races.
  • The procession was very imposing.
  • First came the Imperial Cornet Band of Oz, dressed in emerald velvet uniforms with slashes of pea-green satin and buttons of immense cut emeralds.
  • They played the National air called "The Oz Spangled Banner," and behind them were the standard bearers with the Royal flag.
  • They played the National air called "The Oz Spangled Banner," and behind them were the standard bearers with the Royal flag.
  • In the center was a large emerald-green star, and all over the four quarters were sewn spangles that glittered beautifully in the sunshine.
  • The colors represented the four countries of Oz, and the green star the Emerald City.
  • The colors represented the four countries of Oz, and the green star the Emerald City.
  • Just behind the royal standard-bearers came the Princess Ozma in her royal chariot, which was of gold encrusted with emeralds and diamonds set in exquisite designs.
  • The chariot was drawn on this occasion by the Cowardly Lion and the Hungry Tiger, who were decorated with immense pink and blue bows.
  • The chariot was drawn on this occasion by the Cowardly Lion and the Hungry Tiger, who were decorated with immense pink and blue bows.
  • There followed another band after this, which was called the Royal Court Band, because the members all lived in the palace.
  • Then came Professor Woggle-Bug, with a group of students from the Royal College of Scientific Athletics.
  • The boys wore long hair and striped sweaters and yelled their college yell every other step they took, to the great satisfaction of the populace, which was glad to have this evidence that their lungs were in good condition.
  • The boys wore long hair and striped sweaters and yelled their college yell every other step they took, to the great satisfaction of the populace, which was glad to have this evidence that their lungs were in good condition.
  • The brilliantly polished Tin Woodman marched next, at the head of the Royal Army of Oz which consisted of twenty-eight officers, from Generals down to Captains.
  • The brilliantly polished Tin Woodman marched next, at the head of the Royal Army of Oz which consisted of twenty-eight officers, from Generals down to Captains.
  • Jim and the buggy followed, the old cab-horse being driven by Zeb while the Wizard stood up on the seat and bowed his bald head right and left in answer to the cheers of the people, who crowded thick about him.
  • The first thing the little humbug did was to produce a tiny white piglet from underneath his hat and pretend to pull it apart, making two.
  • The first thing the little humbug did was to produce a tiny white piglet from underneath his hat and pretend to pull it apart, making two.
  • This act he repeated until all of the nine tiny piglets were visible, and they were so glad to get out of his pocket that they ran around in a very lively manner.
  • There was enough material there to enable him to prepare several new tricks which he had learned from some of the jugglers in the circus, and he had passed part of the night in getting them ready.
  • They applauded all his tricks and at the end of the performance begged him earnestly not to go away again and leave them.
  • In the afternoon they all went to a great field outside the city gates where the games were to be held.
  • There was a beautiful canopy for Ozma and her guests to sit under and watch the people run races and jump and wrestle.
  • But although the Munchkin was hardly tall enough to come to Zeb's shoulder he was so strong and clever that he laid the boy three times on his back with apparent ease.
  • This made Zeb laugh, in turn, and the boy felt comforted to find that Ozma laughed as merrily at her weeping subject as she had at him.
  • "It isn't that," said the Sawhorse, modestly; "but I never tire, and you do."
  • "I don't know, I'm sure," replied the Sawhorse.
  • "That is what we are trying to find out," remarked the Scarecrow.
  • The object of a race is to see who can win it--or at least that is what my excellent brains think.
  • I was born in Kentucky, you know, where all the best and most aristocratic horses come from.
  • I'd show the people a fine sight, I can tell you.
  • "Then why not race with the Sawhorse?" enquired the Scarecrow.
  • "Oh, no," answered the Sawhorse.
  • So they unharnessed Jim and took the saddle off the Sawhorse, and the two queerly matched animals were stood side by side for the start.
  • The first one that passes the place where the Princess sits shall be named the winner.
  • The first one that passes the place where the Princess sits shall be named the winner.
  • "I suppose I ought to give the wooden dummy a good start of me," growled Jim.
  • "Never mind that," said the Sawhorse.
  • I'll do the best I can.
  • "Go!" cried Zeb; and at the word the two horses leaped forward and the race was begun.
  • But the Sawhorse was swifter than the wind.
  • Its wooden legs moved so fast that their twinkling could scarcely be seen, and although so much smaller than the cab-horse it covered the ground much faster.
  • An instant later the Tiger crouched and launched its huge body through the air swift and resistless as a ball from a cannon.
  • I was wrong to kick the Sawhorse, and I am sorry I became angry at him.
  • He has won the race, and won it fairly; but what can a horse of flesh do against a tireless beast of wood?
  • Hearing this apology the Tiger and the Lion stopped lashing their tails and retreated with dignified steps to the side of the Princess.
  • There was more applause at this, and then Ozma had the jewelled saddle replaced upon the Sawhorse and herself rode the victor back to the city at the head of the grand procession.
  • "I ought to be a fairy," grumbled Jim, as he slowly drew the buggy home; "for to be just an ordinary horse in a fairy country is to be of no account whatever.
  • "It's lucky we got here, though," said the boy; and Jim thought of the dark cave, and agreed with him.
  • Please go to my boudoir, Jellia, and get the white piglet I left on the dressing-table.
  • Jellia at once departed on the errand, and she was gone so long that they had almost forgotten her mission when the green robed maiden returned with a troubled face.
  • "I have hunted in every part of the room," the maid replied.
  • "Was not the door closed?" asked the Princess.
  • Hearing this, Dorothy and the Wizard exchanged startled glances, for they remembered how often Eureka had longed to eat a piglet.
  • The little girl jumped up at once.
  • "Come, Ozma," she said, anxiously; "let us go ourselves to search for the piglet."
  • So the two went to the dressing-room of the Princess and searched carefully in every corner and among the vases and baskets and ornaments that stood about the pretty boudoir.
  • But not a trace could they find of the tiny creature they sought.
  • When they returned to the others the Princess said:
  • The green maiden hastened away, but presently returned and said:
  • The kitten will not come.
  • "Under the bed in your own room," was the reply.
  • So Dorothy ran to her room and found the kitten under the bed.
  • "I won't," answered the kitten, in a surly voice.
  • The kitten did not reply.
  • "All right," returned the kitten, creeping out.
  • Dorothy carried her in her arms back to where the others sat in grieved and thoughtful silence.
  • "Tell me, Eureka," said the Princess, gently: "did you eat my pretty piglet?"
  • The piglet is gone, and you ran out of the room when Jellia opened the door.
  • The piglet is gone, and you ran out of the room when Jellia opened the door.
  • So, if you are innocent, Eureka, you must tell the Princess how you came to be in her room, and what has become of the piglet.
  • "Who accuses me?" asked the kitten, defiantly.
  • The fact is that I left my little pet in my dressing-room lying asleep upon the table; and you must have stolen in without my knowing it.
  • The fact is that I left my little pet in my dressing-room lying asleep upon the table; and you must have stolen in without my knowing it.
  • When next the door was opened you ran out and hid yourself--and the piglet was gone.
  • "That's none of my business," growled the kitten.
  • Ozma was now greatly incensed by the kitten's conduct.
  • Carry this cat away to prison, and keep her in safe confinement until she is tried by law for the crime of murder.
  • So the Captain-General took Eureka from the arms of the now weeping Dorothy and in spite of the kitten's snarls and scratches carried it away to prison.
  • "She must die," answered the Princess.
  • "Nine times?" enquired the Scarecrow.
  • "As many times as is necessary," was the reply.
  • And the Woggle-Bug shall be the Public Accuser, because he is so learned that no one can deceive him.
  • "There ought to be several animals on the jury," said Ozma, "because animals understand each other better than we people understand them.
  • The Wizard, when he returned to his own room, was exceedingly thoughtful.
  • Sending for the Tin Woodman the Wizard took him into a corner and whispered:
  • So I intend to prove the kitten's innocence by a trick.
  • He drew from his inside pocket one of the eight tiny piglets that were remaining and continued:
  • All the piglets are exactly alike, so no one can dispute your word.
  • At three o'clock the Throne Room was crowded with citizens, men, women and children being eager to witness the great trial.
  • Princess Ozma, dressed in her most splendid robes of state, sat in the magnificent emerald throne, with her jewelled sceptre in her hand and her sparkling coronet upon her fair brow.
  • Behind her throne stood the twenty-eight officers of her army and many officials of the royal household.
  • At her right sat the queerly assorted Jury--animals, animated dummies and people--all gravely prepared to listen to what was said.
  • And now, at a signal from Ozma, the Woggle-Bug arose and addressed the jury.
  • "Your Royal Highness and Fellow Citizens," he began; "the small cat you see a prisoner before you is accused of the crime of first murdering and then eating our esteemed Ruler's fat piglet--or else first eating and then murdering it.
  • "Is this a trial of thoughts, or of kittens?" demanded the Woggle-Bug.
  • "Let the Public Accuser continue," called Ozma from her throne, "and I pray you do not interrupt him."
  • "The criminal who now sits before the court licking her paws," resumed the Woggle-Bug, "has long desired to unlawfully eat the fat piglet, which was no bigger than a mouse.
  • "The criminal who now sits before the court licking her paws," resumed the Woggle-Bug, "has long desired to unlawfully eat the fat piglet, which was no bigger than a mouse.
  • "What's that?" asked the Scarecrow.
  • "The mind has no eye," declared the Scarecrow.
  • "The mind has no eye," declared the Scarecrow.
  • "Your Highness," cried the Woggle-Bug, appealing to Ozma, "have I a mind's eye, or haven't I?"
  • "If you have, it is invisible," said the Princess.
  • "Very true," returned the Woggle-Bug, bowing.
  • "Are you still seeing with your mind's eye?" enquired the Scarecrow.
  • And we know the thing is true, because since the time of that interview there is no piglet to be found anywhere.
  • "Very likely," acknowledged the Woggle-Bug.
  • There was great applause when the speaker sat down.
  • Then the Princess spoke in a stern voice:
  • If you can prove I'm guilty, I'll be willing to die nine times, but a mind's eye is no proof, because the Woggle-Bug has no mind to see with.
  • Then the Tin Woodman arose and said:
  • Look at the kitten's intelligent eyes;" (here Eureka closed her eyes sleepily) "gaze at her smiling countenance!"
  • (Here Eureka bared her sharp claws and scratched at the bars of the cage.)
  • "I'm trying to defend you," remonstrated the Tin Woodman.
  • "Then say something sensible," retorted the kitten.
  • Tell them it would be foolish for me to eat the piglet, because I had sense enough to know it would raise a row if I did.
  • As for the jury, the members whispered to each other for a few minutes before they appointed their spokesperson.
  • The huge beast slowly arose and said:
  • The kitten could not have eaten your piglet--for here it is!
  • As the Princess held the white piglet in her arms and stroked its soft hair she said: Let Eureka out of the cage, for she is no longer a prisoner, but our good friend.
  • "In a room of the palace," he answered.
  • If you hadn't happened to find the piglet, Eureka would surely have been executed.
  • "But justice prevailed at the last," said Ozma, "for here is my pet, and Eureka is once more free."
  • "I refuse to be free," cried the kitten, in a sharp voice, "unless the Wizard can do his trick with eight piglets.
  • If he can produce but seven, then this is not the piglet that was lost, but another one.
  • "Hush, Eureka!" warned the Wizard.
  • "Don't be foolish," advised the Tin Woodman, "or you may be sorry for it."
  • "The piglet that belonged to the Princess wore an emerald collar," said Eureka, loudly enough for all to hear.
  • "The piglet that belonged to the Princess wore an emerald collar," said Eureka, loudly enough for all to hear.
  • This cannot be the one the Wizard gave me.
  • At this everyone in the Throne Room suddenly became quiet, and the kitten continued, in a calm, mocking tone of voice:
  • I will confess that I intended to eat the little pig for my breakfast; so I crept into the room where it was kept while the Princess was dressing and hid myself under a chair.
  • When Ozma went away she closed the door and left her pet on the table.
  • Instead of keeping still, so I could eat him comfortably, he trembled so with fear that he fell off the table into a big vase that was standing on the floor.
  • The vase had a very small neck, and spread out at the top like a bowl.
  • The vase had a very small neck, and spread out at the top like a bowl.
  • At first the piglet stuck in the neck of the vase and I thought I should get him, after all, but he wriggled himself through and fell down into the deep bottom part--and I suppose he's there yet.
  • When he returned the Princess looked down the narrow neck of the big ornament and discovered her lost piglet, just as Eureka had said she would.
  • There was no way to get the creature out without breaking the vase, so the Tin Woodman smashed it with his axe and set the little prisoner free.
  • Then the crowd cheered lustily and Dorothy hugged the kitten in her arms and told her how delighted she was to know that she was innocent.
  • "It would have spoiled the fun," replied the kitten, yawning.
  • And now, the trial being over, the good citizens of the Emerald City scattered to their homes, well content with the day's amusement.
  • Eureka was much surprised to find herself in disgrace; but she was, in spite of the fact that she had not eaten the piglet.
  • Dorothy was herself anxious to get home, so she promised Eureka they would not stay in the Land of Oz much longer.
  • The next evening after the trial the little girl begged Ozma to allow her to look in the enchanted picture, and the Princess readily consented.
  • The next evening after the trial the little girl begged Ozma to allow her to look in the enchanted picture, and the Princess readily consented.
  • "Really," said the girl, anxiously, "I must get back as soon as poss'ble to my own folks."
  • Zeb also wanted to see his home, and although he did not find anyone morning for him, the sight of Hugson's Ranch in the picture made him long to get back there.
  • "This is a fine country, and I like all the people that live in it," he told Dorothy.
  • That last evening was so delightful that the boy will never forget it as long as he lives.
  • Then Dorothy wound up Tik-tok and he danced a jig to amuse the company, after which the Yellow Hen related some of her adventures with the Nome King in the Land of Ev.
  • The Princess served delicious refreshments to those who were in the habit of eating, and when Dorothy's bed time arrived the company separated after exchanging many friendly sentiments.
  • The Princess served delicious refreshments to those who were in the habit of eating, and when Dorothy's bed time arrived the company separated after exchanging many friendly sentiments.
  • Next morning they all assembled for the final parting, and many of the officials and courtiers came to look upon the impressive ceremonies.
  • "But Uncle Henry and Aunt Em need me to help them," she added, "so I can't ever be very long away from the farm in Kansas."
  • "Where is she?" asked Zeb, rather bewildered by the suddenness of it.
  • Then Zeb brought out Jim, all harnessed to the buggy, and took his seat.
  • I think this is the loveliest country in the world; but not being fairies Jim and I feel we ought to be where we belong--and that's at the ranch.
  • Jim was trotting along the well-known road, shaking his ears and whisking his tail with a contented motion.
  • Just ahead of them were the gates of Hugson's Ranch, and Uncle Hugson now came out and stood with uplifted arms and wide open mouth, staring in amazement.
  • Where in the world have you been, my lad?
  • "Why, in the world, Uncle," answered Zeb, with a laugh.
  • The four lawyers rode along, one behind another; for the pathway was narrow, and the mud on each side of it was deep.
  • "Stith! stith! stith!" came from the leafy branches above them.
  • "What is the matter here?" asked the first lawyer, whose name was Speed.
  • The storm has blown two of the little ones out of the nest.
  • They are too young to fly, and the mother bird is making a great fuss about it.
  • They'll die down there in the grass, said the third lawyer, whose name I forget.
  • The three men, as they passed, looked down and saw the little birds fluttering in the cold, wet grass.
  • The three men, as they passed, looked down and saw the little birds fluttering in the cold, wet grass.
  • They saw the mother robin flying about, and crying to her mate.
  • In a few minutes they had forgotten about the birds.
  • Then he looked up to find the nest from which they had fallen.
  • He put the birds softly, one by one, into their warm little home.
  • His shoes were covered with mud; he had torn his coat on the thorny tree.
  • Next to Washington he was the greatest American.
  • Soldiers were marching through the fields.
  • Men on horseback were riding in haste toward the front.
  • The drums were beating, the fifes were playing.
  • The drums were beating, the fifes were playing.
  • Suddenly he stopped at the foot of a tree.
  • "Halt!" he cried to the men who were with him.
  • He stooped and picked up a bird's nest that had fallen upon the ground.
  • In the nest were some tiny, half-fledged birds.
  • Their mouths were open for the food they were expecting their mother to give them.
  • "I cannot think of leaving these little things here to be trampled upon," said the general.
  • He lifted the nest gently and put it in a safe place in the forks of the tree.
  • He leaped into the saddle, and away he dashed with his officers close behind him.
  • He would do many more before the war was over.
  • The cannon were roaring, the balls were flying, the battle was raging.
  • The cannon were roaring, the balls were flying, the battle was raging.
  • He prayeth best, who loveth best All things both great and small; For the dear God who loveth us, He made and loveth all.
  • The boy was only four years old, and the girl was not yet six.
  • The boy was only four years old, and the girl was not yet six.
  • "Come, Edward, we must hurry," said the sister.
  • With one hand the little boy clung to his sister's arm, and with the other he held his primer.
  • Edward could spell nearly all the words in his primer, and he could read quite well.
  • The school was more than a mile from their home, and the children trotted along as fast as their short legs could carry them.
  • The school was more than a mile from their home, and the children trotted along as fast as their short legs could carry them.
  • "Oh, Edward, there is Mr. Harris!" whispered the little girl.
  • They were glad to see Mr. Harris, for he was the minister.
  • They stopped by the side of the road and made their manners.
  • "Good morning, children!" said the minister; and he kindly shook hands with both.
  • Edward took the paper and thanked the kind minister.
  • "Do so, my child," said the Minister; "and I hope that when you grow up you will become a wise man and a great orator."
  • The speech was not hard to learn, and Edward soon knew every word of it.
  • When the time came for him to speak, his mother and the minister were both there to hear him.
  • The little boy's name was Edward Everett.
  • Then, on Friday those who have done the best may stand up and read their compositions to the school.
  • Some of the children were pleased, and some were not.
  • "You may choose any subject that you like best," said the teacher.
  • One little boy chose "The Horse."
  • The next day, every pupil except one had written a composition.
  • "Henry Longfellow," said the teacher, "why have you not written?"
  • "Well," said the teacher, "you can write words, can you not?"
  • "Well, then," said the teacher, "you may take your slate and go out behind the schoolhouse for half an hour.
  • That is the way to write a composition.
  • Just behind the schoolhouse was Mr. Finney's barn.
  • Quite close to the barn was a garden.
  • And in the garden, Henry saw a turnip.
  • "Well, I know what that is," he said to himself; and he wrote the word _turnip_ on his slate.
  • Before the half hour was ended he had written a very neat composition on his slate.
  • He then went into the house, and waited while the teacher read it.
  • The teacher was surprised and pleased.
  • Today you may stand up before the school and read what you have written about the turnip.
  • As soon as it was read to the school, he rubbed it off the slate, and it was forgotten.
  • Mr. Finney had a turnip, And it grew, and it grew; It grew behind the barn, And the turnip did no harm.
  • She boiled it, and boiled it, As long as she was able; Then Mrs. Finney took it, And put it on the table.
  • Mr. Finney and his wife Both sat down to sup; And they ate, and they ate, They ate the turnip up.
  • He was the best loved of all our poets.
  • He wrote "The Village Blacksmith," "The Children's Hour," and many other beautiful pieces which you will like to read and remember.
  • On the day that he was seven years old, his mother gave him a few pennies.
  • He looked at the bright, yellow pieces and said, "What shall I do with these coppers, mother?"
  • It was the first money that he had ever had.
  • The little fellow ran into the street.
  • The little fellow ran into the street.
  • He heard the pennies jingle in his pocket.
  • As Benjamin ran down the street, he wondered what he should buy.
  • If he had been the only child in the family, things might have been different.
  • And the father was a poor man.
  • No wonder the lad had never owned a toy.
  • The big boy looked at him and blew it again.
  • He held them in his hand, and showed them to the boy.
  • You may have them, if you will give me the whistle.
  • "Well, it's a bargain," said the boy; and he gave the whistle to Benjamin, and took the pennies.
  • He ran home as fast as he could, blowing the whistle as he ran.
  • All the pennies you gave me.
  • One of his brothers asked to see the whistle.
  • "You might have bought half a dozen such whistles with the money I gave you," said his mother.
  • The whistle did not please him any more.
  • He threw it upon the floor and began to cry.
  • The lesson you have learned to-day is never to pay too dear for a whistle.
  • It was his business to take care of the sheep which belonged to a rich landholder by the Ettrick Water.
  • He drove these to the pastures on the hills and watched them day after day while they fed on the short green grass.
  • This dog helped him watch the sheep.
  • Sometimes he would take care of the whole flock while the shepherd was resting or eating his dinner.
  • One dark night James Hogg was on the hilltop with a flock of seven hundred lambs.
  • There was thunder and lightning; the wind blew hard; the rain poured.
  • The poor lambs were frightened.
  • The shepherd and his dog could not keep them together.
  • Some of them ran towards the east, some towards the west, and some towards the south.
  • The shepherd soon lost sight of them in the darkness.
  • The shepherd soon lost sight of them in the darkness.
  • With his lighted lantern in his hand, he went up and down the rough hills calling for his lambs.
  • Two or three other shepherds joined him in the search.
  • They looked, as they thought, in every place where the lambs might have taken shelter.
  • At last James Hogg said, "It's of no use; all we can do is to go home and tell the master that we have lost his whole flock."
  • They had walked a mile or two towards home, when they came to the edge of a narrow and deep ravine.
  • They looked down, and at the bottom they saw some lambs huddled together among the rocks.
  • The men hurried down and soon saw that the flock was a large one.
  • The men hurried down and soon saw that the flock was a large one.
  • They counted them and were surprised to find that not one lamb of the great flock of seven hundred was missing.
  • How had Sirrah managed to get the three scattered divisions together?
  • How had he managed to drive all the frightened little animals into this place of safety?
  • Long afterward James Hogg said, "I never felt so grateful to any creature below the sun as I did to Sirrah that morning."
  • The name of James Hogg became known all over Scotland.
  • He was often called the Ettrick Shepherd, because he was the keeper of sheep near the Ettrick Water.
  • Where the pools are bright and deep, Where the gray trout lies asleep, Up the river and o'er the lea, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Where the mowers mow the cleanest, Where the hay lies thick and greenest, There to trace the homeward bee, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Where the hazel bank is steepest, Where the shadow falls the deepest, Where the clustering nuts fall free, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Why the boys should drive away, Little maidens from their play, Or love to banter and fight so well, That's the thing I never could tell.
  • But this I know, I love to play In the meadow, among the hay-- Up the water, and o'er the lea, That's the way for Billy and me.
  • Sometimes, if a poem was very pleasing, he gave the poet a prize.
  • One day a poet whose name was Thalibi [Footnote: Thal i'bi.] came to the caliph and recited a long poem.
  • "Which would you rather have" asked the caliph, "three hundred pieces of gold, or three wise sayings from my lips?"
  • The poet wished very much to please the caliph.
  • The poet wished very much to please the caliph.
  • "Oh, dear!" moaned the poet.
  • The caliph smiled again.
  • "Worse and worse!" groaned the poor poet.
  • There go the second hundred.
  • "Wait, and I will tell you," said the caliph; and he smiled again.
  • Keep the third piece of wisdom for your own use, and let me have the gold.
  • The caliph laughed outright, and so did every one that heard him.
  • Then he ordered his treasurer to pay the poet five hundred pieces of gold; for, indeed, the poem which he had recited was wonderfully fine.
  • The caliph, Al Mansur, lived nearly twelve hundred years ago.
  • He was the builder of a famous and beautiful city called Bagdad.
  • Thousands of years ago the greatest country, in the world was Egypt.
  • It was a beautiful land lying on both sides of the wonderful river Nile.
  • In it were many great cities; and from one end of it to the other there were broad fields of grain and fine pastures for sheep and cattle.
  • The people of Egypt were very proud; for they believed that they were the first and oldest of all nations.
  • The people of Egypt were very proud; for they believed that they were the first and oldest of all nations.
  • "It was in our country that the first men and women lived," they said.
  • All the people of the world were once Egyptians.
  • Then he called his wisest men together and asked them, "Is it really true that the first people in the world were Egyptians?"
  • He sent out among the poor people of the city and found two little babies who had never heard a word spoken.
  • He gave these to a shepherd and ordered him to bring them up among his sheep, far from the homes of men.
  • The shepherd did as he was bidden.
  • He took the children far away to a green valley where his flocks were feeding.
  • They played with the lambs in the field and saw no human being but the shepherd.
  • The shepherd led them gently back to the hut and gave them their usual supper of bread and milk.
  • The shepherd led them gently back to the hut and gave them their usual supper of bread and milk.
  • After that, whenever the children were hungry, they cried out, "Becos! becos! becos!" till the shepherd gave them something to eat.
  • Some time later, the shepherd went to the city and told the king that the children had learned to speak one word, but how or from whom, he did not know.
  • "What is that word?" asked the king.
  • Then the king called one of the wisest scholars in Egypt and asked him what the word meant.
  • These children are learning it just as the first people who lived on the earth learned it in the beginning.
  • "Certainly," answered the wise man.
  • One day the caliph, Haroun-al-Raschid, [Footnote: Haroun-al-Raschid (_pro._ ha roon' al rash'id).] made a great feast.
  • The feast was held in the grandest room of the palace.
  • The feast was held in the grandest room of the palace.
  • The walls and ceiling glittered with gold and precious gems.
  • The table was decorated with rare and beautiful plants and flowers.
  • All the noblest men of Persia [Footnote: Per'sia.] and Arabia [Footnote: A ra'bi a.] were there.
  • Let us hear the rest.
  • The poet went on: May each morning bring thee some new joy.
  • "Good! good!" said the caliph, "Go on."
  • The caliph's eyes were filled with tears.
  • Then one of the officers, who was sitting near the poet, cried out: Stop!
  • The caliph wished you to amuse him with pleasant thoughts, and you have filled his mind with melancholy.
  • "Let the poet alone," said Raschid.
  • Haroun-al-Raschid (Aaron the Just) was the greatest of all the caliphs of Bagdad.
  • In a wonderful book, called "The Arabian Nights," there are many interesting stories about him.
  • Listen, my children, and you shall hear Of the midnight ride of Paul Revere.
  • The king had sent them there to make the people obey his unjust laws.
  • The king had sent them there to make the people obey his unjust laws.
  • These soldiers guarded the streets of the town; they would not let any one go out or come in without their leave.
  • The people did not like this.
  • The whole country was stirred up.
  • If the people of Boston must fight for their liberty, we will help them.
  • These men were not afraid of the king's soldiers.
  • From the hills of Charlestown they could watch and see what the king's soldiers were doing.
  • They wished to be ready to defend themselves, if the soldiers should try to do them harm.
  • When the king's soldiers heard about this powder, they made up their minds to go out and get it for themselves.
  • Among the watchers at Charlestown was a brave young man named Paul Revere.
  • He came very quietly and secretly, to escape the soldiers.
  • Some of the king's soldiers are going to Concord to get the powder that is there.
  • I will stir up all the farmers between here and Concord, and those fellows will have a hot time of it.
  • Watch, and as soon as the soldiers are ready to start, hang a lantern in the tower of the old North Church.
  • If they are to cross the river, hang two.
  • As soon as I see the light, I will mount my horse and ride out to give the alarm.
  • He knew where the old North Church stood, but he could not see much in the darkness.
  • The town seemed very still; but now and then he could hear the beating of a drum or the shouting of some soldier.
  • The town seemed very still; but now and then he could hear the beating of a drum or the shouting of some soldier.
  • The moon rose, and by its light he could see the dim form of the church tower, far away.
  • The moon rose, and by its light he could see the dim form of the church tower, far away.
  • He heard the clock strike ten.
  • The clock struck eleven.
  • Perhaps the soldiers had given up their plan.
  • He walked up and down the river bank, leading his horse behind him; but he kept his eyes turned always toward the dim, dark spot which he knew was the old North Church.
  • All at once a light flashed out from the tower.
  • The soldiers had started.
  • He put his foot in the stirrup.
  • Then another light flashed clear and bright by the side of the first one.
  • The soldiers would cross the river.
  • The soldiers would cross the river.
  • Away they went through the village street and out upon the country road.
  • The soldiers are coming!
  • The cry awoke the farmers; they sprang from their beds and looked out.
  • The cry awoke the farmers; they sprang from their beds and looked out.
  • They could not see the speeding horse, but they heard the clatter of its hoofs far down the road, and they understood the cry, "Up! up! and defend yourselves!"
  • It is the alarm!
  • The redcoats are coming, they said to each other.
  • So, through the night, Paul Revere rode toward Concord.
  • The alarm quickly spread.
  • The people for miles around were roused as though a fire were raging.
  • The king's soldiers were surprised to find everybody awake along the road.
  • The king's soldiers were surprised to find everybody awake along the road.
  • When they reached Concord, they burned the courthouse there.
  • This, in history, is called the Battle of Lexington.
  • But the king's soldiers did not find the gunpowder.
  • All along the road the farmers were waiting for them.
  • It seemed as if every man in the country was after them.
  • In France there once lived a famous man who was known as the Marquis de Lafayette. When he was a little boy his mother called him Gilbert.
  • His home was in the country not far from a great forest.
  • Often, when he was a little lad, he took long walks among the trees with his mother.
  • One day word came that a savage wolf had been seen in the forest.
  • Men said that it was a very large wolf and that it had killed some of the farmers' sheep.
  • Perhaps we may see that wolf among the trees.
  • They did not go far into the woods.
  • The mother sat down in the shade of a tree and began to read in a new book which she had bought the day before.
  • The mother sat down in the shade of a tree and began to read in a new book which she had bought the day before.
  • The boy played on the grass near by.
  • The boy played on the grass near by.
  • The sun was warm.
  • The bees were buzzing among the flowers.
  • The bees were buzzing among the flowers.
  • The small birds were singing softly.
  • "Now for the wolf!" he said to himself.
  • He walked quickly, but very quietly, down the pathway into the darker woods.
  • He looked eagerly around, but saw only a squirrel frisking among the trees and a rabbit hopping across the road.
  • There the bushes were very close together and the pathway came to an end.
  • He pushed the bushes aside and went a little farther.
  • He could see a green open space just beyond; and then the woods seemed to be thicker and darker.
  • "This is just the place for that wolf," he thought.
  • Something was pushing its way through the bushes.
  • It's the wolf, I'm sure!
  • The animal was coming nearer.
  • Then I will drag it out of the bushes and call mamma to come and see it.
  • The beast was very close to him now.
  • He could see its shadow as he peeped out through the clusters of leaves.
  • Ah! there was the wolf!
  • But it jumped quickly forward and threw Gilbert upon the ground.
  • He looked at the beast, and--what do you think it was?
  • It was only a pet calf that had come there to browse among the bushes.
  • The boy felt very much ashamed.
  • He hurried back to the pathway, and then ran to his mother.
  • You were very brave, and it is lucky that the wolf was not there.
  • He was the friend of Washington.
  • One carried a gun, one had a pitchfork, and the third had an ax.
  • Wolf! they cried, as they met another farmer coming over the hill.
  • "We don't know," was the answer, "but we saw her tracks down there by the brook.
  • It's the same old wolf that has been skulking around here all winter.
  • "She killed three of my lambs last night," said the one whose name was David Brown.
  • "She's killed as many as twenty since the winter began," said Thomas Tanner.
  • "Because the tracks are always the same," answered David Brown.
  • They show that three toes have been lost from the left forefoot.
  • "Samuel Stark saw her the other morning," said Tanner.
  • He says she was a monster; and she was running straight toward the hills with a little lamb in her mouth.
  • "Here are the tracks again," said Putnam.
  • They could be seen very plainly, for here the ground was quite muddy.
  • The four men followed them for some distance, and then lost them on the hillside.
  • The four men followed them for some distance, and then lost them on the hillside.
  • "Let us call the neighbors together and have a grand wolf hunt to- morrow," said Putnam.
  • All the other men agreed to this, and they parted.
  • The next day twenty men and boys came together for the grand wolf hunt.
  • The next day twenty men and boys came together for the grand wolf hunt.
  • They tracked the beast to the mouth of a cave, far up on the hills.
  • They shouted and threw stones into the cave.
  • But the wolf was too wise to show herself.
  • The opening to the cave was only a narrow hole between two rocks.
  • The opening to the cave was only a narrow hole between two rocks.
  • Then he tied a rope around his waist and said to his friends, Take hold of the other end, boys.
  • He got down on his hands and knees and crawled into the cave.
  • At last he saw something in the darkness that looked like two balls of fire.
  • He knew that these were the eyes of the wolf.
  • The wolf gave a low growl and made ready to meet him.
  • Putnam gave the rope a quick jerk and his friends pulled him out in great haste.
  • They feared that the wolf was upon him; but he wished only to get his gun.
  • Soon, with the gun in one hand, he crept back into the cave.
  • The wolf saw him.
  • She growled so loudly that the men and boys outside were frightened.
  • He raised his gun and fired at the great beast.
  • When his friends heard the gun they pulled the rope quickly and drew him out.
  • It was no fun to be pulled over the sharp stones in that way; but it was better than to be bitten by the wolf.
  • There was not a sound inside of the cave.
  • Perhaps the wolf was waiting to spring upon him.
  • He crept into the cave for the third time.
  • The wolf was dead.
  • Putnam stayed in the cave so long that his friends began to be alarmed.
  • After a while, however, he gave the rope a quick jerk.
  • Men and boys pulled with all their might; and Putnam and the wolf were drawn out together.
  • When the Revolutionary War began he was one of the first to hurry to Boston to help the people defend themselves against the British soldiers.
  • He became famous as one of the bravest and best of the generals who fought to make our country free.
  • "Shoe him quickly, for the king wishes to ride him to battle," said the groom who had brought him.
  • "Do you think there will be a battle?" asked the blacksmith.
  • "Most certainly, and very soon, too," answered the man.
  • The king's enemies are even now advancing, and all are ready for the fight.
  • The king's enemies are even now advancing, and all are ready for the fight.
  • The smith went on with his work.
  • These he hammered and shaped and fitted to the horse's feet.
  • "Oh, well," said the groom, "won't six nails do?
  • I hear the trumpets now.
  • "Three nails in each shoe will hold them on," said the smith.
  • So he quickly finished the shoeing, and the groom hurried to lead the horse to the king.
  • The battle had been raging for some time.
  • Far away, at the other side of the field, King Richard saw his men falling back.
  • He was hardly halfway across the stony field when one of the horse's shoes flew off.
  • The horse was lamed on a rock.
  • The horse stumbled, and his rider was thrown heavily to the ground.
  • The horse stumbled, and his rider was thrown heavily to the ground.
  • The king looked, and saw that his soldiers were beaten, and that the battle was everywhere going against him.
  • The king looked, and saw that his soldiers were beaten, and that the battle was everywhere going against him.
  • He waved his sword in the air.
  • The battle was lost.
  • For the want of a nail the shoe was lost; For the want of a shoe the horse was lost; For the want of a horse the battle was lost; For the failure of battle the kingdom was lost;-- And all for the want of a horseshoe nail.
  • Richard the Third was one of England's worst kings.
  • Henry, the Duke of Richmond, made war upon him and defeated him in a great battle.
  • The roads were crooked and muddy and rough.
  • One day some men were sitting by the door of a hotel in Baltimore.
  • As they looked down the street they saw a horseman coming.
  • "There comes old Farmer Mossback," said one of the men, laughing.
  • He's just in from the backwoods.
  • "Oh, any kind of a place will suit him," answered the landlord.
  • He's one of those country fellows who can sleep in the haymow and eat with the horses.
  • The traveler was soon at the door.
  • The traveler was soon at the door.
  • He was dressed plainly, and, with his reddish-brown hair and mud-bespattered face, looked like a hard- working countryman just in from the backwoods.
  • "Have you a room here for me?" he asked the landlord.
  • Now the landlord prided himself upon keeping a first-class hotel, and he feared that his guests would not like the rough-looking traveler.
  • The only place I could put you would be in the barn.
  • The only place I could put you would be in the barn.
  • "Well, then," answered the stranger, "I will see what they can do for me at the Planters' Tavern, round the corner;" and he rode away.
  • About an hour later, a well-dressed gentleman came into the hotel and said, "I wish to see Mr. Jefferson."
  • "Mr. Jefferson!" said the landlord.
  • I sent him round to the Planters'.
  • "That was Mr. Jefferson," said the gentleman.
  • "Mr. Jefferson!" cried the landlord.
  • Was that the vice president?
  • He shall have all the rooms in the house, and the ladies' parlor, too, I'll go right round to the Planters' and fetch him back.
  • So he went to the other hotel, where he found the vice president sitting with some friends in the parlor.
  • If you'll come back to my house, you shall have the best room in it--yes, all the rooms if you wish.
  • The servant opened it.
  • A few days afterward the man came again.
  • The third time, the man brought a quail.
  • The third time, the man brought a quail.
  • "Here's something else for the Dean," he said roughly, and tossed it into the servant's arms.
  • The servant complained to her master.
  • "The next time he comes," said the Dean, "let me know, and I will go to the door."
  • "The next time he comes," said the Dean, "let me know, and I will go to the door."
  • It was not long until the man came with another present.
  • The Dean went to the door.
  • The Dean went to the door.
  • "Here's a rabbit from Mr. Boyle," said the man.
  • "See here," said the Dean in a stern voice, "that is not the way to deliver a message here.
  • "I'll agree to that," said the man; and he stepped inside.
  • The Dean took the rabbit and went out of the house.
  • The Dean took the rabbit and went out of the house.
  • He walked up the street to the next block.
  • Then he came back and knocked gently at the door.
  • The door was opened by the man from Mr. Boyle's.
  • The door was opened by the man from Mr. Boyle's.
  • "Oh, thank you," said the man very politely.
  • Then, taking out his purse, he offered the Dean a shilling.
  • The lesson in manners was not forgotten; for, always after that, the man was very polite when he brought his presents.
  • The lesson in manners was not forgotten; for, always after that, the man was very polite when he brought his presents.
  • And the Dean also took the hint; for he always remembered to give the man a "tip" for his trouble.
  • And, by and by, I might become the captain of a ship.
  • And so the matter was at last settled.
  • George's brothers knew the master of a trading ship who was getting ready to sail to England.
  • He agreed to take the boy with him and teach him how to be a good sailor.
  • At last the day came for the ship to sail.
  • It was waiting in the river.
  • A boat was at the landing, ready to take him on board.
  • The little chest that held his clothing had been carried down to the bank.
  • The little chest that held his clothing had been carried down to the bank.
  • He stood on the doorstep and looked back into the house.
  • He saw the kind faces of those whom he loved.
  • George saw the tears in his mother's eyes.
  • Send word to the captain not to wait for me, for I have changed my mind.
  • He has been called the Father of his Country.
  • Near the top of a hill he saw a little shepherd boy who was lying on the ground while a flock of sheep and lambs were grazing around him.
  • As he came nearer he saw that the boy held a charred stick in his hand, with which he was drawing something on a flat rock.
  • The lad was so much interested in his work that he did not see the stranger.
  • The lad was so much interested in his work that he did not see the stranger.
  • The stranger bent over him and looked at the picture he had made on the rock.
  • The stranger bent over him and looked at the picture he had made on the rock.
  • It was the picture of a sheep, and it was drawn so well that the stranger was filled with astonishment.
  • The lad was startled.
  • He jumped to his feet and looked up at the kind gentleman.
  • They belong to the rich man who lives in the big white house there among the trees.
  • My father works in the field, and I take care of the sheep.
  • I would teach you how to draw pictures of sheep and horses, and even of men, said the stranger.
  • The boy's face beamed with delight.
  • "Let us go and ask him," said the stranger.
  • The stranger's name was Cimabue.[Footnote: Cimabue (_pro_. she ma boo'a).] He was the most famous painter of the time.
  • The stranger's name was Cimabue.[Footnote: Cimabue (_pro_. she ma boo'a).] He was the most famous painter of the time.
  • "I know that the lad can draw pictures wonderfully well," he said.
  • In the city of Florence [Footnote: Flor'ence.] little Giotto saw some of the finest pictures in the world.
  • One day Cimabue was painting the picture of a man's face.
  • "I will leave it till morning," he said; "then the light will be better."
  • In the morning, when he looked at the picture, he saw a fly on the man's nose.
  • This happened six hundred years ago, in the city of Florence in Italy.
  • There was once a painter whose name was Zeuxis. He could paint pictures so life-like that they were mistaken for the real things which they represented.
  • At one time he painted the picture of some fruit which was so real that the birds flew down and pecked at it.
  • "I am the only man in the world who can paint a picture so true to life," he said.
  • There was another famous artist whose name was Parrhasius. When he heard of the boast which Zeuxis had made, he said to himself, "I will see what I can do."
  • "Draw the curtain aside and show us the picture," he said.
  • Parrhasius laughed and answered, "The curtain is the picture."
  • Parrhasius laughed and answered, "The curtain is the picture."
  • I deceived only the birds, but you have deceived me, a painter.
  • When he hung this painting outside of his door, some birds flew down and tried to carry the cherries away.
  • For if the boy had been as well painted as the cherries, the birds would have been afraid to come near him.
  • Suddenly the door was thrown open and the Queen of Sheba came in.
  • The wreaths were so nearly alike that none of those who were with the king could point out any difference.
  • The wreaths were so nearly alike that none of those who were with the king could point out any difference.
  • "One of these wreaths." said the queen, "is made of flowers plucked from your garden.
  • The other is made of artificial flowers, shaped and colored by a skillful artist.
  • The king, for once, was puzzled.
  • He looked at the wreaths from every side.
  • "Which is the true?" the queen again asked.
  • Still the king did not answer.
  • "I have heard that you are the wisest man in the world," she said, "and surely this simple thing ought not to puzzle you."
  • The king moved uneasily on his golden throne.
  • "Look at the flowers carefully," said the queen, "and let us have your answer."
  • Then the king remembered something.
  • So he said, "Open the window!"
  • The queen was standing quite near to it with the two wreaths still in her hands.
  • The queen was standing quite near to it with the two wreaths still in her hands.
  • All eyes were turned to see why the king had said, "Open the window."
  • The next moment two bees flew eagerly in.
  • Not one of the bees so much as looked at those in her left hand.
  • And the queen said, You are wise, King Solomon.
  • You gather knowledge from the little things which common men pass by unnoticed.
  • So she told Benjamin to stay in the house and take care of his baby sister till she came back.
  • He was glad to do this; for he loved the baby.
  • The baby was asleep in her cradle, and he must not make a noise and waken her.
  • He heard the clock ticking.
  • He heard the birds singing.
  • A fly lighted on the baby's cheek, and he brushed it away.
  • He had no pencil, but there was a piece of black charcoal on the hearth.
  • How pretty the baby was!
  • The baby smiled but did not wake up.
  • As often as he touched the charcoal to the smooth board, the picture grew.
  • So busy was he with the drawing that he did not think of anything else.
  • He heard neither the clock nor the birds.
  • He did not even hear his mother's footsteps as she came into the room.
  • He did not hear her soft breathing as she stood over him and watched him finish the wonderful drawing.
  • The lad sprang up alarmed.
  • "It's only a picture of the baby, mother," he said.
  • A picture of the baby!
  • The good woman was so overjoyed that she caught him in her arms and kissed him.
  • When Benjamin's father came home, his mother showed him the picture.
  • The father did not answer.
  • He turned the picture this way and that, and looked at it from every side.
  • He compared it with the baby's pretty face.
  • It may be that the hand of the Lord is in this.
  • Several weeks afterward, there came a visitor to the home of the Wests.
  • Benjamin's parents showed him the picture.
  • They told him how the lad was always trying to draw something.
  • The good minister looked at the picture for a long time.
  • The good minister looked at the picture for a long time.
  • He put his hands on the lad's head and said:--
  • We cannot understand it nor the reason of it.
  • And the words of the old minister came true.
  • The pictures of Benjamin West made him famous.
  • He was the first great American painter.
  • He was eight years old when he heard about the ride of Paul Revere and the famous fight at Lexington.
  • It was then that the long war, called the Revolutionary War, began.
  • The king's soldiers were sent into every part of the country.
  • The king's soldiers were sent into every part of the country.
  • The people called them the British.
  • The people called them the British.
  • There was much fighting; and several great battles took place between the British and the Americans.
  • At last Charleston, in South Carolina, was taken by the British.
  • "I am going to help drive those red-coated British out of the country," he said to his mother.
  • One day as he was riding through the woods, some British soldiers saw him.
  • "Come with us," they said, "and we will teach you that the king's soldiers are not to be trifled with."
  • They took him to the British camp.
  • "What is your name, young rebel?" said the British captain.
  • Well, Andy Jackson, get down here and clean the mud from my boots.
  • Andrew's gray eyes blazed as he stood up straight and proud before the haughty captain.
  • "You rebel!" shouted the captain.
  • The slim, tall boy seemed to grow taller, as he answered, "I'll not be the servant of any Englishman that ever lived."
  • The slim, tall boy seemed to grow taller, as he answered, "I'll not be the servant of any Englishman that ever lived."
  • The captain was very angry.
  • He drew his sword to hit the boy with its flat side.
  • Andrew threw out his hand and received an ugly gash across the knuckles.
  • Some other officers, who had seen the whole affair, cried out to the captain, Shame!
  • The British soldiers soon returned to Charleston, and he was allowed to go home.
  • He was elected to Congress, he was chosen judge of the supreme court of Tennessee, he was appointed general in the army, and lastly he was for eight years the president of the United States.
  • When Daniel Webster was a child he lived in the country, far from any city.
  • He was not strong enough to work on the farm like his brothers; but he loved books and study.
  • The schoolhouse was two or three miles from home, but he did not mind the long walk through the woods and over the hills.
  • The schoolhouse was two or three miles from home, but he did not mind the long walk through the woods and over the hills.
  • So it was decided that the boy should go to some school where he might be prepared for college.
  • I am going to put you in the academy there.
  • The academy at Exeter was a famous school for preparing boys for college.
  • Early in the morning two horses were brought to the door.
  • One was Mr. Webster's horse; the other was an old gray nag with a lady's sidesaddle on its back.
  • But our neighbor, Johnson, is sending the nag to Exeter for the use of a lady who is to ride back with me.
  • He does me a favor by allowing you to ride on the animal, and I do him a favor by taking care of it.
  • Mr. Webster rode in front, and Daniel, on the old gray nag, followed behind.
  • The roads were muddy, and they went slowly.
  • The people whom they met gazed at them and wondered who they could be.
  • They scarcely noticed the sidesaddle; they noticed only the boy's dark eyes and his strong, noble face.
  • The schoolmaster spoke angrily.
  • The afternoon was half gone, and the trouble was growing.
  • The afternoon was half gone, and the trouble was growing.
  • Then the master thought of a plan.
  • The next one that whispers must come out and stand in the middle of the floor.
  • The next one that whispers must come out and stand in the middle of the floor.
  • And so we will keep the game going till it is time for school to be dismissed.
  • "What will the punishment be, Mr. Johnson?" asked a bold, bad boy.
  • "A good thrashing," answered the master.
  • The children thought the new game was very funny.
  • The children thought the new game was very funny.
  • First, Tommy Jones whispered to Billy Brown and was at once called out to stand on the floor.
  • And so the fun went on until the clock showed that it lacked only ten minutes till school would be dismissed.
  • Then all became very good and very careful, for no one wished to be standing at the time of dismissal.
  • They knew that the master would be as good as his word.
  • The clock ticked loudly, and Tommy Jones, who was standing up for the fourth time, began to feel very uneasy.
  • The clock ticked loudly, and Tommy Jones, who was standing up for the fourth time, began to feel very uneasy.
  • He stood on one leg and then on the other, and watched very closely; but nobody whispered.
  • Suddenly, to his great joy he saw little Lucy Martin lean over her desk and whisper to the girl in front of her.
  • Now Lucy was the pet of the school.
  • Everybody loved her, and this was the first time she had whispered that day.
  • He wished to escape the punishment, and so he called out, "Lucy Martin!" and went proudly to his seat.
  • With tears in her eyes she went out and stood in the whisperer's place.
  • She was very much ashamed and hurt, for it was the first time that she had ever been in disgrace at school.
  • The other girls felt sorry that she should suffer for so small a fault.
  • The boys looked at her and wondered if the master would really be as good as his word.
  • The boys looked at her and wondered if the master would really be as good as his word.
  • The clock kept on ticking.
  • It lacked only one minute till the bell would strike the time for dismissal.
  • Then, suddenly, an awkward half-grown boy who sat right in front of the master's desk turned squarely around and whispered to Tommy Jones, three desks away.
  • Everybody was astonished, for that boy was the best scholar in the school, and he had never been known to break a rule.
  • "Elihu Burritt, take your place on the floor," said the master sternly.
  • At the same moment the bell struck and school was dismissed.
  • But tell me why you so deliberately broke the rule against whispering.
  • "Elihu, you may go home," said the master.
  • He learned many languages and became known all over the world as "The Learned Blacksmith."
  • He learned many languages and became known all over the world as "The Learned Blacksmith."
  • The pictures were painted by hand, and some of them were very beautiful.
  • There was one such king who had four sons, Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. The three older boys were sturdy, half-grown lads; the youngest, Alfred, was a slender, fair-haired child.
  • There was one such king who had four sons, Ethelbald, Ethelbert, Ethelred, and Alfred. The three older boys were sturdy, half-grown lads; the youngest, Alfred, was a slender, fair-haired child.
  • She turned the leaves and showed them the strange letters.
  • She showed them the beautiful pictures, and told them how they had been drawn and painted.
  • They admired the book very much, for they had never seen anything like it.
  • "But the best part of it is the story which it tells," said their mother.
  • "I will give it to the one who first learns to read in it" she answered.
  • "But I should like to know the story which this book tells," said Alfred.
  • His mother unlocked her cabinet and took the precious volume from its place of safe keeping.
  • Then he began with the first word on the first page and read the first story aloud without making one mistake.
  • "I asked the monk, Brother Felix, to teach me," said Alfred.
  • And every day since you showed me the book, he has given me a lesson.
  • But his mother kissed him and gave him the beautiful book.
  • "The prize is yours, Alfred," she said.
  • And Alfred did grow up to become the wisest and noblest king that England ever had.
  • In history he is called Alfred the Great.
  • Mother, what are the clouds made of?
  • Why does the rain fall?
  • Where does all the rain water go?
  • Mother, what makes the wind blow?
  • Who lives on the other side of the world?
  • Why is the sky so blue?
  • When eight years of age he was the best scholar at the famous school at Harrow.
  • He became one of the most famous scholars in the world.
  • He was noted for his great knowledge, the most of which he had obtained from books.
  • Although his father was a king, Cyrus was brought up like the son of a common man.
  • He ate only the plainest food.
  • He wished the lad to stay with him in Media.
  • One day King Astyages planned to make a great feast for the lad.
  • The tables were to be laden with all kinds of food.
  • The hour for the feast came.
  • The hour for the feast came.
  • The servants were there, dressed in fine uniforms.
  • The musicians and dancers were in their places.
  • "How is this, my dear boy?" asked the king.
  • The feast is ready, but no one has come to partake of it.
  • "Well," said he, "all these rich foods that were prepared for the feast are yours.
  • So he gave one portion to the king's officer who had taught him to ride.
  • And the rest he divided among the young women who took care of his mother.
  • The king's cupbearer, Sarcas, was very much offended because he was not given a share of the feast.
  • The king's cupbearer, Sarcas, was very much offended because he was not given a share of the feast.
  • The king also wondered why this man, who was his favorite, should be so slighted.
  • "And so he does," said the king.
  • Tomorrow, you shall be the king's cupbearer.
  • You would hardly have known the young prince when the time came for him to appear before his grandfather.
  • He was dressed in the rich uniform of the cupbearer, and he came forward with much dignity and grace.
  • He carried a white napkin upon his arm, and held the cup of wine very daintily with three of his fingers.
  • Sarcas himself could not have served the king half so well.
  • It is the rule and custom of the cupbearer to pour out a little of the wine and taste it before handing the cup to me.
  • For the other day, when you sat at dinner with your officers, I noticed that the wine made you act queerly.
  • After the guests had drunk quite a little of it, they began to talk foolishly and sing loudly; and some of them went to sleep.
  • And you, grandfather, were as bad as the rest.
  • You tried to dance and fell upon the floor.
  • "Didn't you ever see your father behave so?" asked the king.
  • He was a very wise and powerful ruler, and he made his country the greatest of any that was then known.
  • In history he is commonly called Cyrus the Great.
  • One day, after lesson hours, Al Farra rose to go out of the house.
  • The two boys saw him and ran to fetch his shoes.
  • For in that country, people never wear shoes in the house, but take them off at the door.
  • The two boys ran for the teacher's shoes, and each claimed the honor of carrying them to him.
  • The two boys ran for the teacher's shoes, and each claimed the honor of carrying them to him.
  • When the caliph heard of this he sent for Al Farra and asked him, "Who is the most honored of men?"
  • The teacher answered, "I know of no man who is more honored than yourself."
  • "No, no," said the caliph.
  • It is the man who rose to go out, and two young princes contended for the honor of giving him his shoes but at last agreed that each should offer him one.
  • They did nothing that was beneath the dignity of princes.
  • Al Farra bowed low, but said nothing; and the caliph went on.
  • In Persia, when Cyrus the Great was king, boys were taught to tell the truth.
  • So it was arranged that the boy should travel with a small company of merchants who were going to the same place.
  • The little company began its long journey.
  • Some of the men rode on camels, some on horses.
  • They went but slowly, for the sun was hot and the way was rough.
  • The merchants were not fighting men.
  • "Well, boy, what have you got?" asked one of the robbers, as he pulled Otanes from his horse.
  • "Forty pieces of gold" answered the lad.
  • "It is in my hat, underneath the lining," answered Otanes.
  • You can't make me believe that, said the robber; and he hurried away to rob one of the rich merchants.
  • "You are a brave lad to be joking with robbers" said the man; and he also hurried on to a more promising field.
  • At length the chief of the band called to Otanes and said, "Young fellow, have you anything worth taking?"
  • "Take off your hat," said the chief.
  • The chief tore out the lining and found the gold hidden beneath it.
  • The chief tore out the lining and found the gold hidden beneath it.
  • The robber chief was struck by this answer.
  • He thought of the number of times that he himself had been a coward.
  • Mount your horse, and my own men will ride with you and see that you reach the end of your journey in safety.
  • Otanes, in time, became one of the famous men of his country.
  • He was the advisor and friend of two of the kings who succeeded Cyrus.
  • At last, far in the East, he came to a land of which he had never heard.
  • The people there knew nothing about war and conquest.
  • Although they were rich, they lived simply and were at peace with all the world.
  • The shah, or ruler of these people, went out to meet Alexander and welcome him to their country.
  • He led the great king to his palace and begged that he would dine with him.
  • "We ourselves eat only common food," answered the shah.
  • I came to learn the customs of your people.
  • "Very well, then," said the shah, "stay with me a little while and observe what you can."
  • While the shah and the king were talking, two countrymen came in.
  • "Tell me about it," said the shah.
  • "Well, it is this way," answered the man: "I bought a piece of ground from this neighbor of mine, and paid him a fair price for it.
  • This treasure does not belong to me, for I bought only the ground; but when I offered it to my neighbor he refused it.
  • The second man then spoke up and said, It is true that I sold him the ground, but I did not reserve anything he might find in it.
  • The second man then spoke up and said, It is true that I sold him the ground, but I did not reserve anything he might find in it.
  • The shah sat silent for a while, as if in thought.
  • Then he said to the first man, "Have you a son?"
  • "Yes, a young man of promise," was the answer.
  • The shah turned to the second man: "Have you a daughter?"
  • The shah turned to the second man: "Have you a daughter?"
  • "I have," answered the man, "--a beautiful girl."
  • Let the son marry the daughter, if both agree, and give them the treasure as a wedding portion.
  • Well, we should have thrown both men into prison, and the treasure would have been given to the king.
  • "And is that what you call justice?" asked the shah.
  • "Then let me ask you a question," said the shah.
  • Does the sun shine in your country?
  • Does the rain fall there?
  • The Spartans hated Aristomenes.
  • On a mountain near their city, there was a narrow chasm or hole in the rocks.
  • The Spartans said to one another, Let us throw this fellow into the rocky chasm.
  • The Spartans said to one another, Let us throw this fellow into the rocky chasm.
  • So a party of soldiers led him up into the mountain and placed him on the edge of the yawning hole in the rocks.
  • "See the place to which we send all our enemies," they said.
  • Some of the Greeks said that an eagle caught him in her beak and carried him unharmed to the bottom.
  • I think that he must have fallen upon some bushes and vines that grew in some parts of the chasm.
  • He groped around in the dim light, but could not find any way of escape.
  • The rocky walls surrounded him on every side.
  • Something was moving among the rocks at the bottom of the chasm.
  • He lay quite still till the animal was very near.
  • Then he sprang up quickly and seized it by the tail.
  • The frightened fox scampered away as fast as it could; and Aristomenes followed, clinging to its tail.
  • It was the sunlight streaming in at the entrance to the passage.
  • But soon the way became too narrow for his body to pass through.
  • He let go of the fox, and it ran out.
  • Then with great labor he began to widen the passageway.
  • Here the rocks were smaller, and he soon loosened them enough to allow him to squeeze through.
  • In a short time he was free and in the open air.
  • Some days after this the Spartans heard strange news: "Aristomenes is again at the head of the Greek army."
  • Did you ever hear of King Charles the Twelfth, of Sweden?
  • One day he was in the midst of a great battle.
  • The small house in which he had taken shelter was almost between the two armies.
  • The small house in which he had taken shelter was almost between the two armies.
  • The officer began to write, but just as he finished the first word, a bomb came through the roof of the house and struck the floor close by him.
  • The officer began to write, but just as he finished the first word, a bomb came through the roof of the house and struck the floor close by him.
  • He dropped the pen and sprang to his feet.
  • "What is the matter?" asked the king.
  • "Yes, I see," said the king.
  • But what has the bomb to do with what I wish you to write?
  • The summer had been very dry and the corn crop had failed.
  • The summer had been very dry and the corn crop had failed.
  • There was no bread in the city.
  • The people were starving.
  • One day, to the great joy of all, some ships arrived from another country.
  • The rulers of the city met to decide what should be done with the corn.
  • The rulers of the city met to decide what should be done with the corn.
  • "Divide it among the poor people who need it so badly," said some.
  • Let it be a free gift to them from the city.
  • But one of the rulers was not willing to do this.
  • They do not deserve any gifts from the city.
  • When the people heard about this speech of the rich man, Coriolanus, they were very angry.
  • Kill him! kill him! cried the mob.
  • They did not kill him, but they drove him out of the city and bade him never return.
  • Coriolanus made his way to the city of Antium, [Footnote: Antium (_pro._ an'shi um).] which was not far from Rome.
  • The people of Antium were enemies of the Romans and had often been at war with them.
  • The people of Antium were enemies of the Romans and had often been at war with them.
  • So they welcomed Coriolanus very kindly and made him the general of their army.
  • Soon, at the head of a very great army, he marched toward the city which had once been his home.
  • The rude soldiers of Antium overran all the country around Rome.
  • The rude soldiers of Antium overran all the country around Rome.
  • They burned the villages and farmhouses.
  • They filled the land with terror.
  • Coriolanus pitched his camp quite near to the city.
  • His army was the greatest that the Romans had ever seen.
  • Agree to obey the laws that I shall make for you.
  • The Romans answered, We must have time to think of this matter.
  • "I will give you thirty days to consider the matter," said Coriolanus.
  • The next day, all the priests and learned men went out to beg for mercy.
  • The next day, all the priests and learned men went out to beg for mercy.
  • On the last day, the great army which Coriolanus had led from Antium was drawn up in battle array.
  • It was ready to march upon the city and destroy it.
  • There seemed to be no way to escape the anger of this furious man.
  • The two noble women were willing to do all that they could to save their city.
  • So, leading his little children by the hand, they went out to meet Coriolanus.
  • Behind them followed a long procession of the women of Rome.
  • Then he commanded his army to march back to the city of Antium.
  • The king of Corinth was his friend.
  • The people of Corinth never grew tired of praising his sweet music.
  • One summer he went over the sea to Italy; for his name was well known there, and many people wished to hear him sing.
  • There was a ship just ready to sail for Corinth, and the captain agreed to take him as a passenger.
  • The sea was rough.
  • The ship was driven far out of her course.
  • The sailors were rude and unruly.
  • The captain himself had been a robber.
  • "The easiest way," said the captain, "is to throw him overboard.
  • "The easiest way," said the captain, "is to throw him overboard.
  • They feared to spare him lest he should report the matter to the king.
  • You must either jump overboard into the sea or be slain with your own sword.
  • "What is it?" asked the captain.
  • The sailors agreed; for they were anxious to hear the musician whose songs were famous all over the world.
  • The sailors agreed; for they were anxious to hear the musician whose songs were famous all over the world.
  • He took his stand on the forward deck, while the robber sailors stood in a half circle before him, anxious to listen to his song.
  • He touched his lyre and began to play the accompaniment.
  • Then he sang a wonderful song, so sweet, so lively, so touching, that many of the sailors were moved to tears.
  • And now they would have spared him; but he was true to his promise,-- as soon as the song was finished, he threw himself headlong into the sea.
  • The sailors divided his money among themselves; and the ship sailed on.
  • The sailors divided his money among themselves; and the ship sailed on.
  • In a short time they reached Corinth in safety, and the king sent an officer to bring the captain and his men to the palace.
  • What news can you give me concerning my friend Arion, the sweetest of all musicians?
  • He has a mind to spend the rest of his life in that country.
  • Hardly had they spoken these words when the door opened and Arion himself stood before them.
  • He was dressed just as they had seen him when he jumped into the sea.
  • They were so astonished that they fell upon their knees before the king and confessed their crime.
  • Old story-tellers say that he alighted on the back of a large fish, called a dolphin, which had been charmed by his music and was swimming near the ship.
  • The dolphin carried him with great speed to the nearest shore.
  • The dolphin carried him with great speed to the nearest shore.
  • Then, full of joy, the musician hastened to Corinth, not stopping even to change his dress.
  • He told his wonderful story to the king; but the king would not believe him.
  • "Wait," said he, "till the ship arrives, and then we shall know the truth."
  • Three hours later, the ship came into port, as you have already learned.
  • Other people think that the dolphin which saved Arion was not a fish, but a ship named the _Dolphin_.
  • They say that Arion, being a good swimmer, kept himself afloat until this ship happened to pass by and rescued him from the waves.
  • You may believe the story that you like best.
  • The name of Arion is still remembered as that of a most wonderful musician.
  • He spoke of the birds as his little brothers of the air, and he could never bear to see them harmed.
  • At Christmas time he scattered crumbs of bread under the trees, so that the tiny creatures could feast and be happy.
  • Once when a boy gave him a pair of doves which he had snared, St. Francis had a nest made for them, and the mother bird laid her eggs in it.
  • By and by, the eggs hatched, and a nestful of young doves grew up.
  • They were so tame that they sat on the shoulders of St. Francis and ate from his hand.
  • And many other stories are told of this man's great love and pity for the timid creatures which lived in the fields and woods.
  • One day as he was walking among the trees the birds saw him and flew down to greet him.
  • Then, when they saw that he was about to speak, they nestled softly in the grass and listened.
  • He has given you wings with which to fly through the air.
  • He has given you the air in which to move and have homes.
  • He gives you the rivers and the brooks from which to drink.
  • He gives you the trees in which to build your nests.
  • Then the saint stopped speaking and looked around him.
  • All the birds sprang up joyfully.
  • And when he had blessed them, all began to sing; and the whole forest was filled with sweetness and joy because of their wonderful melodies.
  • The city was far away, and the slaves must walk the whole distance.
  • The city was far away, and the slaves must walk the whole distance.
  • Some of these bundles contained the things they would need on the road; some contained clothing; and some contained goods which the master would sell in the city.
  • "Choose your bundles, boys," said the master.
  • Aesop at once chose the largest one.
  • The other slaves laughed and said he was foolish.
  • The next day, the laugh was the other way.
  • The next day, the laugh was the other way.
  • For the bundle which he had chosen had contained the food for the whole party.
  • And before the end of the journey Aesop had nothing to carry, while the other slaves were groaning under their heavy loads.
  • The man who buys him must pay a high price.
  • As the slaves stood before him he asked each one to tell what kind of work he could do.
  • This answer pleased the rich man so well that he bought Aesop at once, and took him to his home on the island of Samos.
  • In Samos the little slave soon became known for his wisdom and courage.
  • An old Cat was in a fair way to kill all the Mice in the barn.
  • One day the Mice met to talk about the great harm that she was doing them.
  • Hang a bell to the Cat's neck.
  • "Good! good!" said all the other Mice; and one ran to get the bell.
  • "Now which of you will hang this bell on the Cat's neck?" said the old gray Mouse.
  • "Not I! not I!" said all the Mice together.
  • Listen, and I will tell you of the famous dark day in Connecticut.
  • The sun rose bright and fair, and the morning was without a cloud.
  • The sun rose bright and fair, and the morning was without a cloud.
  • The air was very still.
  • There was not a breath of wind to stir the young leaves on the trees.
  • Then, about the middle of the day, it began to grow dark.
  • The sun was hidden.
  • A black cloud seemed to cover the earth.
  • The birds flew to their nests.
  • The chickens went to roost.
  • The cows came home from the pasture and stood mooing at the gate.
  • The cows came home from the pasture and stood mooing at the gate.
  • It grew so dark that the people could not see their way along the streets.
  • What is the matter?
  • The women wept, and some of the men prayed.
  • The women wept, and some of the men prayed.
  • "The end of the world has come!" cried some; and they ran about in the darkness.
  • "The end of the world has come!" cried some; and they ran about in the darkness.
  • "This is the last great day!" cried others; and they knelt down and waited.
  • In the old statehouse, the wise men of Connecticut were sitting.
  • They were men who made the laws, and much depended upon their wisdom.
  • When the darkness came, they too began to be alarmed.
  • The gloom was terrible.
  • "It is the day of the Lord." said one.
  • "This may be the last great day," he said.
  • I do not know whether the end of the world has come or not.
  • So, let us go on with the work that is before us.
  • Let the candles be lighted.
  • The candles were brought in.
  • And as he spoke, the other lawmakers listened in silence till the darkness began to fade and the sky grew bright again.
  • The people of Connecticut still remember Abraham Davenport, because he was a wise judge and a brave lawmaker.
  • The poet Whittier has written a poem about him, which you will like to hear.
  • The road was strange to him, and he traveled very slowly.
  • The innkeeper welcomed him kindly.
  • A fine supper was prepared, and the innkeeper himself waited upon his guest.
  • The innkeeper spoke of the weather, of the roads, of the crops, of politics.
  • The innkeeper spoke of the weather, of the roads, of the crops, of politics.
  • In the morning a good breakfast was served, and then Mr. Randolph made ready to start on his journey.
  • His horse was led to the door, and a servant helped him to mount it.
  • As he was starting away, the friendly innkeeper said, "Which way will you travel, Mr. Randolph?"
  • "I only asked which way you intend to travel," said the man.
  • Then, I intend to travel the way I wish to go--do you understand?
  • He had not gone farther than to the end of the innkeeper's field, when to his surprise he found that the road forked.
  • He did not know whether he should take the right-hand fork or the left-hand.
  • He looked back and saw the innkeeper still standing by the door.
  • "Mr. Randolph," answered the innkeeper, "you have paid your bill and don't owe me a cent.
  • Travel the way you wish to go.
  • As bad luck would have it, Mr. Randolph took the wrong road.
  • But he was still headstrong and ill-tempered; and he was often in trouble with the other sailors.
  • Once his ship was sailing in the great Pacific Ocean, It was four hundred miles from the coast of South America.
  • He quarreled with the other sailors, and even with the captain.
  • "Very well," answered the captain.
  • We shall put you ashore on the first island that we see.
  • The very next day they came in sight of a little green island.
  • There were groves of trees near the shore, and high hills beyond them.
  • "What is the name of this island?" asked Selkirk.
  • "Juan Fernandez," [Footnote: Juan Fernandez (pro. joo'an fer nan'dsz).] said the captain.
  • Give me a few common tools and some food, and I will do well enough, said the sailor.
  • "It shall be done," answered the captain.
  • So they filled a small boat with the things that he would need the most--an ax, a hoe, a kettle, and some other things.
  • Then four of the sailors rowed him to the shore and left him there.
  • He called loudly to the sailors and to the captain.
  • The ship sailed away and was soon lost to sight.
  • Then Selkirk set to work to make the best of things.
  • There were pigs and goats on the island, and plenty of fish could be caught from the shore.
  • Sometimes Selkirk saw ships sailing in the distance.
  • He tried to make signals to them; he called as loudly as he could; but he was neither seen nor heard, and the ships came no nearer.
  • "If I ever have the good fortune to escape from this island," he said, "I will be kind and obliging to every one.
  • For four years and four months he lived alone on the island.
  • Then, to his great joy, a ship came near and anchored in the little harbor.
  • He made himself known, and the captain willingly agreed to carry him back to his own country.
  • When Daniel Defoe heard how Selkirk had lived alone on the island of Juan Fernandez, he said to himself: Here is something worth telling about.
  • So he sat down and wrote a wonderful story, which he called "The Adventures of Robinson Crusoe."
  • When only a child he liked to stand by the river and see the ships sailing past.
  • He talked with some of the sailors.
  • They told him about the strange lands they had visited far over the sea.
  • They told him about the wonderful things they had seen there.
  • He thought how grand it would be to sail and sail on the wide blue sea.
  • "No, no, I am going to be a sailor; I am going to see the world" he said.
  • There are great storms on the sea.
  • Many ships are wrecked and the sailors are drowned.
  • The ship was driven about by the winds; it was wrecked.
  • The ship was driven about by the winds; it was wrecked.
  • All the sailors were drowned but Robinson Crusoe.
  • But there were birds in the woods and some wild goats on the hills.
  • This is the story which Mr. Defoe wrote.
  • Among the servants there was a little page whose name was Carl.
  • It was Carl's duty to sit outside of the king's bedroom and be ready to serve him at any time.
  • One night the king sat up very late, writing letters and sending messages; and the little page was kept busy running on errands until past midnight.
  • The next morning the king wished to send him on another errand.
  • The next morning the king wished to send him on another errand.
  • He rang the little bell which was used to call the page, but no page answered.
  • "I wonder what can have happened to the boy," he said; and he opened the door and looked out.
  • The poor child was so tired after his night's work that he could not keep awake.
  • The king was about to waken him roughly, when he saw a piece of paper on the floor beside him.
  • The king was about to waken him roughly, when he saw a piece of paper on the floor beside him.
  • It was a letter from the page's mother:--
  • _Dearest Carl; You are a good boy to send me all your wages, for now I can pay the rent and buy some warm clothing for your little sister.
  • Be faithful to the king and do your duty._
  • The king went back to the room on tiptoe.
  • The king went back to the room on tiptoe.
  • He took ten gold pieces from his table and wrapped them in the little letter.
  • Then he went out again, very quietly, and slipped them all into the boy's pocket.
  • After a while he rang the bell again, very loudly.
  • Carl awoke with a start, and came quickly to answer the call.
  • "I think you have been asleep," said the king.
  • The boy stammered and did not know what to say.
  • He put his hand in his pocket, and was surprised to find the gold pieces wrapped in his mother's letter.
  • Then his eyes overflowed with tears, and he fell on his knees before the king.
  • "What is the matter?" asked Frederick.
  • "Have courage, my boy," said the king.
  • You may send the gold pieces to your mother with my compliments; and tell her that the king will take care of both her and you.
  • What boy or girl has not heard the story of King Robert Brace and the spider?
  • I will tell you another story of the same brave and famous king.
  • He had fought a battle with his enemies, the English.
  • The king himself was obliged to hide in the wild woods while his foes hunted for him with hounds.
  • The king himself was obliged to hide in the wild woods while his foes hunted for him with hounds.
  • A woman was sitting alone by the fire.
  • "May a poor traveler find rest and shelter here for the night?" he asked.
  • The woman answered, "All travelers are welcome for the sake of one; and you are welcome"
  • The woman answered, "All travelers are welcome for the sake of one; and you are welcome"
  • "Who is that one?" asked the king.
  • "That is Robert the Bruce," said the woman.
  • He is the rightful lord of this country.
  • "Since you love him so well," said the king, "I will tell you something.
  • I am Robert the Bruce.
  • "You!" cried the woman in great surprise.
  • Are you the Bruce, and are you all alone?
  • "My men have been scattered," said the king, "and therefore, no one is with me."
  • "That is not right," said the brave woman.
  • They were tall and strong young men, and they gladly promised to go with the king and help him.
  • The king sat down by the fire, and the woman hurried to get things ready for supper.
  • The king sat down by the fire, and the woman hurried to get things ready for supper.
  • The two young men got down their bows and arrows, and all were busy making plans for the next day.
  • The two young men got down their bows and arrows, and all were busy making plans for the next day.
  • They heard the tramping of horses and the voices of a number of men.
  • "The English! the English!" said the young men.
  • "The English! the English!" said the young men.
  • Then some one outside called loudly, "Have you seen King Robert the Bruce pass this way?"
  • "That is my brother Edward's voice," said the king.
  • The door was thrown open and he saw a hundred brave men, all ready to give him aid.
  • "I saw two hundred of them in the village below us," said one of his officers.
  • They are resting there for the night and have no fear of danger from us.
  • "Then let us mount and ride," said the king.
  • The next minute they were off.
  • They rushed suddenly into the village.
  • They routed the king's enemies and scattered them.
  • And Robert the Bruce was never again obliged to hide in the woods or to run from savage hounds.
  • Soon he became the real king and ruler of all Scotland,
  • But at last his army was beaten; his men were scattered; and Tamerlane fled alone from the field of battle.
  • The ant was carrying a grain of wheat as large as itself.
  • As Tamerlane looked, he saw that there was a hole in the tree only a little way above, and that this was the home of the ant.
  • Just as he spoke, the ant lost its footing and fell to the ground.
  • But it still held on to the grain of wheat.
  • A second time it tried to carry its load up the rough trunk of the tree, and a second time it failed.
  • Tamerlane watched the brave little insect.
  • It tried three times, four times, a dozen times, twenty times--but always with the same result.
  • Then it tried the twenty-first time.
  • Slowly, one little step at a time, it crept up across the rough place where it had slipped and fallen so often.
  • The next minute it ran safely into its home, carrying its precious load.
  • In Richmond, Virginia, one Saturday morning, an old man went into the market to buy something.
  • The market man showed him a fat turkey, plump and white and ready for roasting.
  • "Ah! that is just what I want," said the old man.
  • He asked the price and paid for it.
  • The market man wrapped a paper round it and put it in the basket.
  • The market man wrapped a paper round it and put it in the basket.
  • "Shall I wrap it up for you?" asked the market man.
  • "Yes, here is your money," answered the young gentleman; "and send it to my house at once."
  • "I cannot do that," said the market man.
  • "Then how am I to get it home?" asked the young gentleman.
  • Fancy me carrying a turkey along the street! said the young gentleman; and he began to grow very angry.
  • The old man who had bought the first turkey was standing quite near.
  • The old man who had bought the first turkey was standing quite near.
  • "I live at Number 39, Blank Street," answered the young gentleman; "and my name is Johnson."
  • "Well, that is lucky," said the old man, smiling.
  • When they reached Mr. Johnson's house, the old man politely handed him the turkey and turned to go.
  • "Here, my friend, what shall I pay you?" said the young gentleman.
  • He turned and walked briskly back to the market.
  • "Who is that polite old gentleman who carried my turkey for me?" he asked of the market man.
  • That is John Marshall, Chief Justice of the United States.
  • He is one of the greatest men in our country, was the answer.
  • The young gentleman was surprised and ashamed.
  • "He wished to teach you a lesson," answered the market man.
  • Judge Marshall carried the turkey simply because he wished to be kind and obliging.
  • When they wanted to move the boat from one place to another they had to pole it; that is, they pushed against a long pole, the lower end of which reached the bottom of the stream.
  • "This is slow work, Robert," said the older of the boys as they were poling up the river to a new fishing place.
  • The old boat creeps over the water no faster than a snail.
  • The old boat creeps over the water no faster than a snail.
  • The next day Robert's aunt heard a great pounding and sawing in her woodshed.
  • The two boys were there, busily working with hammer and saw.
  • They fastened each of these wheels to the end of an iron rod which they passed through the boat from side to side.
  • The rod was bent in the middle so that it could be turned as with a crank.
  • The rod was bent in the middle so that it could be turned as with a crank.
  • When the work was finished, the old fishing boat looked rather odd, with a paddle wheel on each side which dipped just a few inches into the water.
  • The boys lost no time in trying it.
  • He took something like an oarlock from his pocket and fastened it to the stern of the boat; then with a paddle which worked in this oarlock one of the boys could guide the boat while the other turned the paddle wheels.
  • "It is better than poling the boat," said Christopher.
  • "Bob Fulton planned the whole thing," he said, "and I helped him make the paddles and put them on the boat."
  • When Robert Fulton became a man, he did not forget his experiment with the old fishing boat.
  • He is now remembered and honored as the inventor of the steamboat.
  • One day a strange merchant came to him with some diamonds and pearls which he had brought from beyond the sea.
  • The caliph was so well pleased with these jewels that he bought them and paid the merchant a large sum of money.
  • The caliph was so well pleased with these jewels that he bought them and paid the merchant a large sum of money.
  • The merchant put the gold in a bag of purple silk which he tied to his belt underneath his long cloak.
  • The merchant put the gold in a bag of purple silk which he tied to his belt underneath his long cloak.
  • It was midsummer, and the day was very hot.
  • As the merchant was walking along, he came to a river that flowed gently between green and shady banks.
  • Why should he not cool himself in the refreshing water?
  • He put the bag of money on top of them and then leaped into the water.
  • He turned quickly and saw an eagle rising into the air with his moneybag in its claws.
  • No doubt the bird had mistaken the purple silk for something good to eat.
  • He jumped out of the water and shouted again.
  • The great bird was high in the air and flying towards the far-off mountains with all his money.
  • The great bird was high in the air and flying towards the far-off mountains with all his money.
  • The poor man could do nothing but dress himself and go sorrowing on his way.
  • A year passed by and then the merchant appeared once more before Al Mansour.
  • Al Mansour noticed that the merchant was very sad and downcast.
  • Then the merchant told him how the eagle had flown away with his money.
  • Toward what place was the eagle flying when you last saw it?
  • "It was flying toward the Black Mountains," answered the merchant.
  • The next morning the caliph called ten of his officers before him.
  • The next morning the caliph called ten of his officers before him.
  • "Ride at once to the Black Mountains," he said.
  • Find all the old men that live on the mountains or in the flat country around, and command them to appear before me one week from to-day.
  • The officers did as they were bidden.
  • On the day appointed, forty gray- bearded, honest old men stood before the caliph.
  • All were asked the same question.
  • Most of the old men answered that they did not know of any such person.
  • The caliph at once gave orders for the gardener to be brought before him the next day.
  • The caliph at once gave orders for the gardener to be brought before him the next day.
  • He also ordered that the merchant should come at the same time.
  • Before noon the next day the gardener was admitted to the palace.
  • As soon as he entered the hall the caliph went to meet him.
  • The gardener put his hand under his cloak and drew out the very bag that the merchant had lost.
  • The gardener put his hand under his cloak and drew out the very bag that the merchant had lost.
  • At sight of his lost treasure, the merchant began to dance and shout for joy.
  • "Tell us," said Al Mansour to the gardener, "tell us how you came to find that bag."
  • The gardener answered: A year ago, as I was spading in my garden, I saw something fall at the foot of a palm tree.
  • The gardener answered: A year ago, as I was spading in my garden, I saw something fall at the foot of a palm tree.
  • "Well, then," said the caliph, "why did you not return it to us at once?"
  • "It was this way," said the gardener: "I looked at the gold pieces, and then thought of my own great necessities.
  • My wife and children were suffering from the want of food and clothing.
  • So I took ten gold pieces from the many that were in the bag.
  • But, as I came to your palace this morning, I kept saying to myself, 'When our lord Al Mansour learns just how it was that I borrowed the gold, I have no doubt that in his kindness of heart he will forgive me the debt.'
  • Great was the caliph's surprise when he heard the poor man's story.
  • He took the bag of money and handed it to the merchant.
  • "Take the bag and count the money that is in it," he said.
  • The merchant did as he was told.
  • "There is nothing lacking," he said, "but the ten pieces he has told you about; and I will give him these as a reward."
  • "No," said Al Mansour, "it is for me to reward the man as he deserves."
  • Saying this, he ordered that ten gold pieces be given to the merchant in place of those that were lacking.
  • Then he rewarded the gardener with ten more pieces for his honesty.
  • It was so close to the sea that those who lived in it could hear the waves forever beating against the shore.
  • The land around it was rugged, with only a few fields in the midst of a vast forest.
  • The land around it was rugged, with only a few fields in the midst of a vast forest.
  • There they might live in peace and safety while all the country round was overrun by rude and barbarous men.
  • One cold night in winter the serving men of the abbey were gathered in the great kitchen.
  • They were sitting around the fire and trying to keep themselves warm.
  • Out of doors the wind was blowing.
  • The men heard it as it whistled through the trees and rattled the doors of the abbey.
  • The men heard it as it whistled through the trees and rattled the doors of the abbey.
  • They drew up closer to the fire and felt thankful that they were safe from the raging storm.
  • "Who will sing us a song?" said the master woodman as he threw a fresh log upon the fire.
  • "Yes, a song! a song!" shouted some of the others.
  • "We can all be minstrels to-night," said the chief cook.
  • "Agreed! agreed!" cried the others.
  • And the cook shall begin.
  • The woodman stirred the fire until the flames leaped high and the sparks flew out of the roof hole.
  • The woodman stirred the fire until the flames leaped high and the sparks flew out of the roof hole.
  • Then the chief cook began his song.
  • After him the other men were called, one by one; and each in turn sang his favorite song.
  • The woodman sang of the wild forest; the plowman sang of the fields; the shepherd sang of his sheep; and those who listened forgot about the storm and the cold weather.
  • The woodman sang of the wild forest; the plowman sang of the fields; the shepherd sang of his sheep; and those who listened forgot about the storm and the cold weather.
  • But in the corner, almost hidden from his fellows, one poor man was sitting who did not enjoy the singing.
  • It was Caedmon, the cowherd.
  • At last, just as the blacksmith was in the midst of a stirring song, he rose quietly and went out into the darkness.
  • He went across the narrow yard to the sheds where the cattle were kept in stormy weather.
  • He soon found a warm corner, and there he lay down, covering himself with the straw.
  • Inside of the great kitchen, beside the fire, the men were shouting and laughing; for the blacksmith had finished his song, and it was very pleasing.
  • "Who is next?" asked the woodman.
  • "Caedmon, the keeper of the cows," answered the chief cook.
  • "The poor, timid fellow!" said the blacksmith.
  • "The poor, timid fellow!" said the blacksmith.
  • In his safe, warm place in the straw, Caedmon soon fell asleep.
  • All around him were the cows of the abbey, some chewing their cuds, and others like their master quietly sleeping.
  • The singing in the kitchen was ended, the fire had burned low, and each man had gone to his place.
  • The singing in the kitchen was ended, the fire had burned low, and each man had gone to his place.
  • Then he heard the voice again.
  • "Oh, I cannot sing," answered the poor man."
  • It was for this reason that I left my fellows in the abbey kitchen and came here to be alone.
  • "Sing of the creation," was the answer.
  • Then Caedmon, with only the cows as his hearers, opened his mouth and began to sing.
  • All through the night he sat among the abbey cows, and sang his wonderful song.
  • At length, others of the servants heard him, and were entranced by his wonderful song.
  • And one ran quickly and told the good abbess, or mistress of the abbey, what strange thing had happened.
  • So Caedmon was led into the great hall of the abbey.
  • And all of the sweet-faced sisters and other women of the place listened while he sang again the wonderful song of the creation.
  • "Surely," said the abbess, "this is a poem, most sweet, most true, most beautiful.
  • So she called her clerk, who was a scholar, and bade him write the song, word for word, as it came from Caedmon's lips.
  • Such was the way in which the first true English poem was written.
  • And Caedmon, the poor cowherd of the abbey, was the first great poet of England.
  • In the Far East there was once a prince whose name was Gautama.
  • It was the wish of his father and mother that every day of his life should be a day of perfect happiness.
  • He had never gone beyond the beautiful gardens that surrounded his father's palace.
  • But one day after he had become a man, he said: Tell me about the great world which, you say, lies outside of these palace walls.
  • "Yes, it is a beautiful place," was the answer.
  • In it there are numberless trees and flowers and rivers and waterfalls, and other things to make the heart glad.
  • The next morning, Gautama sat in his carriage and rode out from the palace into one of the streets of the city.
  • The next morning, Gautama sat in his carriage and rode out from the palace into one of the streets of the city.
  • Soon the carriage turned into another street--a street less carefully guarded.
  • Here there were no children at the doors.
  • But suddenly, at a narrow place, they met a very old man, hobbling slowly along over the stony way.
  • Is this the condition to which I must come?
  • "If you live long enough," was the answer.
  • The coachman made no answer, but drove onward.
  • They passed out into the open country and saw the cottages of the poor people.
  • By the door of one of these a sick man was lying upon a couch, helpless and pale.
  • "Why is that man lying there at this time of day?" asked the prince.
  • He is sick, answered the coachman.
  • "What does that mean?" asked the prince.
  • The coachman explained as well as he was able; and they rode onward.
  • Soon they saw a company of men toiling by the roadside.
  • Their faces were browned by the sun; their hands were hard and gnarly; their backs were bent by much heavy lifting; their clothing was in tatters.
  • "Who are those men, and why do their faces look so joyless?" asked the prince.
  • What are they doing by the roadside?
  • "They are poor men, and they are working to improve the king's highway," was the answer.
  • "Most of the people in the world are poor," said the coachman.
  • Their lives are spent in toiling for the rich.
  • "And is this the great, beautiful, happy world that I have been told about?" cried the prince.
  • Turn the carriage quickly, coachman, and drive home.
  • I will spend all my life, and give all that I have, to lessen the distress and sorrow with which this world seems filled.
  • This the prince did.
  • One night he left the beautiful palace which his father had given to him and went out into the world to do good and to help his fellow men.
  • And to this day, millions of people remember and honor the name of Gautama, as that of the great lover of men.
  • At one end of the room there was a big fireplace, where the mother did the cooking.
  • At the other end were the beds.
  • And in the middle was a rough table with benches around it instead of chairs.
  • Jacquot's business was to sell charcoal to the rich people in the city.
  • Sometimes he carried three or four bags to the palace where the little king of France lived with his mother.
  • The table was spread and supper was ready.
  • The children were hungry and could hardly wait for their father to come.
  • "There is to be a great feast at the queen's palace to-night," said the mother."
  • Perhaps your father is waiting to help in the kitchen.
  • The next minute they heard his voice at the door: Be quick, boys, and stir the fire.
  • The next minute they heard his voice at the door: Be quick, boys, and stir the fire.
  • They did so, and as the flames lighted up the room, they saw their father enter with a child in his arms.
  • "What's the matter?" cried the mother.
  • Then she saw that the child's face was very pale and that he neither opened his eyes nor moved.
  • That on the children's bed is best.
  • "What a beautiful child!" said the mother, as she hurried to do his bidding.
  • The two boys, Charlot and Blondel, with wondering eyes watched their father and mother undress the little stranger.
  • The two boys, Charlot and Blondel, with wondering eyes watched their father and mother undress the little stranger.
  • Soon the little stranger was clad in the warm clothes; the dry soft blanket was wrapped around him; and he was laid on the children's bed.
  • The color came back to his cheeks.
  • He opened his eyes and looked around at the small, plain room and at the poor people standing near him.
  • "_My little friend!_" said the child with a sneer.
  • He looked at the fire on the hearth.
  • "How did these clothes come on me?" cried the child.
  • "Stolen!" said the charcoal man, angrily.
  • The child was indeed very tired.
  • The charcoal man sat down by the fire.
  • The charcoal man sat down by the fire.
  • The two boys stood at his knees, and his wife sat at his side.
  • I had carried some charcoal to the queen's kitchen and was just starting home.
  • I took the shortest way through the little park behind the palace.
  • You know where the fountain is?
  • It is quite near the park gate.
  • Well, as I was hurrying along, I heard a great splash, as though something had fallen into the pool by the fountain.
  • I looked and saw this little fellow struggling in the water.
  • I thought of the big fire in the queen's kitchen, and knew that the cook would never allow a half-drowned child to be carried into that fine place.
  • "The poor, dear child!" said Mrs. Jacquot.
  • "He shall be our little brother," said Blondel; and both the boys clapped their hands very softly.
  • He sat up in the bed and looked around.
  • "There is no hurry about that," said the child.
  • So much the better, let them look.
  • They let you fall into the water, and you would have been drowned, if it hadn't been for me.
  • They sat down at the table.
  • The mother gave each a tin plate and a wooden spoon, and then helped them all to boiled beans.
  • The father cut slices from a loaf of brown bread.
  • The little stranger came and sat with them.
  • "Of course she will be glad to know that," said the boy; "but she has no time to bother about me to-night."
  • "Mine gives me fine clothes and plenty of money to spend," said the stranger.
  • Mine makes the servants wait on me and do as I tell them.
  • The charcoal man and his wife listened to this little dispute, and said nothing.
  • They were just rising from the table when they heard a great noise in the street.
  • Then there was a knock at the door.
  • Before Mrs. Jacquot could open it, some one called out, "Is this the house of Jacquot, the charcoal man?"
  • "That is my tutor," whispered the little stranger.
  • Then he slipped quickly under the table and hid himself.
  • In a few minutes the room was filled with gentlemen.
  • A tall man who wore a long red cloak seemed to be the leader of the company.
  • He said to a soldier who stood at the door, "Tell your story again."
  • "Well," said the soldier, "about two hours ago I was on guard at the gate of the queen's park.
  • "Here!" cried the child himself, darting out from his hiding place.
  • All your court has been looking for you for the past two hours.
  • But really, I fell into the pool at the fountain, and this kind man brought me here to get me dry.
  • "Indeed!" said the cardinal.
  • My name is Louis the Fourteenth.
  • Then he turned to the cardinal and said, Now, I am ready.
  • Not dressed in that way? said the cardinal.
  • He had just noticed that the king was wearing poor Charlot's Sunday suit instead of his own.
  • "Why not?" answered the little king.
  • "Think what your mother would say if she saw you in the clothes of a poor man's son." said the cardinal.
  • Think of what all the fine ladies would say.
  • As the little king went out, he turned at the door and called to Charlot.
  • "Come to the palace to-morrow," he said, "and you shall have your clothes.
  • Louis the Fourteenth became king of France when he was only five years old.
  • In history he is often called the Grand Monarch.
  • One day King Henry the Fourth of France was hunting in a large forest.
  • Towards evening he told his men to ride home by the main road while he went by another way that was somewhat longer.
  • As he came out of the forest he saw a little boy by the roadside, who seemed to be watching for some one.
  • "Well, my boy," said the king, "are you looking for your father?"
  • "No, sir," answered the boy.
  • I am looking for the king.
  • They say he is hunting in the woods, and perhaps will ride out this way.
  • The boy got up at once, and sat behind the king.
  • The boy got up at once, and sat behind the king.
  • The horse cantered briskly along, and king and boy were soon quite well acquainted.
  • "They say that King Henry always has a number of men with him," said the boy; "how shall I know which is he?"
  • "Oh, that will be easy enough," was the answer.
  • All the other men will take off their hats, but the king will keep his on.
  • Do you mean that the one with his hat on will be the king?
  • Soon they came into the main road where a number of the king's men were waiting.
  • All the men seemed amused when they saw the boy, and as they rode up, they greeted the king by taking off their hats.
  • "Well, my boy," said King Henry, "which do you think is the king?"
  • One morning, long ago, a merchant of Miletus [Footnote: Mile'tus.] was walking along the seashore.
  • The net seemed heavy.
  • The merchant felt sure that the fishermen were having a good haul.
  • The merchant felt sure that the fishermen were having a good haul.
  • "How much will you take for the fish that you are drawing in?" he asked.
  • "How much will you give?" said the fishermen.
  • "Well, I will give three pieces of silver for all that are in the net," answered the merchant.
  • The fishermen talked in low tones with one another for a little while, and then one said, It's a bargain.
  • In a few minutes the big net was pulled up out of the water.
  • The merchant was delighted.
  • Give me the tripod.
  • "No, indeed," said the fishermen.
  • You were to have all the fish that happened to be in the net and nothing else.
  • We didn't sell you the tripod.
  • Then one of the fishermen said, "Let us ask the governor about it and do as he shall bid us."
  • "Yes, let us ask the governor," said the merchant.
  • Let him decide the matter for us.
  • So they carried the tripod to the governor, and each told his story.
  • Leave the tripod in my care until we get an answer.
  • Now the oracle at Delphi was supposed to be very wise.
  • People from all parts of the world sent to it, to tell it their troubles and get its advice.
  • So the governor sent a messenger to Delphi to ask the oracle what should be done with the tripod.
  • The merchant and the fishermen waited impatiently till the answer came.
  • The merchant and the fishermen waited impatiently till the answer came.
  • And this is what the oracle said:--
  • Give not the merchant nor the fishermen the prize; But give it to that one who is wisest of the wise.
  • The governor was much pleased with this answer.
  • "The prize shall go to the man who deserves it most," he said.
  • "The prize shall go to the man who deserves it most," he said.
  • He is famous all over the world.
  • We will give the prize to him.
  • So, with his own hands he carried the golden tripod to the little house where Thales lived.
  • He knocked at the door and the wise man himself opened it.
  • And so I have brought the prize to you, friend Thales.
  • "To me!" said the astonished Thales.
  • Send the beautiful gift to him.
  • So the governor called two of his trusted officers and told them to carry the tripod to Priene and offer it to Bias.
  • Tell the wise man why you bring it, and repeat to him the words of the oracle.
  • He taught, also, that a friend is the greatest blessing that any one can have.
  • They told him about their errand and showed him the beautiful prize.
  • "The oracle did not intend that I should have it," he said.
  • I am not the wisest of the wise.
  • "But what shall we do with it?" said the messengers.
  • Where shall we find the wisest man?
  • He is the man whom the oracle meant.
  • The name of Pittacus was known all over the world.
  • The name of Pittacus was known all over the world.
  • The people of his country had made him their king; but as soon as he had made good laws for them he gave up his crown.
  • The messengers found him in his house talking to his friends and teaching them wisdom.
  • He looked at the tripod.
  • Give not the merchant nor the fishermen the prize; But give it to that one who is wisest of the wise.
  • "We agree with you," said the messengers; "and we present the prize to you because you are the wisest of the wise."
  • "Then to whom shall we take it?" asked the messengers.
  • He is the handsomest and strongest of men, and I believe he is the wisest also.
  • The messengers went on until they came at last to the island of Rhodes.
  • The messengers went on until they came at last to the island of Rhodes.
  • "Educate the children," he said; and for that reason his name is remembered to this day.
  • What is the price?
  • They told him that it was not for sale, but that it was to be given to the wisest of the wise.
  • He lives in Corinth, [Footnote: Cor'inth.] and his name is Periander. [Footnote: Per i an'der.] Carry the precious gift to him.
  • "We hope that you are the man," said the messengers.
  • Do I look like the wisest of the wise?
  • To my mind he deserves the golden prize.
  • The messengers were surprised.
  • Chilon was so busy that the messengers had to wait several days before they could see him.
  • The oracle at Delphi has ordered that it shall be given to the wisest of wise men, and for that reason we have brought it to you.
  • The oracle at Delphi has ordered that it shall be given to the wisest of wise men, and for that reason we have brought it to you.
  • He is my worst enemy, and yet, I admire him as the wisest man in the world.
  • It is to him that you should have taken the tripod.
  • The messengers made due haste to carry the golden prize to Athens.
  • The messengers made due haste to carry the golden prize to Athens.
  • He was the chief ruler of that great city.
  • All the people whom they saw spoke in praise of his wisdom.
  • "Who are they?" asked the messengers.
  • "We have offered the prize to each one of them," said the messengers, "and each one has refused it."
  • Carry it to Delphi and leave it there in the Temple of Apollo; for Apollo is the fountain of wisdom, the wisest of the wise.
  • And this the messengers did.
  • The famous men of whom I have told you in this story are commonly called the Seven Wise Men of Greece.
  • The famous men of whom I have told you in this story are commonly called the Seven Wise Men of Greece.
  • It is a simple premise and yet, at the same time, an article of faith—a faith that the future would be better than the past.
  • The Garage Tinkerer who Invents The Next Big Thing.
  • By the midpoint of the twentieth century, America's dreamers were preoccupied with the future—and not just any old future, but the great and glorious future that seemed inevitable.
  • Everywhere you turned, people were speculating about, or building models of, the "House of Tomorrow," the "Car of Tomorrow," or the "Workplace of Tomorrow."
  • The speech he gave in September 1962, announcing that goal, spent a good amount of time justifying the expense and explaining the urgency.
  • The speech he gave in September 1962, announcing that goal, spent a good amount of time justifying the expense and explaining the urgency.
  • Think of the optimism!
  • People were still alive who knew the Wright brothers.
  • And this man was saying we were going to the moon in a rocket ship made of metals we hadn't even invented.
  • People overwhelmingly believed the future would be better, and they were right!
  • The present is better than the past.
  • The present is better than the past.
  • Whether you are rich or poor, live in the developed world or the developing world, life today is better and easier than it was a century ago by virtually any measure.
  • Through some perfect storm of wars, downturns, and disasters, the once-sunny outlook turned dark.
  • Analysts declared each successive generation might be "the first to have a lower standard of living than their parents."
  • Scarcity was the new watchword as the focus turned to all the problems of the future, not all the possibilities.
  • If you have an unwavering commitment to an idea that all things will be good all the time, then that is irrational.
  • And as I look to the past and the present, I see two phenomena that especially drive my optimism.
  • I see how human ingenuity and new technologies have eliminated previously insoluble problems once we stand back and let free markets do what they do best: direct the allocation of capital to find a solution.
  • When whale oil got scarce and went up in price, the market made cheap kerosene for lighting.
  • When the light bulb was cheaper and better, we ditched kerosene.
  • I also see the pace of problem solving—and change in general—accelerating at an astonishing rate.
  • From that vantage point, if you had tried to look fifty years ahead to what the world would be like in the year 2500 BC, you would have expected very little change.
  • The years passed and almost nothing changed.
  • There is no hieroglyph for the word "progress" because the very idea of progress didn't exist.
  • The great cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, which was begun before your birth, would not be finished by your death.
  • And while it may not be perfect, life will be profoundly better for everyone on the planet.
  • They exist simply because we have not had the means to solve them in the past.
  • To be perfectly clear, I am not saying the Internet and technology will solve every human ill.
  • In the end, our fundamental challenge is to become better individuals, and technology offers little help on that front; it is up to each one of us to solve that for ourselves.
  • But the five phenomena I chose to tackle in this book are among the great blights on humanity that I believe the Internet and technology will help solve.
  • I love thinking about the future.
  • Could you have foreseen that the advent of a technology called "air conditioning" in homes would alter the social fabric of the nation?
  • And because of this, we would therefore lose the inevitable relationships that naturally formed?
  • That this democratization of information and opinion would lead to vigorous debate and encourage a young monk to question the church?
  • And that that same technology would allow his questions to be spread across Europe, thereby igniting the Protestant Reformation?
  • Well, the Internet is bigger than air conditioning.
  • First, in the magnitude of what it claims, and second, in the degree to which it differs from what pessimists predict.
  • I make the predictions in this book not to be sensational or controversial.
  • The first error is to assert that history unfolds in a basically linear fashion, that there is a fundamental continuity between the past, present, and future.
  • The first error is to assert that history unfolds in a basically linear fashion, that there is a fundamental continuity between the past, present, and future.
  • He didn't know the car was coming.
  • They didn't foresee the baby boom brought about by a new post-war prosperity.
  • A wild-eyed, crazed techno-optimist of the nineteenth century concluded that in fifty years there would be a telephone in every town in America.
  • The second methodology error that futurists often commit is the exact opposite of the first.
  • The second methodology error that futurists often commit is the exact opposite of the first.
  • This approach is even more flawed than the first.
  • Bad science fiction plots, speculating on futures which could not really happen, are the worst examples of this.
  • A third way to predict the future that I believe is reliable rejects both the slavish following of the straight line and the purely speculative approach.
  • History is full of radical breaks with the past that only seem to have come out of nowhere but were, in fact, predictable.
  • I don't use history to predict the future, like some talisman that lets me pick winning lottery numbers (don't I wish).
  • I don't dispute the cliché, "Those who do not know history are doomed to repeat it."
  • This is because history repeats itself—at least, as the great historian Will Durant says, "in outline form."
  • It repeats itself because it is the record of the choices of people.
  • And because human nature changes either not at all or very slowly, people make the same choices over and over again.
  • When we look at this record of the choices of people, we see a wide range of behaviors.
  • At the very least, history can clearly show the range of outcomes that are likely.
  • This will be extremely useful, because the game, as they say, has just changed completely.
  • Do you see the difference?
  • Why is the Internet so sterilely defined?
  • I submit that the Internet is not defined in that way because it is a technology without an implicit purpose.
  • The Internet is whatever we make it to be.
  • When contemplating the future, our only point of reference is present reality.
  • Whether things in the future stay the same as they are today or change from what they are today, both are understood in terms of the current reality.
  • The first cars were called "horseless carriages."
  • The list is long.
  • Sometimes the new technology so overwhelms the old that when looking back, we explain the old technology in terms of the new.
  • All corn used to be "corn on the cob" until canned corn came along.
  • Because television was radio with pictures, the first television shows were simply men in suits standing in front of microphones reading the news.
  • It took a decade or two for the new medium to be seen in light of itself, not just in terms of what it displaced.
  • The 1920s to 1950s renderings of what people thought the future would look like are full of things like personal jetpacks and flying cars.
  • The 1920s to 1950s renderings of what people thought the future would look like are full of things like personal jetpacks and flying cars.
  • And I think that helps explain why no one quite foresaw the rise of the Internet: because it doesn't have an offline corollary of its own.
  • The future of cars?
  • This tendency to only be able to see new technology as an extension of the old is exactly the phenomena we have seen with the Internet.
  • So when we say, "The Internet is an electronic library," this is true.
  • And when we say, "The Internet is an electronic store," this is true.
  • But it is the biggest, best store ever, where you can buy anything from anywhere, based on reviews by other buyers, at a discount, and have it gift wrapped, engraved, altered, drop-shipped, and probably delivered by tomorrow.
  • What's more, the Internet can be a fact checker, post office, Rolodex, Yellow Pages, White Pages, game board, garage sale, university, movie theater, jukebox, matchmaking service, travel agent, photo album, bank, support group ...
  • My point is: While the Internet does all those things, it is not accurate to say the Internet is only any one of them.
  • The essence of my car is that it takes me places I want to go.
  • The Internet does not, like the car, have a single essence.
  • The Internet does not, like the car, have a single essence.
  • We are at the point, finally, where we are seeing uses of the Internet that have no offline corollary.
  • Nothing exists that even remotely looks like Twitter before the Internet.
  • The mark of these technologies is that they are greeted with universal skepticism at first.
  • That is because they seem so far out of the daily experience of most people that they cannot conceive of how or why they would use them.
  • These, to me, are the most exciting companies to look at.
  • When you hear about a new company and your response is, "Why in the world would anyone want to do that?" it will be because there is no offline corollary.
  • And that leads us to a critical question: Who decides what we will make the Internet do?
  • Who decides what the Internet will become?
  • All of us, through the choices we make.
  • The Internet has no central planning agency deciding what new, cool websites should be made.
  • When it comes to starting a new business, nothing that previously existed can rival the Internet in terms of both ease of entry and breadth of potential.
  • That is the basic unit—me.
  • What if the basic unit was a couple, a relationship, and what if that relationship had an identity?
  • We post pictures, the progress of our relationship, and people can follow our "us" page.
  • She gets web hosting set up for the princely sum of $30 a month.
  • A friend of hers who is a florist asks if she can advertise on the site.
  • Linda gets the idea to call Facebook and see if she can advertise to people who change their status to "In a relationship."
  • Another friend tells her either member of the couple should be able to instantly remove the couple page when the relationship goes sour.
  • The answers to those questions are what define the Internet.
  • The answers to those questions are what define the Internet.
  • In the past, success relied heavily on whether an entrepreneur could move an offline experience online better than someone else.
  • Today, success still requires good execution, but the larger question is: "Can you discover and fulfill a hitherto-unknown, latent desire in people that the Internet enables?"
  • The choices we make to test options never before contemplated will tell us all kinds of new things about ourselves.
  • It is expected to continue into the foreseeable future.
  • So the physical mechanisms have been serially transformed, yet the law has never hiccupped.
  • The abstraction keeps moving forward, and the technology races to keep up.
  • The abstraction keeps moving forward, and the technology races to keep up.
  • What is the significance of this?
  • Think about it this way: All the technology accumulated from the dawn of time to today has given us a certain amount of processing power.
  • I spend less time waiting for Excel to do a recalculation of my formulas today than I did on my 386 in the 1990s, even though my spreadsheets are thousands of times more complex.
  • But a single example will suffice to illustrate the whole.
  • Filmmakers such as James Cameron and George Lucas used to talk about putting off film projects to wait for the computer technology to catch up to their visions.
  • Eventually we reach the point where the technology does everything we need it to do.
  • But at a certain point, you don't need any more, and the technology is mature.
  • Early cars tried to be faster and faster, to break the 60 mph barrier.
  • Sure, but we don't need that from the technology.
  • At this point, if you follow my reasoning, we have established at least the possibility of a bright future.
  • Though it isn't so much a time as a state of mind, historians plot the Renaissance as moving around Europe for a couple of centuries.
  • When the conquest of the city seemed inevitable, a great "brain drain" of scholars, artists, teachers, theologians, and the wealthy emigrated to Western Europe, especially to Italy.
  • The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
  • The arrival of these texts—as well as Byzantium's own architecture, science, and art—triggered a sensory and intellectual explosion, which became the cultural movement we now call the Renaissance.
  • Its reawakening of the arts derived chiefly from seeking to recapture something thought lost from a past Golden Age.
  • Only after the public grew weary of this did printers go off in search of completely new books, called novels to mark their newness.
  • Unquestionably, an extraordinary amount of talent was present during the Renaissance.
  • It was, however—and this is sure to earn me the wrath of many humanities professors—a time of surprisingly little originality.
  • But the Internet Renaissance dwarfs by a hundredfold, a thousandfold, the Renaissance of Europe.
  • In the Italian Renaissance, only a thin veneer of society's elites participated in the creation or ownership of the frescos, music, statues, and paintings; most were only passive observers.
  • On the Internet are far fewer passive observers.
  • In these early days of the Internet Renaissance, the number of great masters is in the tens of thousands, not the hundreds.
  • The amount of writing we are talking about is staggering.
  • In 2007, Google researchers estimated there were one hundred trillion words on the Internet.
  • The Internet has made distributing music easy and has unleashed an astonishing amount of new material.
  • We all desire to leave our stamp on the world.
  • This begs the question, "Is any of it any good, really?"
  • Better than anything the world has ever seen.
  • In his day, Shakespeare was low-brow entertainment for the common class.
  • It was not at all clear at the time that his work would transcend the ages.
  • In fact, it's likelier that kids of that day were forbidden by proper parents from hanging out at the Globe Theater.
  • But the truth is that almost all furniture back in the day was cheaply made junk and only a very few high-quality pieces survived.
  • Those are the ones we call antiques today.
  • The rest was reduced to firewood long ago.
  • Who could argue there was ever a better time to start a business any time in the world?
  • The opportunity so large?
  • The choices so wide?
  • Do I need to prove we have an explosion of technological progress dwarfing the wildest dreams of any age?
  • But the inventors of our age have put a billion transistors on an area the size of a postage stamp.
  • In the Italian Renaissance, people of wealth distinguished themselves by their altruistic endeavors.
  • On top of the common-good projects supported with our tax dollars, almost all of us—certainly not just the wealthy—have causes we support.
  • The Internet has allowed for the creation of thousands of new ways to give, both time and money.
  • The Internet has allowed for the creation of thousands of new ways to give, both time and money.
  • This is not to the sixteenth-century Europeans' discredit or even to our credit.
  • People have always had the drive and the ability to build, create, discover, and explore.
  • We have a natural desire to make beautiful things and a bone-deep need to understand the world we live in and our place in it.
  • These few were given the tools to achieve their maximum potential, to live that dream.
  • Now a billion or more can achieve that dream, and I foresee a time not far off when everyone on the planet can.
  • Today, there are modern-day Da Vincis living in parts of the world where just surviving is a full-time occupation, powerless to develop the gifts they could offer the wider world.
  • The Renaissance artists and thinkers had very few tools: pen and paper, paint and canvas, marble and chisel, and a few more.
  • Today we have the Internet and all its associated technologies, vastly more versatile, almost infinite in possibility.
  • Imagine a world where everyone on the planet has access to this expanded canvas of human expression that technology has created.
  • On the morning of June 28, 1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife Sophie, Duchess of Hohenberg, were shot dead in Sarajevo by nineteen-year-old assassin Gavrilo Princip.
  • Once again, war raged in Europe and around the world and left sixty million people dead.
  • World War II ushered in the age of nuclear weapons.
  • Its end led directly to the Cold War, which consumed inconceivable amounts of money and almost pushed the world to the brink of nuclear devastation.
  • When Loyka realized his mistake and slammed on the brakes, the archduke and his wife were sitting ducks.
  • Princip seized the opportunity and fired into the open car at a range of five feet, killing them both.
  • Maybe it was inevitable at that point that some spark would set off the powder keg of Europe.
  • Maybe a bad piece of information did lead to the deaths of millions.
  • It would not be the first time, or the last, that ignorance in the world exacted a high price.
  • If my reasoning stopped there, you would probably start fishing around for the receipt for this book and read up on your bookseller's return policy.
  • The Internet is not unique in solving for this access to information.
  • To understand this problem, consider our relationship with knowledge over the centuries.
  • It was like the Olympic torch in antiquity: All it took was one guy carrying the torch to slip in the mud and the entire chain was broken.
  • In fact, the book could survive for centuries, as could new perfect copies of the book, and thus the ideas could be distributed.
  • Via books, ideas became mobile—or as we would say today, went viral—spreading to other villages and other countries and to multiple places around the world simultaneously.
  • This led to the creation of large libraries all around the world—and this was a problem.
  • The most famous of these was the Oracle at Delphi.
  • The most famous of these was the Oracle at Delphi.
  • King Croesus was very intrigued by all these oracles around the world.
  • So he commissioned seven emissaries to go out to seven certain oracles around the world and on a predetermined day, let's say July 12, at a predetermined time, say 3:00 p.m.
  • The emissaries, who themselves did not know the correct answer, were to bring the replies of the oracles back to the king.
  • The emissaries, who themselves did not know the correct answer, were to bring the replies of the oracles back to the king.
  • The Oracle at Delphi actually got it right.
  • And Croesus was so amazed that he endowed the Oracle at Delphi with all kinds of gifts and planned to run all-important questions by this oracle.
  • Scholars today are pretty sure that in the case of Delphi, the oracle was inadvertently breathing gases that rose from the cave in which she sat.
  • This accounted for the odd answers.
  • In any event, King Croesus had it in his mind to wage war against the Persians, so he asked the oracle: "Should I attack the Persians?"
  • I tell this story to make a comparison between modern times and the past.
  • In the ancient world, man wanted guidance from the gods on what he should do.
  • Think of how the computer in the Star Trek universe was a purely factual machine.
  • They try to connect the person who wants to know something to the thing that person wants to know.
  • Search engines have done a fabulous job tackling this problem, even given the vast, vast, amounts of information added to the Internet every day.
  • The reason for this is what I call "The You Don't Know What to Ask Problem."
  • I would need the robot to be able to proactively offer suggestions.
  • "If only I had known," we often lament, in the widespread belief that to know everything would mean we would never make mistakes.
  • You can know everything in the world and still make bad decisions.
  • And I think that is what the Internet will deliver.
  • It will make us all profoundly wise, wiser than the wisest person who has ever lived.
  • So let's raise the bar to this lofty level.
  • By "the end of ignorance," I mean a world where everyone everywhere will be able to go through life making wise decisions based on near-perfect information.
  • Or at least they will know the wise choice to make; whether they will choose it is another matter.
  • This would be very useful: No more struggling to remember what you promised the client you would deliver by Friday; you just look up the transcript.
  • Not just that you went to a certain address but that the address was a movie theater and—based on where you sat and that you ordered tickets online—you saw Episode VII of Star Wars.
  • When you last went to the dentist.
  • Isn't this the direction technology inevitably is heading?
  • The statement is not there because you want the log per se but because the logging of the actions is what documents how much you need to pay.
  • The statement is not there because you want the log per se but because the logging of the actions is what documents how much you need to pay.
  • A contest awhile back called for people to speculate what would be the best device to hook up to the Internet.
  • I can't really remember what won, though at the time, I thought it all very forward looking and exciting.
  • Now my expectations have changed so much that I'm annoyed everything isn't already connected to the Internet.
  • Remember the notion that the Internet wouldn't turn out to be only for one purpose—that while my car is clearly for taking me places, the Internet won't be for doing one single task, but many?
  • That said, if I had to pick one function I think the Internet will turn out to "be," it is this: The Internet will become a repository and a set of applications for storing the sum total of all life experiences of all people on earth.
  • That said, if I had to pick one function I think the Internet will turn out to "be," it is this: The Internet will become a repository and a set of applications for storing the sum total of all life experiences of all people on earth.
  • It will be the collective memory and experience of the planet.
  • Before we take that further, let's consider something the Internet has taught us about ourselves.
  • Well, that tells us something new about ourselves—in fact, a lot of things: the kinds of information we want to share, the kinds of information we want to consume, and the immediacy with which we want it all to occur.
  • We are building the Internet to connect with each other better, to share information, to collaborate, to offer mutual support, and so on.
  • I know the list of nefarious uses of the Internet—but on balance, we are building it for good purposes.
  • You see it all over the Internet.
  • The Internet is full of sites that offer good to humanity and yield no profit for the people working on them.
  • The Internet is full of sites that offer good to humanity and yield no profit for the people working on them.
  • The Open Directory Project—where fifty thousand editors try to organize the web into a directory of sites for no reward at all—comes instantly to mind.
  • The Open Directory Project—where fifty thousand editors try to organize the web into a directory of sites for no reward at all—comes instantly to mind.
  • But as I watch how we are building and using the Internet, the one-on-one encounters impress me most.
  • The open source movement and Creative Commons licensing are examples of people willing to share their intellectual labor to help others.
  • Certainly, you don't want the whole world to know where you were last night.
  • I think to the extent the data is not identifiable to a person and is only used to make suggestions to others, people will participate.
  • People will only contribute to the extent that their most personal information is protected.
  • They will contribute to the greater good.
  • They will become part of the solution.
  • And they will see how this information will be used to better the lives of other people in very real ways.
  • Knowledge often consists of the rolled-up conclusions from many pieces of data.
  • Finally, when I use the word "wisdom," I am talking about applying a value system to knowledge to suggest a course of action.
  • Even today, the scientific method involves experimentation that almost always necessitates some amount of data collection.
  • Does human activity cause the planet to warm?
  • We will be completely insulated from the collecting and researching of data so that we can focus entirely on turning data into knowledge.
  • This technological shift will have profound effects on the course of human history.
  • Science's progress over the past few hundred years has been determined mainly by the relatively slow speed at which we were able to collect data.
  • Instead of science proceeding at the slow speed of time, the only limit on its progress will be processor speed—and those two speeds hardly can be compared.
  • You could ask it, "What is the number of presidents of the United States born on Friday who have older sisters, multiplied by the number of wars lost by Bolivia?" and it could instantly give you an answer.
  • I say "could" because I doubt they have all those databases loaded yet, but you get the idea.
  • Up until now, we have thought of the Internet as a place to store information, and we have depended upon search engines to help us find it.
  • The machine should start looking for correlations we would not expect.
  • Why are dropout rates in some schools lower than demographically matched schools anywhere else in the world?
  • In the past, a scientist began with a surmise or hunch and began gathering data to prove or disprove it.
  • What if the capability to see connections and even to have them detected was all there for us?
  • The ability of science and technology to improve human life is known to us.
  • And yet, by the coarse measures we use, in a sense we have the same level of prosperity because we both have cars.
  • I have the Internet.
  • To make my case that machines will bring about the end of ignorance, I begin with a company I admire: Amazon.com, the world's largest online retailer.
  • On the same page, Amazon says "Frequently Bought Together" and then lists a few other products.
  • They show complementary products to the one you are considering.
  • Most people buy Apple TV, but a few buy the Roku XDS Streaming Player.
  • Both of these sections offer tremendous value to the shopper.
  • These features weren't on the site when it was first launched because the necessary data did not yet exist.
  • The salesperson offers, "I find that my customers who buy this suit almost always get wingtips."
  • After a few minutes more, you decide this really isn't the suit for you.
  • So the salesperson says, "If you like that suit, then come over here and try this one from Ralph Lauren."
  • In general, when you have such a salesperson, the information is useful.
  • The twenty-five years of experience really does make a difference.
  • That said, the suggestions of the twenty-five-year sales veteran wouldn't stand a chance against Amazon.
  • Of the twenty thousand sales he has made in his career, he probably remembers a few hundred distinctly and a few thousand vaguely.
  • It took him most of his life to do this, and the value was engraved on his tombstone.
  • Two hundred years later, William Rutherford thought he had calculated it to 208 digits but only got the first 152 correct, so we will give him credit that far.
  • A century later, machines entered the scene.
  • When I watch a Terminator movie, I am rooting for the people, not the machines.
  • So now that the task of remembering past purchases and using that information to suggest future purchases is completely transitioned to machines, it operates on a whole different scale.
  • CPU cycles have replaced the passing of time.
  • Four things will then happen that will make the suggestion engine get vastly better over time:
  • The database of associations will grow forever.
  • Every sale from the point the robot was turned on to when the sun finally burns out will be perfectly remembered.
  • For instance, they will learn subtleties such as suggesting beach gear if a person buys a cooler in July and tailgating gear if the same purchase is made in October.
  • The machine will figure this out as it collects more data and incorporates more variables, and then experiments on people to see which combinations of factors work the best.
  • The machine will figure this out as it collects more data and incorporates more variables, and then experiments on people to see which combinations of factors work the best.
  • As time passes, the suggestions will become astonishingly on-target—and no human will have programmed that.
  • Once we get the problem off our "to-do list" and stick it onto the computer's, we largely will be done.
  • We will just sit back and let the machines sort it all out.
  • Once that is achieved, the sort of event that will happen is: You will be online to order, say, a replacement water filter, and the suggestion engine will propose that along with the filter, you might like to buy ... a pogo stick.
  • They might balk at getting on an airline flight flown by a computer and prefer having a pilot on board to take over if he "feels in his gut" that something is wrong (even if that feeling is the airport burrito he had for lunch).
  • If it required those things, the computer couldn't do it.
  • And that is why, if we are to use the Internet and technology to end ignorance, we still need people like Jim Haynes.
  • The same people seldom show up twice.
  • Once Jim extends the invitation, he memorizes all the individuals' names, where they are from, what they do for a living, information about their families, and so forth.
  • So when I knocked on the door of Jim's atelier and said, "Hey, I'm Byron Reese," he said, "Oh, Byron, come over here, I want you to meet this guy.
  • To him that is what seeing the world is about.
  • He once said he does all this because he wants to introduce everyone in the world to everyone else.
  • Then imagine if you shared your Digital Echo with a billion other people on the planet.
  • Imagine what you could do with the combined learning of a quadrillion life experiences.
  • It would be the seminal accomplishment of humanity.
  • Back in the old days (the 1980s), you only had data—say, the Yellow Pages with its list of restaurants.
  • Then along came the web, and you had data plus knowledge.
  • You could see which restaurants were rated the highest on Yelp, which ones certain reviewers liked, and so on.
  • But you still were working with the biased, anecdotal opinions of a few people not very like you.
  • In the future, something very much like the Amazon suggestion engine, but for all of life, will change that.
  • The system will also look for anything they've written publicly about this place (Yelp, Facebook, personal blog) and which superlatives they used to describe it.
  • And not just where do they go, but where is it that people drive the farthest to get to?
  • The system has data from all their GPS records and infers that to drive across town several times for a place is a stronger vote than eating at the corner restaurant.
  • The system has data from all their GPS records and infers that to drive across town several times for a place is a stronger vote than eating at the corner restaurant.
  • And so we are interested in the Italian restaurants people drive across town repeatedly to frequent.
  • This system will look at all the restaurants across the country (even around the world) where you have dined frequently.
  • It will look at all other people who like the same restaurants and see where they repeatedly go for Italian food in San Francisco.
  • The system will weigh heavily the choices of people with Italian last names, and people who own restaurants—all these different factors, millions and millions of factors, all from the passively recorded life experiences of a billion people.
  • The system will weigh heavily the choices of people with Italian last names, and people who own restaurants—all these different factors, millions and millions of factors, all from the passively recorded life experiences of a billion people.
  • This system will look at all the Italian restaurants around the country that you already like and look at all the ingredients they order online and look for restaurants in San Francisco using the same set of ingredients.
  • It will look at the size of your favorite restaurants, the prices of all the dishes.
  • It will build a table of all the words used by people like you who have reviewed those restaurants and will look for San Francisco restaurants described with the same words.
  • The traffic to get there is not bad.
  • The reservation system says they have availability.
  • What's more, the algorithms used to make that recommendation are self-learning and will improve their suggestions over time.
  • A day later, the system will ask, "Hey, what did you think of Tommaso's?"
  • If it gets enough "meh" responses, the system knows it has to re-juggle all the stats and do it differently.
  • Or perhaps the system won't ask you.
  • Of course, the system only shapes decisions insofar as you take its guidance, which begs the question: Will people follow suggestions they may not fully understand?
  • None of us has the time to do that—but in the future, with my system, wisdom will operate at processor speeds.
  • You may be thinking that choosing the right place to eat Italian food doesn't constitute wisdom in a King Solomon kind of way.
  • But I contend that only matters of degree separate it from the weightier matters we conventionally associate with wisdom.
  • What books are the professors reading?
  • What have the professors at that college ordered online that you have ordered as well?
  • It will look at where they went to college and what the outcome was.
  • That brings us back to the need to share data—and to our online example with Amazon, and our offline example with our salesperson.
  • When the salesperson rings up your purchase, no one tells him he had better forget what shoes he sold you with that suit and not to use that information to advise any future clients.
  • Every time you buy a book from Amazon, its employees use your data—information about what you did on their site in the privacy of your own home—to try to sell other people more products.
  • This gives me confidence that, in the wisdom-seeking systems of the future, people will be willing to share data to make the algorithms better.
  • Don't get me wrong: Privacy issues in the future will be thorny to work through.
  • These will be waters to navigate carefully, in order to make sure that the right to privacy, a cornerstone of a free society, is not destroyed.
  • But that has nothing to do with the anonymous sharing of data.
  • The future system I foresee will not be different in substance, but only in degree.
  • What will change is the amount of data that will be recorded, the speed of the processors, and the cost of storage and computation.
  • In some twentieth-century science fiction visions of the future, humans created friendly robot sidekicks with data storage capacity and computational speed the human brain lacked.
  • The idea was that it would be great to make machines that behaved like us and, through that, we could harness their abilities.
  • As we move toward that future, it is a great tragedy that the experiences of all the people of the past are lost to us.
  • We never will have the opportunity to learn from the details of their lives and the trillions upon trillions of trial-and-error learning that humankind has repeated again and again.
  • All the things they tried and failed, or achieved, we have to redo.
  • In the world of the future, the collective experience of everyone on the planet is recorded.
  • All the decisions and outcomes.
  • The amount of data stored is so vast that even if we put a number on it, it would be beyond our comprehension.
  • Obviously, knowing the wise course is one thing, and following it is another.
  • But these are the exceptions.
  • In almost all aspects of life, the application of this process will bring improvements.
  • They will feel like we stumbled sloppily into the future.
  • When we consider the costs of all the wrong decisions ever made—a calculation I don't even know how to approach—we will think of it as a diminishing problem receding into the past.
  • In the future, every single person will have at his or her disposal the sum total of the life experience of everyone alive.
  • In the past, knowing the wise thing to do was a power confined to a few.
  • In the future, we will all have it.
  • But in a world where great wisdom is available to everyone, the end of ignorance will be within our grasp.
  • The quest to end ignorance and the quest to end disease have two important similarities.
  • The quest to end ignorance and the quest to end disease have two important similarities.
  • And as with ignorance, we may already have much of the data we need to find solutions.
  • But at times in history, left-handedness was thought to be a malady in need of curing (and in some parts of the world still is).
  • He computed the answer in his head and recited the thirty-nine-digit answer in pounds.
  • Perhaps we all have such remarkable abilities but are impaired in a way—maybe the rest of us have a disease to which these savants are immune.
  • Now, back to the well-defined center.
  • After the infectious diseases come the non-infectious ones such as cancer, Alzheimer's, and heart disease.
  • Next would come all the various syndromes, which are sets of clinically recognizable symptoms that occur together without a known cause.
  • After these syndromes, we come to the entire spectrum of mental illnesses, from depression to paranoia.
  • Now we are certainly on the fuzzy edges, a place where words, often fuzzy in their meanings, begin to fail us.
  • Regarding disorders and disabilities: We should be able to repair, heal, or replace any part of the body not functioning at the level the person with the disability reasonably wishes it to.
  • But I stress the word "reasonably."
  • Likewise for mental illnesses: We should be able to cure them to the extent the person in question would wish them to be.
  • Does this have to be the case?
  • I do not know and certainly don't want to try to prove to you that the future will be like that.
  • So how about this instead: What if I can show you a future where everyone on the planet will live in good health as long as it is possible for their body to live?
  • Let us put the bar there.
  • By the end of disease, we accomplish all that the preceding paragraphs describe—the full spectrum of human ailments, vanquished from the globe.
  • A future without disease as we understand the term's meaning today.
  • Of all the celebrated accomplishments of science, I think none is more significant than the end of certain diseases, especially the scourge of polio.
  • It was recognized as the flu, although records describe conditions which were highly likely to have been polio.
  • In 1908, the poliovirus was identified as the cause.
  • In 1916, the number of cases just in New York City was reported to be nine thousand.
  • Infected children were removed to hospitals and the rest of the family was quarantined until they became noninfectious.
  • Parents were unable to leave their home to bury their child if the child died in the hospital.
  • During his campaign and his time in office, the extent of the effect of his polio was kept from the public, but the fact he had the disease was commonly known.
  • Interestingly, political cartoons of the era, both for and against FDR, showed him unaffected by the disease.
  • And near the end of 1937, Roosevelt created the National Foundation for Infant Paralysis to join in the fight.
  • His call for a "march of dimes" was a play on "The March of Time," a well-known newsreel series.
  • The name and idea caught on, and by mid-January the biggest names of the day were promoting it on their shows: Jack Benny, Bing Crosby, and Rudy Vallee, to name but a few.
  • The name and idea caught on, and by mid-January the biggest names of the day were promoting it on their shows: Jack Benny, Bing Crosby, and Rudy Vallee, to name but a few.
  • By the end of the four-month campaign, the White House would receive two million dimes.
  • A few years later, with the United States again at war, most of its top medical minds were engaged in the war effort.
  • On the research team of the eminent virologist Dr. Thomas Francis, who was working on a flu vaccine, was a young physician named Jonas Salk.
  • After the war, in 1947, Jonas Salk was offered his own laboratory at the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine.
  • With a grant from the National Foundation for Infant Paralysis, he went to work on a polio vaccine.
  • The disease struck people in childhood or in the prime of life.
  • The disease struck people in childhood or in the prime of life.
  • Parents kept their children at home, especially in the summer, and certainly away from public swimming areas.
  • One Gallup poll at the time said more people knew about the trial than knew the full name of the president.
  • Could you patent the sun?
  • The dimes had worked.
  • Hundreds of thousands of cases were still, of course, in the rest of the world even three decades after Salk's breakthrough.
  • At present, there are about one hundred new cases reported per month around the world, infecting about the same number of people as die from lightning strikes.
  • The virus cannot live in immunized individuals, nor in nature.
  • So if its person-to-person transmission can be interrupted, it truly can be eradicated from the planet.
  • This goal is within our grasp—and with the vaccine presently priced at about thirty cents a child, shame on us for not ending polio once and for all.
  • In the century leading up to its extermination, smallpox killed about 500,000,000 people.
  • One hundred thousand fans fill the stadium.
  • That is the dreadful history of the final, and deadliest, century of smallpox.
  • Now the disease is eradicated.
  • Aside from two laboratory samples, one in the United States and one in Russia, it does not exist on the planet.
  • In the last thirty years there has not been a single smallpox death or even a single infection.
  • In the eradication of smallpox, as in the near-elimination of polio, I find both fascinating lessons of history and enormous reason for hope.
  • It was mentioned by the Hindus more than three thousand years ago (and some suggest they even inoculated against it).
  • It was described in China about the same time.
  • Around 430 BC, Athens, embroiled in the Second Peloponnesian War, endured three years of epidemics that wiped out a third of its inhabitants.
  • In the 800s, smallpox wiped out a third of Japan.
  • We read about it in vivid detail, from around the year 900, in the writings of the Persian physician Muhammad ibn Zakariya al-Razi.
  • In the 1200s it killed a third of everyone in Iceland.
  • Two things were known at the time about smallpox, also called variola.
  • The second was that the disease clearly passed from person to person, though by what mechanism was not clear.
  • The second was that the disease clearly passed from person to person, though by what mechanism was not clear.
  • A practitioner took a scab from someone with a mild case, made an incision in the skin of a healthy person, and infected that person with the scab.
  • After variolation, sometimes people died from the smallpox they caught.
  • But in other cases, variolation worked: The person who survived it did not subsequently get smallpox.
  • An Englishwoman who saw the process in Turkey in the early 1700s brought it back to England, where it was proven to be effective.
  • By the 1780s, though the procedure was certainly better than nothing, it still had a fair number of problems.
  • Jenner reasoned that the pox contracted by dairymaids could be used to impart immunity to others.
  • In 1796, he extracted fluid from the pox on the hand of a dairymaid named Sarah Nelmes—who had caught the condition from her cow Blossom—and injected the fluid into a cut in eight-year-old James Phipps's arm.
  • James caught the cowpox, recovered, and then Jenner variolated him.
  • The Latin word for "cow" is vacca.
  • Thanks to Jenner, Nelmes, Blossom, and Phipps (which sounds like a rather odd law firm), today we have the word "vaccine."
  • And Jenner had created this vaccine for smallpox without even understanding the basics of germ theory!
  • The goal was annihilation.
  • Although the technique of growing cowpox on cow hides would come, transporting it was difficult due to lack of refrigeration.
  • If the conditions weren't sterile—a word that was not even comprehended at the time—the inoculation didn't work, or worse, introduced a new disease.
  • A stable vaccine was developed, our understanding of the disease expanded, and technology moved forward.
  • In 1958, with smallpox still killing two million people a year, the World Health Organization pledged to eradicate it.
  • In 1967 the effort was intensified.
  • Ten years later, in Somalia, the last natural case of smallpox occurred.
  • The scourge was eradicated.
  • We can draw lessons and encouragement from the histories of polio and smallpox, on several counts.
  • How do we know these weren't the easiest diseases to eliminate?
  • Well, the diseases that human beings focus on are the ones considered most unbearable.
  • Smallpox affected the rich and the poor and it changed the course of history: It killed Queen Mary II of England in 1694, King Louis I of Spain in 1724, Emperor Peter II of Russia in 1730, and King Louis XV of France in 1774, and changed the succession to the thrones of nations a dozen more times.
  • I think that is the case with polio and smallpox, which means they weren't eliminated because they were easy, but because they were awful.
  • Every day, the world has fewer unreachable corners and a more interconnected population.
  • If the smallpox and polio successes were achieved in a low-tech world, think how much more we can accomplish with vastly improved tools, infrastructure, and communication.
  • Third: It is always the case that diseases are eliminated first in the healthy, well-developed, rich countries, then gradually around the world.
  • Expect solutions in the future to come from countries you couldn't find on a map today.
  • The factors that enable us to solve for and eliminate disease are getting better all the time, like wind at our back, pushing us forward.
  • The factors that enable us to solve for and eliminate disease are getting better all the time, like wind at our back, pushing us forward.
  • And then we come to Greece, the home of Hippocrates, the "Father of Modern Medicine," who left us not just the oath that bears his name but also a corpus of roughly sixty medical texts based on his teaching.
  • He created many of the medical terms we use today, such as acute, chronic, endemic, epidemic, paroxysm, and relapse.
  • He formalized the structure of medical inquiry as an independent science.
  • Certainly some of the medical practices of the ancient world, such as bloodletting and the use of leeches, seem to us at least misguided and at worst, barbaric.
  • (The use of such practices continued into the scientific age: While Jenner was inoculating people with his new smallpox vaccine, doctors were draining half a gallon of blood from George Washington for his sore throat, a procedure that hastened his death.
  • (The use of such practices continued into the scientific age: While Jenner was inoculating people with his new smallpox vaccine, doctors were draining half a gallon of blood from George Washington for his sore throat, a procedure that hastened his death.
  • And today's primary method for treating cancer is, in a way, very tenth century: Essentially, chemotherapy is a medical way of saying, Let's fill you so full of poison either you or the cancer dies.
  • When the ancients could not find these solutions, it was not for a lack of intelligence but for a lack of technology.
  • Many of the treatments of the ancient world had high degrees of efficacy, all obtained without access to any modern knowledge or equipment.
  • Had they had the technology of our day, I wonder what they could have accomplished.
  • In 1543, Andreas Vesalius published On the Fabric of the Human Body, which corrected errors from antiquity and advanced the medical sciences.
  • In 1628, the first complete explanation that blood flows through the body in arteries was published.
  • From that point, medicine would never be the same.
  • In 1736, Claudius Aymand performed the first successful appendectomy on an eleven-year-old boy.
  • In 1816, we got the stethoscope.
  • Louis Pasteur came along around this same time and proffered the germ theory of disease and a vaccine for rabies.
  • At the same time in Germany, Robert Koch identified the bacteria that caused tuberculosis and the one that caused cholera.
  • Two years later, an anthrax vaccine; the year after that, a rabies vaccine.
  • In the early 1900s, we learned about blood types, vitamins, and Alzheimer's disease, and invented the electrocardiograph.
  • In the First World War, we learned to treat wounds by washing them with a germicide.
  • The same year, a technique for treating diabetes, insulin therapy, was developed.
  • In the 1920s, we got a vaccine for diphtheria, pertussis, tuberculosis, and tetanus.
  • Dialysis came a few years later, then chemotherapy, then the defibrillator, then the polio vaccine; then came cloning, then a kidney transplant.
  • The 1960s brought us hip replacement, the artificial heart, a liver transplant, and a lung transplant.
  • The 1960s brought us hip replacement, the artificial heart, a liver transplant, and a lung transplant.
  • Second, will the pace of advance increase or decrease in the future?
  • In the 1970s, we got MRIs, laser eye surgery, CT scans, and antiviral drugs.
  • The 1990s brought us a hepatitis A vaccine and artificial muscles.
  • If the magnitude and increasing complexity of these creations fails to impress you, the sheer quantity should suffice.
  • The number of medical patents issued in 2010 was more than fifty thousand, an all-time record—and it almost certainly will be broken next year, then the next, and again the next.
  • The number of medical patents issued in 2010 was more than fifty thousand, an all-time record—and it almost certainly will be broken next year, then the next, and again the next.
  • The number of pharmaceutical patents issued in 2010 was also more than fifty thousand—also an all-time record, and also likely to be broken again and again in the years to come.
  • The number of pharmaceutical patents issued in 2010 was also more than fifty thousand—also an all-time record, and also likely to be broken again and again in the years to come.
  • The pace of innovation and accomplishment is already fast but will grow even faster.
  • We will do much more in the next twenty years than in the preceding one hundred.
  • So they repackaged the drug under the name Zyban, and it is now prescribed to smokers wanting to shake the habit.
  • I think it is likely that the answers to almost all our medical problems could be found in the data we may already be collecting.
  • Now, you don't know if the radishes make the people get better or if something that makes people crave radishes also beats back skin cancer.
  • Dig deeper into the data.
  • Then we see that only people in certain parts of the country are getting better.
  • Why would that be the case?
  • The data shows pockets where radish efficacy is substantially higher and others where it is nonexistent.
  • The computers would then see that most people who got better bought their radishes in stores stocked from certain farms.
  • The machines surface this information.
  • The same happenchance brought us the learning that children in schools with fluorescent lights get fewer cavities than those in schools with incandescent lighting.
  • The same happenchance brought us the learning that children in schools with fluorescent lights get fewer cavities than those in schools with incandescent lighting.
  • Fluorescent lighting increases the body's production of saliva, which helps prevent cavities.
  • This method will allow us to treat the entire world as a controlled experiment in retrospect.
  • You can then divide the world into redheads and non-redheads and compare their accident records.
  • So you make sure that if your population of redheads had a million people with a certain distribution of age, the distribution in your non-redhead sample is exactly the same.
  • Then you ask the computer for any other statistical anomalies between these two populations.
  • The computer reveals that redheads go to the ER more often and break bones more often.
  • The computer reveals that redheads go to the ER more often and break bones more often.
  • And of the redheads themselves, are there factors among the clumsy ones that are different than the coordinated ones?
  • Is it actually that blue-eyed redheads have the same number of accidents as non-redheads, but brown-eyed redheads are even more clumsy, accident prone, and traffic hazards?
  • All kinds of anomalies are in the world.
  • Is it because winning the award gives them more confidence?
  • Why do first basemen live longer than anyone else on the team?
  • Though cases like these are not really how the science will be used, they illustrate the principle.
  • I can, of course, see everything in it, or if I prefer, set the system to "minimum supplements" or "maximum supplements" and let the system decide.
  • Then we will come to understand the outliers better.
  • Some have suggested that doing crossword puzzles helps keep the mind active.
  • In the future, we'll not only know if that is so, but why: Perhaps mental agility is a result of their extensive exposure to a chemical in pencil lead and newsprint that they got by doing all those puzzles.
  • Or maybe smart old people just direct that energy to crosswords and it is not the crosswords doing the job at all ...
  • In the future, we will know.
  • But the choice will be ours and will be made based on facts.
  • The passage of time will grow the repository.
  • The passage of time will grow the repository.
  • Once the promise of this world comes to be, new ways will be created to measure even more data.
  • It should know what the food on my fork weighs, run a chemical analysis of every bite I take, and log it in my Digital Echo file for my future reference.
  • You won't have to go eat the other foods; the system will remember every meal you have had and will log your headaches.
  • You won't be able to identify the other people; you will simply see that 1600 other people seem to have this same corn dog issue.
  • When the cost of recording all the data is zero, the cost of processing it is zero, and the cost of accessing it zero, then the many sciences, especially human health, will be democratized.
  • The world will still need ever-smarter specialists doing ever-more complex work.
  • I am not saying the research scientist loses out to the florist in Akron, Ohio.
  • Can the system learn to predict crime targets?
  • A record of all human activity, with anonymity safeguards in place, will allow us all to become part of the solution by putting our minds to work on the problems of the world.
  • Our challenge is to learn how to choose the plowshares, not to abandon metallurgy.
  • This was an electrifying discovery to the whole world.
  • Life existed at a scale smaller than the eye could see.
  • Technology allowed us to peer deeper into the mysteries of the miniscule.
  • He discovered the nucleus of the cell.
  • Better microscopes gave us more information, more ways to unlock the secrets of life.
  • But no one had any idea of the mechanism by which this could be achieved.
  • Then in the 1940s, another American, Oswald Avery, was able to show, through an ingenious method, that the genetic information had to be carried by the DNA.
  • Then the scientific race of the century was on, with this goal: to figure out how DNA conveyed genetic information.
  • In 1953, James Watson and Francis Crick announced to the scientific world that they had solved the puzzle.
  • They accurately described the construction of DNA as a double helix and showed how its structure made replication both possible and reliable.
  • Fifty years later, the human genome was decoded.
  • In fact, if you laid out all the DNA in your body, it would stretch from the sun to Pluto.
  • That three-billion-letter recipe for making you is what was sequenced—deciphered and written down—in the human genome project.
  • Of course, if you wanted to print it out and read it, the stack of paper would be many miles high.
  • If you and I both had our DNA sequenced and compared the output, the information would be virtually identical.
  • While we have deciphered the genome in that we have written it all down, we aren't at all sure which parts do what, as noted before.
  • Some of it is known, but the function of each of the thirty thousand genes has to be figured out one at a time.
  • By looking at how the genome varies between people with a genetic condition and people without it, we can identify the troublemaking gene.
  • Knowing this allowed for the creation of a drug called Imatinib, which inhibits this process.
  • If people with those conditions get better, information about their treatment can be widely shared with those who have the common genetic factors.
  • Due to genetic factors we will certainly learn about in the future, some drugs and treatments do not work on certain people.
  • We hear of treatments that work some percent of the time or we hear phrases like, "They are not responding to treatment."
  • In addition to knowing more about what will work, in the future we will also know more about what won't work.
  • However, I fully expect we will learn things about the opposite—what we may do, thanks to our genes.
  • My guess is that such people have some genetic factor protecting them against the adverse effects of bacon.
  • When we think of decoding the genome, we typically think in terms of the human genome.
  • They have sequenced the cacao tree, the mosquito, coral, the Tasmanian devil, the bald eagle, the leafcutter ant, a germ that attacks wheat plants, and the extinct woolly mammoth.
  • Additionally, we have deciphered the genome of diseases, from SARS to influenza.
  • Understanding the recipes that make our pathogenic enemies is a huge advantage.
  • With all due respect to Nietzsche, we have looked long into the Abyss, but the Abyss has not looked back into us.
  • Additionally, we will at some point in the not-too-distant future have enough biological understanding of the genome and enough computer horsepower to model complex interactions in the body.
  • You would know before you received a treatment how likely it was to work for you—not merely how likely it was to work for the larger population, but for you.
  • How can we not be excited about the possibilities this offers?
  • It boggles the mind, especially when you consider that this science is in its infancy.
  • We have looked at the astonishing possibilities afforded by genomics.
  • We will discuss the molecular machines called nanites—tiny, molecular-sized robots that will swim around in your body fighting disease, repairing damage, and alerting you to problems (and will likely dramatically increase the human lifespan).
  • Now let's look at how the Internet will help end disease in a more traditional, suit-and-tie kind of way.
  • This is powerful; it allows the best and brightest to collaborate easily.
  • Second, we have the mobile revolution.
  • Today, an astonishing 77 percent of the people in the world have mobile devices and thus access to all kinds of better care via telemedicine.
  • As access becomes cheaper and better, and the whole world has mobile phones, more information can be delivered to people in remote parts of the world.
  • Third, pretty much everything we know is published on the Internet and can be found in moments, if not seconds.
  • All scientific material from the past is making its way online.
  • Cloud computing and software frameworks such as Hadoop give unimagined computing power to the scientist on the most modest budget.
  • Teams of scientists in different parts of the world can collaborate virtually.
  • With Skype and similar products, you can even see the person you are working with.
  • The division of labor applied to science will yield substantial results.
  • When medical records leave the paper folders of the doctor's office and become highly standardized, more analysis can be done.
  • When "human testing" is done almost immediately, but within the safe confines of a CPU.
  • If the scientists of today had all I describe.
  • After all, it was the doctor's job to keep you healthy, not to make money when you were sick.
  • In fact, if you stayed sick long enough in that culture, the doctor had to pay you!
  • I did not ask the American Medical Association their opinion of this arrangement.
  • The power of the Internet and associated technologies we have so far described, combined with our new understanding of the genome, dooms disease to eventual extinction.
  • The power of the Internet and associated technologies we have so far described, combined with our new understanding of the genome, dooms disease to eventual extinction.
  • The additional possibility of access to all humans' Digital Echoes, to be studied for a million unnoticed causal correlations, will hasten the demise of disease as well and will increase quality of life and longevity.
  • The additional possibility of access to all humans' Digital Echoes, to be studied for a million unnoticed causal correlations, will hasten the demise of disease as well and will increase quality of life and longevity.
  • To what length can the human lifespan be extended?
  • Some suspect we can be made to be healthy and energetic to the age of one hundred thirty and that's it.
  • He predicts that within twenty years, the first person to live to one thousand will be born.
  • In any event, this much is certain: We will see medical advances in the future that seem impossible today.
  • The first mechanism is the creation of things, an old and familiar approach.
  • The first mechanism is the creation of things, an old and familiar approach.
  • The second way to create wealth is through the division of labor and trade.
  • The second way to create wealth is through the division of labor and trade.
  • When you trade with someone in a free market, you are giving up something you have for something the other person has, which you value more.
  • Jill hates the licorice ones and eats all her jelly beans except the licorice ones.
  • You might remember the story of Kyle MacDonald who famously traded up from one red paperclip to a house, one small exchange at a time between July 2005 and July 2006.
  • With each trade he got something he valued more than what he traded away; and presumably all the people he traded with along the way also increased their value with each trade.
  • Both parties must win for the trade to occur.
  • The first is that we all value things differently, such as in our jelly bean example.
  • This is a good thing because it means that high degrees of utility (the economists' word for "happiness") can be achieved with a wide variety of goods.
  • If you are in a desert dying of thirst, you value the first glass of water very highly, the second glass a bit less, and the 802nd not at all.
  • So when people have excess goods, they are able to trade those goods away for things they want and suffer less of a decrease in utility than the amount they are increasing in their trading partners.
  • It is safe to say that the man with seventeen puppies is creating more happiness by giving one each to sixteen friends than he is forgoing by his loss of puppies.
  • Most cases aren't like our jelly bean example where each person had the items the other person wanted.
  • It means I can trade you a good or service for an intermediate store of value known as money, and then trade that money to the person who actually has the goods I want.
  • So even if no new goods were created tomorrow, we could still vastly increase the wealth of the world by allocating existing goods differently.
  • Governments (and thieves, for that matter) reallocate wealth—but they do it by increasing the wealth of one party at the expense of another party.
  • To the extent that the Internet is able to increase trade, it increases utility.
  • It already has increased both substantially and will do so dramatically more in the coming years.
  • Consider just a few of the mechanisms by which the Internet promotes trade that otherwise would not have occurred.
  • The Internet has only touched the tip of the iceberg here.
  • The Internet has only touched the tip of the iceberg here.
  • Actually, the tip of the tip of the iceberg.
  • PayPal, Square, and the online use of credit cards.
  • The ability to instantly and, for a very low cost, reliably transfer money to anyone on the planet is a key ingredient in increasing the amount of trade that occurs online.
  • The ability to instantly and, for a very low cost, reliably transfer money to anyone on the planet is a key ingredient in increasing the amount of trade that occurs online.
  • We have seen this happen already, and it will get substantially better in the near future.
  • I am fascinated by credit cards and the fact that the entire free enterprise system relies on the honesty of almost all people.
  • If I get my credit card bill and call up and dispute a charge, the benefit of the doubt is given to me, that I am telling the truth.
  • The vendor is usually made to "eat" the charge.
  • The vendor is usually made to "eat" the charge.
  • Imagine if everyone frequently disputed charges: "I never got my order!" or "It wasn't what they promised it would be!" or "Yeah, I got a box in the mail, but it was full of rocks."
  • And yet they do, because fraud is a small part of the overall picture.
  • Such a thing is not possible without the Internet. 4.
  • Additionally, online stores powered by Yahoo and Google and Amazon exist where small vendors can set up storefronts and sell to the world, as a hobby or a livelihood.
  • Without the Internet, they would just gather dust.
  • This works toward maximizing the utility that item can bring to someone. eBay is not alone in this regard.
  • Freecycle, Craigslist, and a thousand message boards achieve the same outcome.
  • This is not possible without the Internet. 6.
  • One failure of the marketplace is the misattribution of the amount of utility an item will bring a person.
  • The Internet solves for this in a way no library ever could. 7.
  • To the extent that I get accurate information from other consumers of the product, I will tend to make better choices.
  • This could not be done without the Internet. 8.
  • The cost of interactive information exchange, such as asking questions about products you are contemplating purchasing, has fallen to nearly zero.
  • This is unprecedented in the history of commerce and could not be done without the Internet. 9.
  • Low-cost business websites hosted around the world.
  • No matter where you live, if you have access to an Internet connection, you can host an online store and sell to the entire world.
  • This could not be done without the Internet. 9.
  • With the rapid flow of information about businesses and their products, along with the ease of "checking up" on a vendor, good businesses will get more business and push out the bad ones.
  • This could not be done without the Internet. 10.
  • Google Adwords and the PPC business.
  • The pay per click (PPC) business is a way to advertise online to people who did a specific search in a search engine like Google or who are viewing content on a certain topic.
  • In the past, when most media was mass media, it was essential to create products with mass appeal.
  • For instance, I could hand carve bird calls and then advertise them only to people who are looking at online content about hand-carved bird calls or who search the Internet for information about hand-carved bird calls.
  • This could not be done without the Internet.
  • The other is division of labor, worth discussing in some detail as it is an almost miraculous process.
  • By "make a car," I mean really make a car: dig iron ore out of the ground, smelt it to steel, wildcat for oil, find oil and refine it into gasoline, and so on.
  • In 1958, an American economist named Leonard Read wrote an essay called "I, Pencil," written from the pencil's point of view, about how no one on the planet knows how to make a pencil.
  • From mining the clay to make the lead, to the lacquer applied to the pencil, to the rubber eraser, to the metal band holding the eraser to the yellow paint, no one person knows how to make a complete pencil.
  • It requires the labor of thousands to make a pencil, and yet they are so inexpensive as to be almost free.
  • It is because of the division of labor.
  • But if each of ten people specialized on just one-tenth of the task, they could together make 48,000, an increase in per-person productivity from one pin a day to 4,800 pins per day.
  • It doesn't matter that the person selling pencils doesn't know how the pencil is made; he only needs to know how to sell them.
  • And it doesn't matter that the person who paints the pencils doesn't know how the paint is made, for his job is to paint them.
  • Returning to the three ways wealth is created: The first is by making things.
  • Returning to the three ways wealth is created: The first is by making things.
  • The second is through the division of labor and free trade.
  • The second is through the division of labor and free trade.
  • And the third way wealth is created is through technological advance.
  • Technology is simply the combining of other economic products in new ways.
  • These new methods are considered advances if what they produce is worth more than the cost of their parts.
  • This increase in utility is the same as generating wealth.
  • For the foreseeable future, technological advance will drive the world of wealth creation—and it is capable of producing more wealth than everything that has come before it.
  • It may have some limit in theory, because there is an optimal arrangement of atoms in the universe; but for practical purposes, it has no limit.
  • This will bring vast amounts of new wealth onto the planet.
  • We won't talk at this point about the distribution of that wealth; that will come later.
  • But for now, I want to leave you with a preposterous thought: In the future, a new Mercedes Benz will cost just $50.
  • And the mechanisms that will bring that about are also the ones that will end poverty forever.
  • To build a case for the end of poverty, we begin by discussing scarcity.
  • Economically, we understand the world around us in terms of scarcity.
  • As my professors told me the first day I started studying economics in college (and never tired of repeating), scarcity is the central underlying assumption of all economic theory.
  • The theory of pricing means people who want items the most choose to buy those items instead of others they could buy.
  • The theory of pricing means people who want items the most choose to buy those items instead of others they could buy.
  • We essentially view scarcity like the children's game "musical chairs."
  • You'd better scramble and get a chair even if it means elbowing little Timmy out of the way.
  • The notion of scarcity is so ingrained in us and so permeates the world today, it is difficult to imagine a world without it.
  • The notion of scarcity is so ingrained in us and so permeates the world today, it is difficult to imagine a world without it.
  • Humans require relatively little oxygen, and plants are constantly transforming the carbon dioxide we exhale back into useful oxygen.
  • A problem arises because of the strong correlation between standard of living and energy consumption.
  • First, think of energy as the capacity to do work.
  • If you are a farmer and work alone, you can only plant as much land as you can personally plow. You can do just a couple of thousand calories of work a day, consuming only the energy produced by the food you ate.
  • An ongoing debate is whether a high amount of energy raises a nation or region's gross national product (GNP) or whether rising GNP increases the consumption of energy.
  • I won't base my reasoning for how the Internet and technology will end poverty on this idea alone.
  • But think about how it could play out: If energy truly were free and unlimited, you could, for instance, power tractors everywhere in the world.
  • But the price of the tractor would have plummeted, for a constellation of reasons.
  • The labor to build it is now robotic and powered by free energy.
  • The cost derives from the application of huge amounts of energy, intelligence, and technology to obtain and process the raw materials: digging and smelting to create high-grade steel, harvesting and refining and molding to make rubber parts, and so on.
  • The cost derives from the application of huge amounts of energy, intelligence, and technology to obtain and process the raw materials: digging and smelting to create high-grade steel, harvesting and refining and molding to make rubber parts, and so on.
  • The point is that the cost of making almost everything is mostly energy and intellect, not raw materials.
  • The point is that the cost of making almost everything is mostly energy and intellect, not raw materials.
  • Vastly more energy than we need pours down on this planet in the form of sunlight.
  • Think about this: Nearly four million exajoules of energy is absorbed by the earth's atmosphere, oceans, and land each year.
  • So four million come to the earth and we only need to capture five hundred.
  • The wind in the upper atmosphere has extraordinary amounts of energy.
  • The wind in the upper atmosphere has extraordinary amounts of energy.
  • The earth has an enormous molten core that contains vast amounts of energy.
  • Everyone knows water evaporates, rises, then falls to the earth as rain—but no one can even guess how much energy could be captured from this if we only knew how.
  • Every day the earth heats and cools as night turns into day and back into night.
  • We know how to power a clock with this energy but haven't yet cracked the code on doing it at scale.
  • All around the world, scientists are racing to create hot fusion reactors.
  • An energy crop could be a permanent forest of trees that convert sunlight to liquid fuel and deliver the fuel directly through their roots to a network of underground pipelines.
  • A genetically engineered tree that converts sunlight into fuel and then pumps the fuel through its roots to where it is needed.
  • A few such trees in the backyard behind your condo, cabin, or yurt would be enough to satisfy your power requirements.
  • One breakthrough is all it will take to change the world.
  • That was indeed the hope for atomic energy in that era, and it did not pan out.
  • Each success has some failure along the way.
  • I don't mean that in a motivational poster kind of way but in a literal sense: Failures (and what we learn from them) will help build the energy solutions for our future.
  • And in that future, I believe the world can have—in fact, will have—plentiful, free, clean energy that will result in dramatically lower costs for everything, everywhere.
  • He had died by the time I read that passage in one of his books, so I couldn't write him, as is my normal practice when an author's words puzzle me.
  • I believe this is the case with energy.
  • We have a hard time seeing this world without scarcity because we are firmly planted in the worldview of scarcity.
  • Most raw materials in the world are essentially unlimited.
  • However, locked up in ocean water—just suspended in ocean water—may be the equivalent of eight more such cubes.
  • And beyond that, billions more ounces of gold may be buried beneath the ocean floor.
  • So gold isn't scarce—only the gold we know how to recover is scarce.
  • We compute the maximum amount of food the world can produce by beginning with total acres of land considered arable, but that is based on assumptions about the future of technology and agriculture.
  • Water isn't scarce either; we have had the same amount forever.
  • First, many things in the physical world that we think of as scarce are not really scarce, just presently beyond our ability to capture.
  • Second, as technology advances, it will make things in the physical world fall in price.
  • So they threw their sabots, a kind of clog shoe, into the machinery to break it—an act that gave us the word sabotage.
  • He explained to me that with a lawnmower, one person would be able to do the job and eleven men would be unemployed.
  • (I answered, "They should get jobs at the factory that would make the lawnmowers; it would pay better.") Personal computers and the Internet have come under criticism in this regard.
  • I knew typesetters who said computers would never duplicate their quality; travel agents who said the Internet would never replace them, and whose stockbrokers reassured them this was true.
  • We'll look at their lives, and the social aspects of this change, in a coming chapter called "Left Behind."
  • No one threw his shoe into the air conditioner, I assure you.)
  • First, let's consider the macroeconomic impact of this change—the effect it will have on the net economic status of the planet.
  • Technological advances that displace human workers are similar in effect to two other concepts with which we are very familiar in the modern age: outsourcing and free trade.
  • My purpose in this chapter will not be to persuade the reader of any political doctrine of trade; please apply your own political and social values as you see fit.
  • My purpose is to explain the net effect of free trade, technological advance, and outsourcing on the overall economic system of the planet.
  • The idea of free trade has divided people for as long as trade has existed.
  • But in spite of the relative economic displacement they all cause, free trade, outsourcing, and technological displacement all have a positive net effect on the economics of the planet.
  • Let's consider examples of how the effect is positive for some, negative for some, but the net is a gain in the overall wealth of the system.
  • The net effect is positive, but the laid-off workers will probably have a hard time appreciating it.
  • The net effect is positive, but the laid-off workers will probably have a hard time appreciating it.
  • A textbook example of this is Eli Whitney and the cotton gin.
  • The cotton gin cut the cost of removing seeds from cotton.
  • The cotton gin cut the cost of removing seeds from cotton.
  • Even though this allowed cotton prices to plummet and demand for cotton to increase, some of those fifty people got laid off, no doubt shaking their fists at the infernal gin as they stormed off the property.
  • We are sympathetic to the laid-off workers, but no one would suggest the cotton gin not be installed.
  • A competing company decides to make an up-front investment and build a new factory in a distant land, high in the mountains where residents who choose to live there have less economic opportunity.
  • They are able to produce widgets for ten cents, putting the Dollar Widget Company (with its unfortunate name) out of business.
  • Lowering the cost of something is an increase in efficiency and an increase in the wealth of the overall system.
  • Finally, consider the outsourced worker.
  • Worker Chang, located in China, is willing to do the same job, remotely, for a dollar an hour.
  • The cotton gin example is the same as if Chad were replaced by a gin.
  • The cotton gin example is the same as if Chad were replaced by a gin.
  • But Chad merely stopped selling his labor to the employer for that price.
  • The employer gained $9 an hour, Chang got a job, and no one is worse off.
  • You might argue that since there is now a surplus of labor in Chad's neighborhood, the price of labor is lowered and Chad will only find work paying $9.75 an hour.
  • But even in this case, the result is still a massive overall gain in efficiency.
  • But I intend to show you how in the next chapter: Chad Gets a Better Job .
  • But if you can tolerate it, what follows will explain why free trade sometimes hurts the (net) world economy.
  • The concept is known as "internalizing externalities."
  • Externalities are the external effects an action has on society.
  • You, personally, are pretty happy with the generic knockoff, which saves you a dollar and tastes the same to you.
  • You would tend to buy the store brand and pocket the dollar.
  • However, your spouse hates the knockoff.
  • So here is the situation: You are at the store deciding which ones to buy.
  • If you did not internalize the externalities, you would buy the generic brand and save a dollar.
  • Clearly, from a "big picture" standpoint, you should stick with the Oreos.
  • And say the net cost to society of having a gallon of polluted water dumped into the river—the cleanup cost, or the economic impact of the gallon of dirty water—is $10.
  • What should the company do?
  • However, the company likely won't choose this outcome because the $10 cost of cleanup is not paid by the company but by society.
  • When businesses and people are made to consider the overall effects of their choices as opposed to only their individual effects, efficient outcomes occur.
  • This is one of the few areas in which government taxation actually leads to a more efficient outcome.
  • Calculating the actual, societal costs of fatty foods, alcohol, cars, pet ownership, mercury thermometers, air conditioning, solar panels, razor blades, jogging shoes, and ten thousand other things, and incorporating those costs in the prices as taxes would lead to a vastly more efficient allocation of resources.
  • You could finance the entire government and its (hopefully) noble agenda, by this method alone.
  • And you could feel good about it; after all, you would be increasing efficiency, not merely acting as a leech to the system.
  • If jump ropes or board games or ice cream turn out to have positive externalities—that is, if they help society—a subsidy could lower the prices of these items.
  • To some extent, we have this in the form of high taxes on cigarettes, which are seen to have negative externalities, and a home interest deduction on income taxes, as home ownership is viewed as having positive social good.
  • Say you have two countries in the world.
  • If the company pollutes, it should bear the cost of that pollution.
  • The company should insure its workers because if uninsured workers end up in the ER, the burden falls on society, not the company.
  • The company should insure its workers because if uninsured workers end up in the ER, the burden falls on society, not the company.
  • The country requires a minimum wage because workers paid below the poverty line have an added cost on society.
  • The country requires a minimum wage because workers paid below the poverty line have an added cost on society.
  • Say the second country requires the business to do none of those things.
  • The business looks at this new country and decides to move there because, from their standpoint, they can save costs and be more efficient.
  • But outsourcing to pollute, oppress workers, or have unsafe working conditions hurts the world's standard of living.
  • We have established that outsourcing, free trade, and technological advance all have the same effect on the system: They lower prices and increase net wealth.
  • Outsourcing a job to get it done more cheaply or building a machine to do it more cheaply is really the same.
  • Someday the computer program will lose its job, although I don't know to what.
  • The minimum is either set by a minimum wage law or determined by the demand and supply of that labor.
  • The minimum is either set by a minimum wage law or determined by the demand and supply of that labor.
  • The maximum wage you can earn, though, is defined by supply and demand for labor, and by your negotiating ability, but it also has a cap.
  • It is capped at the value your labor adds to the goods or services you create.
  • If you take something worth a dollar, spend an hour working on it, and your employer sells it for three dollars, no way in the world can you ever make more than two dollars an hour.
  • Why would your employer pay you more than the value you are able to add?
  • Say the world has ten thousand burger flippers.
  • Then they all agree to set the price per flip at $1,000.
  • This action makes the price of a burger go up by $1,000 and drops demand to zero.
  • The burger flippers don't add $1,000 of value.
  • It doesn't matter what the law or the union or their mothers think about it: They can't get a thousand dollars per flip.
  • Think of all the machines you use to do your job.
  • Who do you think makes more money: the person who hauls bricks on his back or the person who operates the forklift that moves the bricks?
  • Who do you think makes more money: the one person who operates the cotton gin we discussed in the last chapter or one of the fifty people he replaced?
  • Machines could, in theory, do all kinds of jobs in the world.
  • We only have people doing this work because we have not yet developed the technology to get machines to do it.
  • No matter how good she is, how dedicated she is, the assembly line worker's wage is capped.
  • I am not saying if you enjoy manual labor and being exhausted at the end of the day, you shouldn't do it.
  • If you like having sore muscles at the end of a day or working a job that requires little of your mental capacity so you can contemplate Nietzsche, hey, more power to you.
  • The minute we do, the people doing those jobs should become operators of the new machines—and get big raises because their productivity just shot way up.
  • The minute we do, the people doing those jobs should become operators of the new machines—and get big raises because their productivity just shot way up.
  • If every job that could be done by a machine was done by a machine tomorrow, the standard of living of virtually everyone on the planet would rise.
  • The number of people who feel challenged by their work is depressingly low.
  • The number of people who want to be challenged by their work is encouragingly high.
  • And that brings me to my final italicized point: The most underutilized resource in the universe is human potential.
  • And that brings me to my final italicized point: The most underutilized resource in the universe is human potential.
  • Frankly, no one wants to do them, so the only way to get people to do them is to pay them.
  • What if machines did all the things they could in theory do?
  • And the sooner we get machines to do the things they can do, freeing up people to do what they can do, the happier and wealthier we all will be.
  • Have I convinced you that replacing people with machines frees people from the bondage of doing machine work?
  • The next chapter will explore how far this can go, how many of our daily tasks machines could assume.
  • The history of the world is a history of rising prosperity.
  • The history of the world is a history of rising prosperity.
  • Those things were never necessary for prosperity and even less so in the Internet age.
  • No one will play the game if the rules only apply to one team. 2.
  • If this is not the case, people will not trade their labor for things that can easily or capriciously be taken away. 3.
  • In parts of the world where these three ingredients exist, we have seen prosperity rise.
  • The fact that an unprecedented number of earth's inhabitants today live in poverty is an indictment of governments, not a reflection of some underlying natural limit.
  • The prosperity of some does not require that others be poor.
  • In fact, the poverty of some limits the wealth of all.
  • However, there are limits to how much prosperity and efficiency the division of labor can create.
  • In the end, the speed at which a human operator can move has a physical limit.
  • All the jobs that can, in theory, be done by machines—the jobs that I think suck the life force out of people—will in fact be done by machines.
  • (Karel Capek, an acclaimed Czech playwright, coined the word to describe the mechanized workers in his play.)
  • The word is broad in its meaning and I use it in its broadest sense, as a mechanical device built to independently perform a task.
  • To that extent, the contraption that automatically metes out the daily allotment of cat food for your pet is a robot.
  • And when I say robots, I don't mean androids, which are people-shaped machines doing the work of people.
  • We have fallen into the habit of anthropomorphizing computers and robots for a simple reason: The more we program them to do things that we presently do, the more we think of them as being like us.
  • We have fallen into the habit of anthropomorphizing computers and robots for a simple reason: The more we program them to do things that we presently do, the more we think of them as being like us.
  • People play chess, so that object playing the Grand Master must be a person.
  • When you imagined dogs being "invented" in the future, you would naturally imagine having conversations with them.
  • But that's because I would be sharing the experience with another human being, and human beings form connections with other human beings.
  • Artificial surrogates for human companionship are always vastly inferior to the real thing; we crave connections with people, not machines.
  • No matter how convincing the machine is, once I know it is a machine, I won't care about it anymore.
  • Just make the things work.
  • We have reached the point where many items can only be made by robots.
  • Recently, my ten-year-old son and I visited the factory in Denmark where Lego building blocks are made.
  • They still have the hand-operated machine from the 1940s that was used to make the first Legos, but it is of course now a museum piece.
  • The robots I watched making Legos had no human operators because no human can keep up with them.
  • The field of nanotechnology brings even more advances.
  • Generally defined, nanotechnology is the field concerned with creating machines along the scale of a nanometer, a billionth of a meter.
  • Because nanites are so small, they require little in the way of raw materials, just a few molecules here and there.
  • To "go nano" is to directly manipulate reality at the atomic level.
  • We need no far-out scenarios to see how this will change the world.
  • First, imagine all the jobs they could do inside us.
  • Researchers also discovered the vaccine was able to restore normal blood sugar levels without using insulin.
  • And the principle at work in this technology could lead to a cure for other autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.
  • Clearly, what nanites will do inside our bodies in the future is almost limitless and will change medicine forever.
  • In the future, we will paint surfaces with substances full of nanites that will absorb sunlight and turn it into electricity, transforming any object we paint into a clean energy creator.
  • When we can build at the molecular level, we can build things I cannot imagine today.
  • I branched off into this discussion of robots and nanites to give an idea of the kinds of massive gains in efficiency with declining costs.
  • This is almost the definition of wealth creation.
  • Over the course of history, the division of labor has increased human productivity immensely.
  • People specialized, technology advanced, and as a result, men walked on the moon.
  • Robots are free from the physical limits our human bodies have.
  • Robots can work without ceasing in environments where the temperature is a thousand degrees.
  • In the past, we simply had division of labor among people.
  • The Nailmaker 2000 makes one hundred thousand an hour.
  • Oh, and they change color if they detect structural weakness in the material to which they are affixed.
  • The pace of advancement in the field of robotics and nanotechnology roughly doubles every couple of years.
  • The pace of advancement in the field of robotics and nanotechnology roughly doubles every couple of years.
  • Everything we have talked about relating to the Internet and technology is coming to bear on robotics and nanotechnology.
  • The report also cited a mid-1950s report that found 85 percent of economic growth was attributed to technological change in the period 1890 to 1950.
  • The report also cited a mid-1950s report that found 85 percent of economic growth was attributed to technological change in the period 1890 to 1950.
  • Taken together, those findings suggest that almost all economic growth in the last 120-plus years was from technology.
  • Fifteen years later, I got a computer with 4,000K (or 4MB) of memory, one thousand times the memory of my trusty VIC-20.
  • The memory for that computer cost me $40 per MB, just under $200.
  • Fifteen years after that, I got the computer on which I currently am typing.
  • So I saw, in real dollars, the cost of computer memory fall to one one-millionth of what it was thirty years ago.
  • That would be like the price of a Mercedes falling from $50,000 to a nickel.
  • So a thousandfold increase in capacity at one-fortieth the cost is like the $50,000 Mercedes dropping to a buck and a quarter.
  • But that won't happen with the Mercedes.
  • If the labor to build the Mercedes becomes completely robotic and computerized, then why won't we see that same increase in efficiency?
  • Certainly the labor component of assembling the Mercedes could fall to nearly zero.
  • So why not the other components?
  • That could be true, but I don't think so, for reasons laid out in the chapter on scarcity.
  • I think no matter what, energy costs will fall dramatically in the future, probably to near zero, because the economic incentives to unlock that technical puzzle are so overwhelming.
  • In the past two centuries with very little technology, we've come from whale oil and wood to solar and nuclear.
  • Imagine what we can do in the future with a thousand times more technological advancement.
  • The second would be to argue that the cost of materials to build the Mercedes won't fall by a thousandfold.
  • The second would be to argue that the cost of materials to build the Mercedes won't fall by a thousandfold.
  • Again, the materials to build the car are abundant; their cost is high because of technology deficiencies around retrieving and refining them, not an underlying rarity.
  • I think we will see commodity prices plummet in the coming years.
  • Finally, you might argue that fees paid as royalties to the owners of the intellectual property needed to build the Mercedes for $50 will not fall by a thousandfold.
  • Technical breakthroughs in the future will come very rapidly, each one used to increase quality and lower costs in order to compete in an ever more competitive marketplace.
  • Technical workarounds will prevent technical monopolies in the future.
  • I know that sounds preposterous—but only based on our assumptions that the future will be like the past.
  • And remember, it can be obtained both by a plummeting cost and an increasing value of the thing to you.
  • Yes, I see the cost of food falling a thousandfold.
  • I think in the future, food will be free.
  • (If you can reserve judgment on that statement, I'll explain my reasoning in the book's next section.)
  • Imagine when a five-cent computer in your shoe warns you that the way you are walking will lead to spine problems.
  • If they weren't, we would keep the money.
  • At the margin, if I buy a can of Wolf Brand chili, I make $8.
  • Consider the pan you most often cook in today.
  • It will analyze and record the nutritional content of your meal.
  • The handle doesn't heat up.
  • It alerts you when the food is about to start burning and needs stirring.
  • And the people whose houses or lives it saves?
  • So, let's say on average the pan is worth $2,000 to everyone who uses it—all the way from the people who just think it is "cool" to the people who it saves from food poisoning to the people whose lives and houses it saves.
  • So whether you are rich or poor in the future, you will own this pan and get this benefit.
  • The house of the future won't just be better than the house you have today.
  • The house of the future won't just be better than the house you have today.
  • It will know everyone who is supposed to be in the house and alert you when someone else is in the house (replacing the family dog of old in whom we never fully placed our trust).
  • It will verify the credentials of any service people who come by.
  • It will passively recognize you by recognizing your face or your voice or your breathing pattern or the pattern of your footsteps or, most likely, your scent.
  • The house will know where everything in it is; you will never again lose your keys or your child's favorite stuffed animal.
  • The house will need scheduled maintenance but will remember when and will ask you for permission.
  • If you ask it to run your bath, it knows you like the water at 104 degrees.
  • This house will be cheaper to build than a house today and worth vastly more to you for all the cool things it does.
  • I would love to write more and more about this topic, about how things will get better and cheaper in the future.
  • In the future, the price of some things won't go down as much, if at all.
  • Anything that requires the unamplified direct labor of a person won't either, such as a personal trainer, a babysitter, or a masseuse.
  • You would not be the first.
  • The best way to make a chair, known only by a few craftsmen, would be used to make all the chairs better.
  • The best way to make a chair, known only by a few craftsmen, would be used to make all the chairs better.
  • Everything would be better made because the best way to make a thing could be multiplied across all occurrences of the thing.
  • Then, think about how far we have come in the last fifty years.
  • Think of the shape of that curve and project it into the future.
  • Try to think of the advances we have seen so far in history as the very tip of the iceberg, a hint of what is possible, not even being within sight of what is possible.
  • It is only a whisper of the wonders we will build and the prosperity we will create.
  • That brings us back to the thousandfold increase in wealth, which the world will soon experience.
  • Of course, I stand to be corrected on many of the specifics.
  • My guess of the thousandfold increase in wealth is just that, a guess.
  • It is an attempt to capture the essence of the change, not the nominal value of the multiplier.
  • That means your $40,000 salary will have the purchasing power of a $4,000,000 salary today.
  • How would it affect the world for everyone's buying power to increase a hundredfold?
  • The overall economic output of the planet, GWP (gross world product), will rise dramatically in the years to come, but its distribution will be quite skewed.
  • The overall economic output of the planet, GWP (gross world product), will rise dramatically in the years to come, but its distribution will be quite skewed.
  • This is because, as noted before, technology amplifies the productive effort of people.
  • An exception worth noting is that the poor who get better products at cheaper prices will see their wealth rise accordingly.
  • A poor person with a six-year-old car today has more wealth than a poor person with a six-year-old car did back in 1911, for the simple reason that cars are so much better now.
  • A poor person with free access to the Internet at the library is wealthier than a poor person with free access to just a library.
  • But this is merely a footnote, an asterisk in the record book of humanity.
  • Let's address that by looking at two phenomena: the changing definitions of poverty over time, and the effect of a large gap between the incomes of the rich and poor.
  • In Beverly Hills, your poor neighbor might be one who had to buy the 14K-gold back scratcher instead of the diamond-encrusted platinum one everyone else is buying.
  • My relative definition of poverty is "the state of being unable to reliably purchase a bundle of goods that allow one to participate in the economic norms of one's society."
  • But the relative definition certainly kicks in here.
  • In 2009, in the United States of America, the poverty threshold for a single person under sixty-five was about $11,000 a year; the threshold for a family group of four, including two children, was about $22,000 a year.
  • This per-person threshold actually exceeds the average income of three-quarters of the countries on the planet, including Mexico, Russia, and Brazil, and is about 20 percent higher than the average income of the entire planet.
  • Think about that: Poverty in the United States is defined as higher than the average income of the planet.
  • By the government's calculation, about 40 percent of India's population, or half a billion people, are below that level.
  • This speaks to the fabulous wealth of this country and how our expectation of material possessions has risen so fast that we have redefined poverty to include what once were deemed luxury items.
  • I wish the whole world were like that!
  • Tensions between the rich and poor grow higher under the following five circumstances:
  • When the rich believe the poor will not honor property rights.
  • When the poor believe the rich are beneficiaries of different legal status than the poor.
  • If the poor believe they have less justice than the rich, they buy into the system less. 4.
  • When the rich are demographically different than the poor.
  • Finally, when the poor see their income shrink while the income of the rich rises, they will buy into the system less.
  • However, if they are getting wealthier over time, even if the rich are getting wealthier faster, the poor will tend to accept the system more.
  • In one understanding of economic history, the rich get ahead, and the gap between them and the poor widens.
  • Beyond Robin Hood: Why radical approaches to wealth redistribution don't work History has witnessed numerous attempts, through radical methods, to raise up the poor by extracting wealth from the rich.
  • It happened in the United States as recently as the 1970s.
  • When that happens, refusal to accept the currency is swiftly outlawed and punished harshly.
  • At that point, people flee the land looking for a better deal.
  • The United Kingdom famously did this after World War II by raising marginal tax rates on earned income to more than 99 percent and, for some other kinds of income, to more than 100 percent.
  • It was a calculated, deliberate move to wipe out the wealthy.
  • Families who owned great houses were able to keep them if they opened them to the public, acted as guides, and only lived in a small part of them.
  • The rich, of course, got very clever about where they earned and reported income.
  • It comes up everywhere, even the United States.
  • Now the Zimbabwean dollar has undergone four re-denominations (the process of shaving zeros off the currency to make a more manageable new currency.
  • Sometimes countries simply nationalize industries, so that an enterprise once owned by a private company, often a foreign-based one, is taken over by the government or "the people."
  • When industries are taken without payment to the property owner, it has a certain legal term.
  • Where I come from the term is "thievery," but believe it or not, they don't call it that.
  • Expropriation is an act that simultaneously violates two of the three ingredients for prosperity that I have enumerated: private property and rule of law.
  • Expropriation often is accompanied by infringements of the third ingredient, individual liberty, as well.
  • Sometimes the poor cut out the middleman of government entirely.
  • Such radical redistribution attempts are dangerous games, for the rich are creators of economic opportunity, not just for themselves, but as employers, for society.
  • If the poor remove rich people's incentives to produce economic gain, the rich, who behave somewhat rationally, will stop producing.
  • Here I'll make a point which I believe to be a historic constant and to which we will be returning: If property rights of the rich are respected and tax rates, while high, still allow for indefinite gain, then the rich will keep producing.
  • They will simply complain about the tax rates and keep on working.
  • One way that society keeps a lid on the powder keg of tension between the rich and poor is through the welfare state.
  • In its most basic form (which I'll discuss here for simplification's sake), it is a guarantee of a minimum income above the poverty line for every citizen.
  • Cynics view this as the rich paying off the poor to keep them from revolting.
  • These payments, the cynics would argue, bribe the poor to back the system.
  • Although the poor may not believe that wealth is attainable for them, they do not want to rock the boat and risk disrupting the system that guarantees them at least some income.
  • The optimist would probably try to hug the cynic.
  • The optimist would probably try to hug the cynic.
  • We have surmised the future widening of the gap between the rich and poor, and looked at how that has played out in history.
  • We have looked at factors that increase animosity between the rich and poor and situations in which they can live harmoniously.
  • Now let's look at the role of government, both philosophically and historically, which also changes over time.
  • If governments are created to protect the life, liberty, and property of their citizenry, what all does that entail?
  • When nations are young and when they are poor, they usually focus on two things: the military and civil order.
  • The most pressing concern is securing their own survival.
  • This usually comes in the form of protecting their citizenry from crime.
  • Preventing violent crimes and crimes against the weak usually take precedent over fraud and economic crimes.
  • This might be the adoption of commercial standards as well as the creation and operation of a civil court system and laws.
  • They develop methods for the accurate measuring and recording of boundaries of land as well as the sale thereof.
  • Some believe this is the beginning and end of the role of government.
  • Others more broadly interpret the concept of securing life, liberty, and property.
  • Didn't Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, believe the Constitution should be rewritten every twenty years so that no one was governed by a document they had no say in creating?
  • Government is the servant of the people, not the master.
  • The more it grows, the more heavy-handed it becomes and the more it tramples the very rights it purports to protect.
  • The more it grows, the more heavy-handed it becomes and the more it tramples the very rights it purports to protect.
  • You are right to quote Jefferson, but you chose the wrong quote.
  • In a heated moment the phrase "jack-booted thug" slips out, and it is all downhill from there.
  • Civility is the second casualty of political debate.
  • The first is empathy.
  • Instead, forget which is "right" for the moment and simply consider the flow of history, for better or worse.
  • As national income increases in a given country, the size of government as a portion of gross national product (GNP) rises and the range of services people expect the government to offer rises.
  • Direct payments are made to an increasing number of citizens and the size of those payments rise.
  • Then, as a nation grows wealthier, tax rates could fall in terms of percentages because the nation is making so much more money.
  • But this is not the case historically.
  • Whether you look at a single country over a span of time, or a group of countries at a specific point in history, the result is the same.
  • The higher the average income of the people (as expressed through per capita GNP), the higher the tax rate.
  • The higher the average income of the people (as expressed through per capita GNP), the higher the tax rate.
  • Roughly speaking, if you look at the poorest forty nations in the world, who have an average income per person of about $1,500 a year, their effective tax rates are about 20 percent.
  • In other words, the government taxes and spends about $300 per person per year.
  • On the other hand, if you take the forty richest countries, each person earns on average around $33,000.
  • So you might suspect the tax rate is only 1 percent.
  • That is all the government needs to tax to bring in the $300 per person per year.
  • The tax rate is actually much higher.
  • The math works the same over time.
  • The math works the same over time.
  • The tax rates when the "conservatives" are in power are very little different than when the "liberals" are in power.
  • The tax rates when the "conservatives" are in power are very little different than when the "liberals" are in power.
  • Historically, and one can certainly make the case in the present time, this ultimately bankrupts societies.
  • The very well documented corn dole of ancient Rome is one of many cases.
  • After the death of Gracchus, a conservative government under Sulla withdrew the subsidy, but shortly afterward, in a period of great unrest, restored it, and two hundred thousand persons stood in line.
  • In 58 BC, Clodius Pulcher ran on a "free grain for the poor" platform as he tried to become tribune.
  • He worked to apply a means test, pared the rolls back, then died; the rolls swelled again, and his successor again tried to bring them in line, but it was hard.
  • We've seen this: If you are running for president of the United States, merely using the words "freeze" and "Social Security" in the same sentence has the retirees of the nation heating up pots of tar and emptying their down pillows.
  • The Roman story went on.
  • Three centuries later, it became a hereditary right and came with a daily ration of two pounds of bread ("Hey, you don't expect us to cook the free grain, do you?") and occasionally included meat, olive oil, and salt.
  • But the big question is whether these same economics would apply in a world one hundred times richer than we are right now.
  • Let's say, to keep the math simple, they go up thirtyfold.
  • Well, on the one hand, you would be kind of cheesed-off.
  • After all, that's the government taking more than half of what you make.
  • Now, let me pose a different question: In the vastly-more-prosperous future, what will "working hard for our money" even mean?
  • First, think of the concept of interest.
  • We understand that you can, in theory, save and save and save and then live off the interest of your savings forever.
  • Now, consider the child that lives off the interest payments of all the money her parents saved.
  • Are those interest payments to the child "welfare?"
  • Most people would not term that welfare, which has become a loaded phrase associated with the state making a payment to individuals.
  • So let's say your parents bought Coca Cola stock their entire life, left it all to you, and you are able to live off the dividend payments of the stock.
  • They used that money to buy part of Coca Cola in the form of common stock.
  • The payments are substantial, about $1,000 per person.
  • This is simply returning to the people a portion of income from land that is publicly owned.
  • The people in Alaska who get the checks don't work for them.
  • The people in Alaska who get the checks don't work for them.
  • They aren't responsible for the oil being in Alaska and do nothing to extract the oil from the earth.
  • I describe these three situations because each, in its own way, illustrates how I think the future will play out regarding income and wealth.
  • In other words, the average person will make more money, pay a higher percentage as taxes, but still bring home vastly more than before.
  • Because human ability is distributed unevenly and technology multiplies ability of the talented, the spread between the rich and poor will rise more and more.
  • Before recorded music, the best musicians made a good living but weren't extremely wealthy.
  • Once technology allowed for the recording and sale of records, their income shot way up—they could use technology to magnify their ability.
  • Bill Gates could make his billions because computers, with the right software, could vastly increase productivity.
  • Therefore millions of people were willing to pay hundreds of dollars for the software to make them more productive.
  • So the poor will get richer, and the rich will get vastly richer.
  • It will be regarded as interest payments on the accumulated riches of one thousand years of technical and material progress.
  • It will be regarded as a dividend of the work of the one hundred prior generations that got the world to this point.
  • Somebody else—actually, a lot of somebody elses—worked really hard for a long time to build the United States and its freedoms.
  • When all the factories run themselves, when energy is free, when scarcity is ended, when material needs are all met, it will be a different world.
  • Some become so wealthy, in fact, they can live off the interest (the productivity) of their assets, not just their own labor.
  • All it takes is so much wealth that it is self-sustaining—that the productivity of that wealth can support everyone.
  • In a world without abundance, socialism removes the one reliable creator of abundance—the individual profit motive—and that results in a lower standard of living for everyone.
  • In a world without scarcity, or that has scarcity at such a trivial level it is hardly noticeable, all the conventional theories and dogmas lose their meaning.
  • We will know it is coming when we see the prices of more products fall while their quality increases.
  • As we start heading toward this world without want, there will be sizable disruptions in the normal fabric of life.
  • Some people will have a hard time adjusting to the new reality.
  • As we consider the lot of those left behind, it becomes clearer how the end of scarcity will have a profound impact on the world.
  • When I talk about this future, a future in which machines will do more and more of the work people do now, I always get some variant of the same question: What about the people who lose their jobs to machines and don't have any other skills?
  • The implication is always that some people are simply unable to do any job that a machine cannot do.
  • First, I would contend that the size of this problem is substantially smaller than many people would guess.
  • Simply because only so many jobs can, in theory, be replaced by machines does not imply anything about the ability of the people now doing them.
  • As I've said earlier, the most underutilized resource in the universe is human potential.
  • Pretend there is a spectrum of jobs from the best in the world down to the worst and everyone agrees on the order.
  • Further, assume the best job pays the most and is the most fun, and the worst job pays the least and is the least fun.
  • To the extent this world is a meritocracy, the most talented will be the movie star and the least talented will be hauling manure.
  • First, it would be tempting to assume the person hauling manure can only do that, and if that job disappeared he would have no useful skills.
  • But in describing that job spectrum, I never said anything about his absolute ability—I said only that he was at the bottom of the list relative to others.
  • Now, what if the bottom half of jobs disappeared and were replaced by robots who did them for almost free?
  • Well, wealth would expand dramatically, and the people who had those jobs before could get new and better jobs, such as managing the army of manure-toting robots.
  • In the agricultural economy, virtually everyone was a farmer.
  • By the time you were fifteen, you learned everything you needed to know to be a good farmer.
  • By the time your sons were fifteen, they, too, knew everything they needed to know to be a farmer, and it all continued.
  • Then along came the Industrial Revolution, and I am sure it all seemed very foreign.
  • The farmers had to learn what it meant to be paid by the hour and to take instructions from supervisors; how to do a task and then the next day, learn a completely new task and do it instead.
  • The farmers had to learn what it meant to be paid by the hour and to take instructions from supervisors; how to do a task and then the next day, learn a completely new task and do it instead.
  • Cars replaced horses; did the stable boys remain out of work?
  • The Internet replaced travel agents; are they all unemployed?
  • Then came the phone.
  • Lamplighters used to light street lamps every night, before the accursed electricity came along.
  • The iceman delivered ice for your icebox until the electric freezer put him out of business.
  • The iceman delivered ice for your icebox until the electric freezer put him out of business.
  • People used to sweep the streets at night until a machine replaced them.
  • This idea that there are a finite number of jobs misses the point entirely of what makes a job.
  • However much value the labor can add to the thing is the amount of wage the person can earn.
  • Today we are on the cusp of a substantially more profound shift in work life.
  • We still have people in boring, dead-end jobs only because we haven't built a machine to do the work.
  • As I've already said, I believe we will be experiencing so much prosperity in the not-too-distant future that no one will have to work.
  • It will be regarded as a human right—a dividend for being born a human being, your share of the inheritance that all the prior generations accumulated.
  • It will not be welfare (or, at least depending on how you define the term, it will not be perceived as welfare).
  • In the prosperous future, one group of people will rise to this challenge.
  • They will take advantage of the freedom from financial want that the modern age gives them and will focus on improving themselves and the world they live in.
  • When those are the paths people choose between in the future—a Star Trek path or a WALL·E path—some will choose one and some will choose the other.
  • But it is my belief that many more people will choose the first choice.
  • I think most people around the world will seek personal excellence.
  • Imagine if all the people with boring, dead-end machine jobs were told they never had to work another day in their life at a job they did not like.
  • We all know the stories of people who win the lottery—and let's face it, far too often no good comes of it.
  • In a few years, the money is gone and they are worse off than before.
  • But over time, these dehumanizing jobs are what will be "left behind," not the people who perform them.
  • The idea of having to "earn a living" will be completely foreign to us.
  • And that meant, for too many of us, ditching what we loved to do and doing the work of a machine.
  • In fact, let's say his own mother considered donating the portrait he painted of her to Goodwill but decided not to because "the poor have enough problems already."
  • This is the state of much of humanity.
  • In the future, all people will be able to follow their passions without regard for market forces.
  • The rich have always had this luxury.
  • They don't really worry about whether playing polo or building orphanages or any other chosen pursuit can pay the bills, because they don't need it to pay the bills.
  • What if everyone on the planet had that luxury?
  • Often when I discuss this idea with people, they bring up an objection I have come to call The Spoiled Rich Kid Problem.
  • It goes something like this: If everyone is "rich," then doesn't everyone just become the idle rich?
  • Everyone you know lives in the trailer park and they all have about the same level of income.
  • One day, a tornado comes, lifts up your trailer with everyone in it, flies it around the world to the poorest nation on earth, and drops it in the middle of the village.
  • Now all of a sudden your children are raised in what seems to everyone to be the lap of luxury.
  • Electricity (hmm, I guess the trailer was solar powered), a refrigerator, air conditioning.
  • I base that expectation in part on the fact that today, many of us already live in more comfort than the richest king in the world did two hundred years ago.
  • We control the temperature of our surroundings, eat food from around the world, and own possessions no king could have imagined.
  • Plus, we have powers formerly attributed to the ancient gods; we can fly, talk to people in other places, and see what is happening elsewhere.
  • Now, to address the challenge of getting there.
  • As we transition from one set of economic realities to another, there will be severe disruptions along the way.
  • Trade and the division of labor have given us vast amounts of wealth.
  • And we got them all, more or less, by trade and the wealth generated by our work doing some function for which we are trained.
  • Social structures will change, and the purpose of education will be to learn to reason and find one's passion.
  • The free enterprise system—the greatest creator of wealth the world has known—will continue to produce the material gains we enjoy today and to reward most those who serve their fellow humans best.
  • The free enterprise system—the greatest creator of wealth the world has known—will continue to produce the material gains we enjoy today and to reward most those who serve their fellow humans best.
  • Jobs done by people will be only the ones that require uniquely human capabilities to do.
  • These jobs can be market jobs that have the potential to make a person vastly richer, creating more and more wealth on the planet.
  • Or these jobs can be divorced from economic realities, as the struggling painter or actor decides simply to do what he loves and live off the minimum income afforded by this planet-wide prosperity.
  • As technology enters its explosive period of growth, with the Internet and associated technologies flourishing in a Moore's-Law-like manner, it will create immense amounts of wealth.
  • And if history is an accurate guide, that wealth will be partially redistributed to the poor—even the poorest of the poor, the bottom billion.
  • I almost cut this entire section from the book.
  • So the problem must be that we have stretched the planet past its ability to feed its inhabitants, right?
  • This simply is not the case.
  • By comparison, if a country has 99 percent of the people working in agriculture—if it is barely feeding itself, even with everyone working at that—then it is living at a subsistence level, the very definition of poverty.
  • In the modern age of communication and cheap transportation, food can be moved around the planet relatively easily.
  • But before the twentieth century, this was not the case and actual famines were much more common.
  • This would be the case in a besieged city or a nation using the food supply to keep its citizenry in check.
  • Structural famine exists when enough food is technically on hand or able to be imported, but some portion of the population is economically separated from it.
  • This kind of hunger is common and generally is what has triggered food riots, now and in the past.
  • The poor, knowing there to be bread but being economically unable to get it, rioted.
  • After touring the United States for more than nine months in the 1830s, Alexis de Tocqueville returned to his native France and penned the two-volume Democracy in America.
  • It is fascinating reading to this day because the things he notes about the American character are still very much with us.
  • He writes how in Europe when there is a problem, people turn to the government to solve it, but in America, they form what he calls "voluntary associations"—what we might term charities and nonprofits.
  • I personally think the establishment of charitable organizations was driven by the same spirit that drove the creation of new businesses.
  • This can-do, care-for-our-own spirit permeated the nation.
  • In a speech to the House of Representatives at this same time, Congressman Davy Crockett told the story of getting chewed out by a constituent for voting for a $20,000 emergency relief bill for the homeless in a city just wiped out by a fire.
  • This all began to change in the twentieth century for a variety of reasons.
  • Much change was due to the efforts of William Jennings Bryan, who received the Democratic Party nomination for president three times, in 1896, 1900, and 1908.
  • Barely a decade earlier, Cleveland, also a Democrat, had said essentially, "Look, the government shouldn't be helping the poor Texans; that's the role of charity."
  • And he used his decades of dominance on the national scene, as well as his fantastic oratorical ability, to advance that belief and essentially invent the Democratic Party we know today.
  • Then came World War I, which utilized these institutions and greatly expanded the size of the federal government.
  • After this came the Great Depression, which so overwhelmed the social support structures that Americans turned to the government for help and have never turned back.
  • Penalty for vagrancy rose over the years from time served in stocks, to whipping, to branding, and then to death.
  • Around 1600, the Elizabethan Poor Law came into effect and lasted more than two centuries.
  • The system had an office, Overseer of the Poor, in each of 1,500 parishes.
  • The system had an office, Overseer of the Poor, in each of 1,500 parishes.
  • The thought was that the overseer, being local, would be able to separate the lazy from the truly needy.
  • The thought was that the overseer, being local, would be able to separate the lazy from the truly needy.
  • This abuse resulted in an overhaul of the system that sought to tie the poor to their original parish.
  • By around 1700, the workhouse movement was under way.
  • Workhouses both lodged the poor and gave them work.
  • Since many of the poor were not able-bodied, the workhouses were not profitable institutions.
  • The system was revised in the 1830s because it was viewed as discouraging work by interfering with the laws of supply and demand relating to labor.
  • The system was revised in the 1830s because it was viewed as discouraging work by interfering with the laws of supply and demand relating to labor.
  • This involved making the poor wear prison uniforms and only providing enough food to avoid starvation.
  • The theory was that life in the workhouse had to be worse than life outside the workhouse, otherwise it would be overrun with the poor.
  • The theory was that life in the workhouse had to be worse than life outside the workhouse, otherwise it would be overrun with the poor.
  • When the economy entered recession, the workhouse conditions had to be worsened more.
  • That notwithstanding, de Tocqueville's "voluntary associations" are still alive and well in the United States.
  • According to the National Center for Charitable Statistics, more than 1.5 million 501(c) charitable organizations exist in the United States.
  • And that doesn't even count the many other charitable organizations that have not filed for this tax-exempt status with the federal government.
  • In the modern era, what we have seen around the world is a general increase in social services and the welfare state over time.
  • An important point to make here is this: Historically, the welfare state only emerges to solve problems that private charities either cannot or will not solve.
  • In other words, civil government steps in to take over roles traditionally provided by private charity only when charities no longer provide the service.
  • Governments create entitlements due to public demand for them, and public demand exists where the need is not filled.
  • But it is hard to deny the underlying need.
  • The Amish have no need for Social Security.
  • In any case, as the song says, The times, they are a-changin'—and they are changing in a manner that governments probably can't keep up with.
  • In any case, as the song says, The times, they are a-changin'—and they are changing in a manner that governments probably can't keep up with.
  • It is a shame that de Tocqueville's voluntary associations aren't more prominent around the world today—but in the future, they may be.
  • As the saying goes, we laugh because it is true.
  • In discussing nutrition, not only is there little agreement on the nature of the solutions, there is often disagreement on the nature of the problems.
  • This is the case on genetically modified crops and many other issues where passions run high.
  • Why is this the case?
  • Why are people so quick to vilify those on the "other side" of the issue—and why do we even think in terms of sides?
  • If this chapter angers the Right and Left, the Greens and Browns, the capitalists and socialists, the nutritionists and farmers, I apologize to all in advance.
  • Add to that how food itself is changing, our food choices change, our lifestyles change, and all along the way we are aging.
  • As we noted earlier, people no longer disagree simply about what values to apply to a set of facts—rather, they disagree as to the nature of the facts themselves.
  • This makes a great deal of sense: If nutrition isn't governed by universal laws (as physics is) and instead affects different people differently, then the way you will know certain things is by learning through trial and error, through your own experience.
  • We tend to notice every time the expected effect is triggered by the cause, but may not notice all the times it isn't.
  • In other words, you might not notice the time you ate the MSG and didn't get the headache.
  • How do you know that isn't doing the trick?
  • The second way people choose a nutritional theory is to develop it from their overall social and political understanding of the world.
  • The second way people choose a nutritional theory is to develop it from their overall social and political understanding of the world.
  • Whether you are for the organic food movement or against it, for genetically modified crops or against them, for corporate farms or seed banks or raw food or anything else, is influenced significantly by your larger view of politics.
  • In areas of uncertainty, we form our opinions on the basis of assumptions in other parts of our life.
  • The subtle interplay of everything involved in nutrition is vastly more complex than our minds are able to handle.
  • The Internet will solve for this problem.
  • Computers, especially computers of the future, will have no trouble handling all the variables that influence nutrition, though there will be millions of them.
  • In the future, massive new amounts of information will begin to resolve the debate, instead of just adding noise to it as too often occurs today.
  • But in the future when we have more and better information, if it turns out that some of these methods are not net gains, we will know that and look elsewhere for solutions.
  • So the current frustrating situation, where so many people have such wildly divergent understandings about nutrition, will fade away.
  • We already produce more than enough food to feed the planet.
  • That's a quarter of all the hungry people in the world.
  • That's right: India is a net food exporter to the tune of US$6 billion a year.
  • Next comes China, with the second highest number of hungry people at 130.4 million.
  • In fact, China produces more food than any other country in the world, triple the amount the United States produces.
  • Pakistan has the third largest number of hungry people with a total of 43.4 million.
  • More than half the hungry people in the world live in just these three nations—nations that are all net food exporters.
  • Eventually, he reasoned, the hungry hoards would overwhelm the beleaguered food supply.
  • Well, in the developed world, the percent of people needed to farm fell from more than 90 percent to today's 4 percent.
  • At the same time, the percent of income we individually have to spend on feeding ourselves plummeted as well.
  • My point here is that currently the planet is producing enough food to feed everyone on it.
  • The United Nations has estimated that earth's population will pass nine billion by 2050, and ten billion by 2100.
  • It is most unlikely that this process of improvement will not continue in the future.
  • We all understand intuitively there is plenty of food in the world.
  • Now the number is in the single digits.
  • And that is paying full retail prices in an air-conditioned Western supermarket; by the ton, this food costs much less.
  • Even at the retail price, we could feed all the world's hungry for a billion dollars a day or $365 billion a year.
  • And the American farmer produces key crops, such as wheat, very inexpensively.
  • At one point, Tiger Woods got a dime for every box of Wheaties cereal with his photo on it, while the farmer was paid only a nickel for the wheat in that same box—and the farmer still made a profit.
  • Given these agricultural strengths, is there anyone who believes the United States alone couldn't produce an extra $365 billion worth of food, at full retail price, if there were a ready buyer for it?
  • After all, China grows more than three times the amount of food we do in the United States, with less land under cultivation.
  • The problem is not that the world doesn't have enough food.
  • The problem is not that the world doesn't have enough food.
  • The problem is that the poor don't have enough money to afford the food.
  • The problem is that the poor don't have enough money to afford the food.
  • To me, this makes the problem of hunger that much sadder in the present—to realize that the planet has enough food, just not enough generosity.
  • But in a real sense, it also makes the problem that much easier to solve in the future.
  • But hunger has numerous and complicated causes and can only be eliminated by addressing the chief ones.
  • So, why is there hunger in the world today?
  • In part, for the following reasons:
  • This leads to the proverbial "lean years" and "fat years."
  • In the lean years, harvests are small and farmers sometimes don't even produce enough to have surplus to sell.
  • Then again, don't the fat years make up for all this?
  • In the fat years, agricultural prices are pushed downward by the abundance, often below the cost of harvesting and transporting the crops.
  • They need trucks to transport their goods and roads to drive the trucks on.
  • You can be a subsistence farmer and perhaps produce some excess, but given the prior observation about the fundamental volatility of farming, you will always be at risk of not producing enough.
  • There is some debate as to whether the poor should even try to feed themselves.
  • Those who argue they should not say there is no way for poor countries to compete with mechanized Western farming and the extremely high yields it produces.
  • Instead, the poorest nations should simply resign themselves to importing their food from abroad and instead get jobs working in cities in factories.
  • Still others argue for a system of government price supports, incentives, and subsidies, as is found in the United States and Europe.
  • Regardless of who is "right," the harm comes if you try to do all these things at once.
  • Going back and forth between these strategies is problematic, to say the least.
  • Cheap food is great for the poor but bad for the poor farmer.
  • If poor nations decide to pursue what I will call the Japan strategy, importing all their food and developing other industry, then they become huge fans of farm subsidies in other countries.
  • In that case, the subsidy goes straight from the taxpayer in the other country to the purchaser of the subsidized crop.
  • If, on the other hand, they want self-sufficiency in agriculture, then farm subsidies in other countries are bad for them.
  • As nice as it would be for the Japan strategy to work in the developing world, I don't think these countries can count on it.
  • Heck, even Japan only recently allowed imports of rice and taxes the imports at 500 percent in order to protect their rice farmers.
  • Say the poor decide they cannot compete with a modern farm, so they move to the city and get a job at a factory.
  • The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
  • The cost of their imported food doubles, and I guarantee you the foreign-owned factory won't double wages as a result.
  • In societies where a large percentage of income is necessary just to buy food, having volatile food prices will mean hunger sooner or later, no matter how good the factory jobs are.
  • During the Great Depression in the United States, many unemployed Americans simply left the city and went back to farm life, sometimes living with relatives.
  • The urban half clearly have no opportunity to farm.
  • So let's say the large corn farms all have a great year and a bountiful crop comes forth.
  • This is basically the situation in many of earth's chronically hungry countries.
  • But the problem, of course, was that food prices went up, the people went hungry, and riots ensued.
  • Those are only some of the most significant factors contributing to hunger in the world today.
  • Africa, where half the world's hungry citizens reside, has additional challenges.
  • It has a large number of landlocked nations without ports to access the international markets, both for imports and exports.
  • Crops native to Africa are not the staples of the world.
  • I push the seed in the ground, water it, and wonder why nothing grew.
  • But the industry as a whole has shot forward.)
  • I think we are still at the donkey stage—and this is good news!
  • The rate of innovation is increasing rapidly, though.
  • If you look back across the span of time, you see wood plows being used in 4000 BC, then irrigation five hundred years later.
  • A couple of hundred years later, we see the Romans doing crop rotation.
  • Six hundred years after that, we get the windmill for irrigation.
  • The cotton gin, steel ploughs, tractors, combines, and a thousand other inventions would forever change the farm.
  • The cotton gin, steel ploughs, tractors, combines, and a thousand other inventions would forever change the farm.
  • The advances were not merely mechanical but chemical as well.
  • In the early 1800s, fertilizer companies sprang up using bone meal as the principle agent.
  • By the early twentieth century, most manufacturing of fertilizer had switched to the synthetic production of ammonium sulfate and ammonium phosphate.
  • Since then, the changes have become more about intellectual property and technique.
  • The 2000s saw the rise of commercially viable seeds created by transgenesis, that is, the insertion of DNA from one species into another species.
  • The 2000s saw the rise of commercially viable seeds created by transgenesis, that is, the insertion of DNA from one species into another species.
  • First are the inefficiencies in the natural processes of agriculture.
  • Second are the inefficiencies in the human processes—that is, the techniques by which we practice agriculture.
  • To consider the great opportunity we can find in these inefficiencies, let's begin by talking about Norman Borlaug.
  • Over the CCC's nine-year life, its workers planted nearly three billion trees, built eight hundred parks, and constructed roads in remote areas.
  • Many of the people Borlaug worked with at this time were poor, even starving.
  • In the first ten years of attempting to make better hybrids, Borlaug's group made more than six thousand crossings of wheat.
  • Borlaug also promoted the process (which proved wildly successful) of having two wheat-growing seasons in Mexico, one in the highlands, then another in the valley regions.
  • To further enhance yield, at the same time Borlaug bred wheat strains with short, stubby stalks, which were able to better handle more weight of grain.
  • In 1962, some of them were grown in India, and based on the results, Borlaug was invited to India.
  • Although there was cultural opposition in India to Borlaug's methods and seeds, the famine was so bad by 1965 that the government stepped in and urged the project forward.
  • Government buildings were converted into silos to hold the abundance, as other countries in the region placed orders for massive amounts of these seeds.
  • This was a guy from a small town in Iowa who failed his 1933 entrance exam to the University of Minnesota.
  • By the time Norman Borlaug passed away in 2009 at the age of ninety-five, he had become one of only six people to have won the Nobel Peace Prize, the Presidential Medal of Freedom, and the Congressional Gold Medal.
  • All he could do was cross strains of wheat, much in the same fashion as Gregor Mendel did in the 1800s.
  • And do you know how he crossed the grains?
  • A trash bag was the highest-tech object Borlaug had.
  • Plants themselves are pretty inefficient machines, at least from the standpoint of being good food sources for us.
  • From our point of view, the job of the plant is to convert sunlight into energy and store that energy in a tasty way; then when we eat the plant, we get that energy.
  • How good a job are the plants doing?
  • To deal in generalities, plants capture, on average, about 5 percent of the solar energy that falls on their leaves.
  • Operating at basically 5 percent efficiency, they are less than half as efficient as solar panels now on the market.
  • And solar cells presently being developed in laboratories are doing several times better than the plants.
  • Additionally, of the energy the plant absorbs, it only stores one tenth of it in the potato or bean or whatever part we eat.
  • From our standpoint, the plant wastes all the rest of its energy on riotous living: growing roots and leaves, soaking up water, separating carbon molecules from oxygen ones.
  • We stick a bunch of seeds in the ground and then treat a thousand acres of corn pretty much as a single unit.
  • What if the farmer could give every stalk of corn individual attention and water and fertilize each one exactly when it was needed?
  • And then, the seeds we are using aren't anything to write home about, either.
  • I mentioned Gregor Mendel, known as the father of genetics.
  • Eventually, the pea was as large as its genetic potential allowed it to be.
  • The same worked for ever smaller and smaller pea plants.
  • That range between the smallest pea plant and the largest is the full spectrum of what that plant can be.
  • All the seeds we have today have these inherent limits built into them that we still haven't figured out how to change.
  • How much more should we be able to with the Internet, computers, and other technology?
  • To describe ending hunger in the future, I have only these tarnished terms of the present at my disposal.
  • And yet the future I envision is no more like what we have today than a state-of-the-art Volvo factory is like a nineteenth-century London sweatshop.
  • I ask the reader to resist the urge to pigeonhole me until the end of the section.
  • Remember the Warren Bennis quote I used earlier about the factory of the future having only one man and one dog?
  • The farm of the future will have neither.
  • The farm of the future will have neither.
  • Because the most efficient farms in the world are those that operate at vast scale.
  • All the work is done by machines already.
  • Only the decision making is left to the farmer—but in the near future, the decision making will be done better by computers.
  • Sensors can constantly monitor moisture levels in the soil, the size and color of the plants, air quality, nutrient levels in the soil, amount of sunlight, and hundreds of other variables.
  • The farm of the future will rotate crops automatically and decide which fields to leave fallow.
  • The farm of the future will rotate crops automatically and decide which fields to leave fallow.
  • If the farm of the future plugs into the national grid, it will become part of the national food strategy and can be optimized for financial yield for the owners.
  • The system will see that just the right amounts of black-eyed peas, potatoes, and corn are grown.
  • The system will see that just the right amounts of black-eyed peas, potatoes, and corn are grown.
  • The farm of today already has tractors that use GPS to make perfectly parallel rows with great precision.
  • How long will it be before the driver controls them remotely from his office?
  • There were more people farming in the United States in 1820 than there are today.
  • But the food would not only be produced with maximum efficiency; it would be extremely fresh and very healthy.
  • In the future, that will be easy.
  • If the turnip is dry, it is watered, each drop carefully metered out.
  • If a fly lands on it, the fly is shooed off.
  • Exportable technology can function around the world.
  • Exportable technology can function around the world.
  • How do I reconcile my personal choices with my statement that the farm of the future is a good thing?
  • Second, some people will still want their food grown the old-fashioned way, just like how I buy heritage meats and heirloom seeds.
  • A traitor to the cause?
  • You can't do something that long and not have some strong opinions on the matter.
  • Every morning before I went to school I had chores to do, which began with mixing up the formula and feeding the calves.
  • My daughter, the family gardener, only plants heirloom produce from non-hybrid seeds.
  • Every week, I buy my milk from a small local dairy on the day it comes forth from the cow.
  • This dairyman also makes some of the milk into cheese and we use a lot of that as well.
  • I abhor the conditions under which we commercially raise farm animals today.
  • Additionally, I am quite interested in the history of food.
  • I have an extensive library of very old recipe books, including several "autographs"—original, handwritten, unpublished, personal cookbooks—that date back to the early 1700s.
  • Third, the day will come when the farm of the future will make a healthier, less expensive, more ecologically friendly, fresher, and better-tasting product.
  • The mass food industry of today cannot make this claim.
  • But when the farm of tomorrow delivers on this holistic promise, I think all people will embrace it.
  • No one today would want a car built the old way.
  • The proverbial "Little Timmy" will find it hard to believe that food isn't manufactured like electronics but grown like an animal.
  • Both of these are hugely important parts of life, and I know of no one who would trade them away for a pill they swallow in the morning that gives them all their nutrition for the day.
  • What if a manufactured steak was as good as the best steak you have ever had?
  • And greener (in the environmental way, not the color way).
  • At times, it may be best to just enjoy the meal and not ask too many questions.
  • That said, my "end hunger" case doesn't hang on the viability of GM crops.
  • If I am ultimately proven wrong and the world rejects GM foods, we will still end hunger.
  • First, the technology can be abused and used irresponsibly, like pretty much every other technology in the world.
  • Second, the real promise of GM crops will not necessarily come about from the food industry.
  • Fast food chains optimize for two of them: taste and price, at the expense of nutrition.
  • Other businesses in the food industry—say those pricey health foods you see at fancy grocery stores—optimize for taste and nutrition at the expense of price.
  • And we all know about those that optimize for cost and nutrition but the resulting food tastes awful; I have consumed enough wheatgrass to attest to this.
  • Similarly, seed makers are judged by the crops the seeds grow into—specifically, the yield and how long it takes to get it.
  • It will undoubtedly make the most profitable seeds possible but not necessarily the healthiest.
  • The majority of processed food sold in the United States contains GMO.
  • The majority of processed food sold in the United States contains GMO.
  • The point is this: GMO crops are everywhere.
  • Susie's ears had an unusual fold in the middle so they basically pointed downward.
  • A neighboring farmer and cat-lover, William Ross, perhaps hearing a distinct "ka-ching" in his head, got one of the kittens and teamed up with a geneticist and began a careful breeding program.
  • Over the next three years, forty-two folded-ear cats were born, and with them a new breed.
  • The fold in the ears was caused by a heritable, dominant, mutated gene.
  • The fold in the ears was caused by a heritable, dominant, mutated gene.
  • The gene mutated accidently, but once noticed, breeders bred for it.
  • Although the original mutation was not caused by human activity, human activity preserved and perpetuated it.
  • Another method of genetic modification, called mutagenesis, dates to the early part of the twentieth century.
  • If the first order of genetic modification is deliberately keeping desirable mutations, then this is the second order: creating conditions for such genetic modifications to occur more rapidly.
  • Half the rice grown in California is a descendant of Calrose 76, created when gamma rays mutated some regular rice and the resulting mutant produced more grain and less spoilage.
  • We don't fault, at the first order, Native Americans or Norman Borlaug for cross-breeding better corn or wheat.
  • Now we are at the third order: splicing genes within a species.
  • Finally, we get to the fourth order of GMO: being able to splice genes from one species into another species, a process known as transgenesis.
  • This is the part that makes some people even more nervous.
  • The law was a win for the environment.
  • Where transgenesis offers the most amazing possibilities is in GM foods because it allows plants to exceed their maximum genetic potential.
  • VAD occurs mostly in Africa and South East Asia where rice is the staple food.
  • In 2005, rice became the first crop plant whose complete genome had been compiled.
  • Since rice is relied upon by so much of the world's poor, efforts here really can save lives.
  • By one count, rice is the principle source of calories for about half the planet.
  • This is exactly the kind of problem geneticists can sink their teeth into, so to speak, to make the protein in this grain digestible.
  • In late 2009, the entire genome of corn was decoded.
  • Having the entire genome means we can begin making super corn, better, stronger, and faster growing.
  • American ethanol policies do not "kill" the poor, but they do drive up corn prices.
  • Me ordering a second helping of corn on the cob while dining at the Black Eyed Pea also increases demand for corn, but for doing so, I shouldn't stand trial for murder.
  • Environmentalists should be the first people onboard the genetic modification bandwagon.
  • Wouldn't that be something: Plants that would convert nitrogen from the atmosphere directly into ammonia they could use or plants that gave off the odor of other plants that pests avoid?
  • Or that taste like meat, taking pastureland off the grid.
  • As far as scientific advancements go, that would be right up there with the proverbial sliced bread.
  • (If that can be achieved, to my readers under age twelve, I hold out the possibility of Brussels sprouts that taste like chocolate.)
  • For environmentalist organizations like Greenpeace to be against GMO in all its forms under all conditions does nothing at all to serve them or the constituencies they purport to represent.
  • By taking this "Absolutely no GMOs" stance they completely remove themselves from the debate and as such have no voice in the discussion about what direction to take GM: what are safe testing practices, what factors will we optimize for, and the whole host of questions that face us on this, the eve of a momentous leap forward.
  • Weigh that against the certainty that nearly a billion people are hungry right now and I don't know why we would decline to acquire this knowledge.
  • The possibilities of GMO go far beyond prettier corn or cheaper strawberries.
  • The Internet will greatly speed the research and, hopefully, the safety of GM foods.
  • The Internet will greatly speed the research and, hopefully, the safety of GM foods.
  • The massive amounts of information in these decoded genomes can only be processed by computers.
  • Collaboration, communication, access to information, and the other advantages that the Internet brings will all come to bear here.
  • I understand all the concerns.
  • The issues are difficult because fundamentally none of us knows the ultimate effects.
  • The issues are difficult because fundamentally none of us knows the ultimate effects.
  • We hardly understand the process, which itself seems unbelievable.
  • As we have reasoned, when the Internet and related technologies help bring an end to poverty, the end of poverty will largely solve the problem of hunger.
  • But the end of hunger also will be hastened by a host of Internet technologies that will dramatically change agriculture.
  • As noted previously, in the future much of what you do will leave a Digital Echo, a record of its occurrence, down to the very minutia of your life.
  • Part of this will be enabled by very cheap sensors embedded in the things you use.
  • That is also the case because humans couldn't do a very good job at a stalk-by-stalk approach.
  • We cannot determine the chemical composition of soil simply by touching it.
  • We are really good on the reasoning part, but as far as our sensory inputs go, we are massively outclassed by cheap sensors.
  • The ultimate goal, I submit, is not to optimize just meter by meter but what I call "grape by grape," down to each individual piece of flora and fauna.
  • If this sounds absurd, at present it is—but in the future, the price of technologies to do this will fall to nearly zero.
  • In the not too distant future, tiny robots will detect pests on produce and emit a signal to shoo them away.
  • In the future, each plant will be on the Internet.
  • Farming will be done on such a scale that thousands of experiments can be happening at any one time, putting a tiny fraction of the produce at risk.
  • The price of such hardware is in free fall.
  • The speed and quality of those algorithms will get ever better.
  • How would it not find its way to the poorest regions of the earth?
  • This has been a common situation throughout areas with high degrees of poverty and is certainly the case in Ethiopia.
  • Eleni is CEO of the Ethiopian Commodity Exchange, which works like this: Farmers in Ethiopia bring their crops to any of two hundred market centers around the country.
  • There they can see the world commodity prices for their produce in real time.
  • Their produce is checked in to the warehouse and each farmer is issued a certificate corresponding to the amount of produce he brought.
  • He can sell the certificate, use it as collateral, or hold it for the future.
  • It can sell produce abroad for better rates, give farmers predictability in pricing and flexibility on when to sell, and act as a storehouse against lean times in the future.
  • This is made possible by technology and the Internet, which is used to connect buyers and sellers worldwide and bring information (world commodity prices) to the far reaches of the globe.
  • These are the kinds of solutions that will change the world.
  • The United Nations World Food Programme was so inspired by this success that pilot programs for an exchange were launched in twenty-one countries.
  • The principle here is to agree to buy a certain amount of a commodity at a certain price from farmers in these countries.
  • The farmers, with these contracts in hand, can plant aggressively knowing they have a ready buyer at a fixed price.
  • The access to information that mobile phones are bringing virtually everywhere on the planet is helping people raise their standard of living and will do so even more dramatically in the years to come.
  • The access to information that mobile phones are bringing virtually everywhere on the planet is helping people raise their standard of living and will do so even more dramatically in the years to come.
  • Idle computer time employed to solve the world's problems.
  • You can install Boinc software on your computer, choose a project you want your computer to work on when you are away from it, and maybe do your bit to change the world.
  • The world is quickly moving to participatory government.
  • According to the Center for Systemic Peace's tally, the world went from just twenty democracies in 1946 to ninety-two in 2009.
  • Dictatorships are toppling, and the Internet is helping that along.
  • One of these is micro-lending, which directly connects the lender with the borrower and which the Internet has made appealingly easy and personal.
  • With the help of local agencies around the world that have experience in micro-loans, a would-be borrower—say, a fish seller in the Philippines—uploads a picture and an explanation of what she wants the loan for.
  • If you decide to participate in the loan, you can kick in $25 or more.
  • Once the amount the fish seller requested is reached, the loan is funded and funds are transferred to her.
  • At some point, the loan is repaid to the local agency and your money comes back to you.
  • Since its founding in 2005, Kiva has loaned out nearly a quarter of a billion dollars and is repaid almost 99 percent of the time.
  • Micro-lending is not new; the idea of small loans to the entrepreneurial poor is centuries old.
  • But micro-lending via the Internet is different.
  • But in the meantime, hunger will stay with us even in the world of plenty.
  • The old adage is true: There really is no such thing as a free lunch.
  • There are those who would elevate the right to food as being a fundamental human right.
  • The word "unalienable" (or "inalienable"—they are interchangeable) means, "unable to be taken away from or given away by the possessor."
  • The word "unalienable" (or "inalienable"—they are interchangeable) means, "unable to be taken away from or given away by the possessor."
  • You cannot sell to someone the right to kill you or hold you prisoner.
  • The right is inseparable from its possessor.
  • To think of the right to life as somehow different than a right to food is hard for me.
  • I am not saying governments are supposed to feed the world or that food should be free.
  • Napoleon Bonaparte made a comment along these lines when he stated, "Man is entitled by birthright to a share of the Earth's produce sufficient to fill the needs of his existence."
  • Remember the remarkable Norman Borlaug?
  • It was his view that "the attainment of human rights in the fullest sense cannot be achieved so long as hundreds of millions of poverty-stricken people lack the basic necessities for life."
  • What would we say to Borlaug if we met him in a cornfield and ended up discussing the world's problems over a beer somewhere?
  • If you have a problem with that, take it up with the man with the gun.
  • It would be a colossal mistake to assume some sort of collectivist or communistic solution to hunger in the world.
  • During the period 1958 to 1961, an initiative called "The Great Leap Forward" was intended to increase the production of grain and other agricultural products.
  • During the period 1958 to 1961, an initiative called "The Great Leap Forward" was intended to increase the production of grain and other agricultural products.
  • China pulled out all the stops, dividing its farmland into about twenty-five thousand collective farms with an average of five thousand households each.
  • Instead of earning money, members of the collectives earned work points (which, of course, everyone prefers to money).
  • During this three-year period, conveniently named by the Chinese "The Three Years of Natural Disasters," no one really knows how many people died; estimates range from fifteen million to a high of more than forty-five million.
  • During this three-year period, conveniently named by the Chinese "The Three Years of Natural Disasters," no one really knows how many people died; estimates range from fifteen million to a high of more than forty-five million.
  • And the great tragedy is: During these three years, China exported more than twelve million tons of grain along with a literal cornucopia of other agricultural products.
  • Their only concern was how to fulfill the delivery of grain.
  • It is better to let half of the people die so that the other half can eat their fill.
  • And if that were not enough, he killed by starvation in the name of a program called—I kid you not—"The Super Great Leap Forward."
  • And if that were not enough, he killed by starvation in the name of a program called—I kid you not—"The Super Great Leap Forward."
  • Inspired by the Chinese effort, he, too, tried to increase the agricultural production of his country by emptying the cities and sending everyone to work on the farms under brutal conditions.
  • The hungrier people were ... the less likely they were to run away.
  • The hungrier people were ... the less likely they were to run away.
  • Everyone, by contrast, would kiss the hand that fed them, regardless of how bloody it was.
  • Everywhere you go in the United States are water fountains.
  • Water isn't free; someone is paying a bill to purify the water that comes through that fountain.
  • But the cost is so negligible that no one thinks much of it.
  • I don't recall ever being in a department store, drinking from the water fountain, and having the staff look at me disapprovingly because I was running up the water bill.
  • I believe we will see the day when food is like that.
  • In using the phrase, "Necessitous men are not free men," Roosevelt was actually quoting from a decision in a well-known 1762 English legal case.
  • The full quote runs: "Necessitous men are not, truly speaking, free men, but, to answer a present exigency, will submit to any terms that the crafty may impose upon them."
  • The full quote runs: "Necessitous men are not, truly speaking, free men, but, to answer a present exigency, will submit to any terms that the crafty may impose upon them."
  • The Communist system eschewed political liberties in favor of economic ones.
  • The individual had no liberties, or at least very few, but in exchange was, in theory, entitled to certain economic rights.
  • He is raising the value of citizenship, not cheapening it.
  • While Jefferson's "all men are created equal" statement was not meant by him to include slaves, we have broadened the application of the principle and should continue to do so.
  • To elevate food to the status of a human right does not require government to administer it—far from it.
  • In the United States, you could do it via the tax code, with government only acting as an income redistribution agent but not as a food distributor.
  • But what if everyone in the nation, rich and poor, were to be mailed a $2,000 food card annually, redeemable at the grocery store for any of several hundred nutritious foods?
  • To the conservatives, call it a tax rebate; to the liberals, an entitlement.
  • You will have ended hunger in the United States.
  • But of course, I am not most worried about the United States.
  • I hope that someday the whole world has only this nation's level of problems.
  • In the United States, de Tocqueville's voluntary associations still do the job and anyone willing to make her way to a church or food pantry and say she is hungry will not leave empty handed.
  • Food in the United States is so inexpensive as a percentage of national income that it literally is a throwaway item.
  • Do we not do the same in our personal lives?
  • Is our nation so poor or so weak that we must resort to the ultimate in pragmatism and befriend nations in the name of commerce or prosperity or military security while turning a blind eye to the suffering of their people?
  • What good is our high economic standing in the world if we do not use it for good purposes?
  • What would we have the centuries to come to say about us: That we were so eager to maximize our position of power and wealth that we turned a blind eye to injustice?
  • The question answers itself.
  • As people grow wealthier (as the whole world will), they typically spend more money on food, though it is less as a percentage of overall income.
  • They also become more interested in the food they eat.
  • As the world grows richer, people will care more about how their food is made, how the animals are treated, whether the laborer who picked the food is paid a living wage.
  • But over time, as incomes around the world rise, people will migrate more and more to products associated with social practices that match their own ideals.
  • We will radically improve the primitive, inefficient process that agriculture is today.
  • The cost of food will fall to nearly zero as the number of farmers in the world falls to zero and food becomes as cheap as clean water.
  • The cost of food will fall to nearly zero as the number of farmers in the world falls to zero and food becomes as cheap as clean water.
  • But I also believe that hunger will end when we decide to end it, not only at the point when we are able to end it.
  • Deciding to end hunger today saves the lives of millions, and we have the technology to do it.
  • Throughout this book, I've insisted the way to know the future is by studying the past.
  • Now, I'm faced with explaining why the past was full of war but somehow the future will not be.
  • But in making the case that war can and will be ended, I have my work cut out for me.
  • The chapter on civilization describes humanity's progress through the years and the importance of it.
  • The chapter on civilization describes humanity's progress through the years and the importance of it.
  • The next chapter addresses the possibility of ending war.
  • The next chapter addresses the possibility of ending war.
  • The following chapter catalogs the difficulties inherent in trying to end war, which in the past brought misery and destruction and in the future could bring annihilation.
  • The following chapter catalogs the difficulties inherent in trying to end war, which in the past brought misery and destruction and in the future could bring annihilation.
  • Out of the blue, the cavalry comes to the rescue.
  • All right then, not the cavalry, but a marshaling of arguments and observations that will show how the end of war is inevitable, or nearly so.
  • An old joke is about the city slicker who finds himself lost in the country.
  • He pulls up next to a farmer and asks the farmer how to get to a certain place.
  • The farmer replies, "You can't get there from here."
  • Jordanes, a Goth, wrote the following about the Huns in 551: They are beings who are cruel to their children on the very day they are born.
  • For they cut the cheeks of the males with a sword, so that before they receive the nourishment of milk they must learn to endure wounds.
  • The implication is that any time they nursed, they felt pain as well, to learn at an early age that there is no pleasure to be had in life without pain.
  • On July 29, 1014, Byzantine emperor Basil II defeated the Bulgarian army in the Battle of Kleidion.
  • The Byzantine army captured fifteen thousand prisoners.
  • The Bulgarian king Samuel was so stricken by the sight of his mighty army staggering back home that he suffered a stroke and died two days later.
  • The Bulgarian king Samuel was so stricken by the sight of his mighty army staggering back home that he suffered a stroke and died two days later.
  • It should be noted that the Byzantines were among the most civilized people in all the world at that time.
  • The Third Servile War occurred in the Roman Republic from 73 BC to 71 BC.
  • The Third Servile War occurred in the Roman Republic from 73 BC to 71 BC.
  • They were lined up as far as the eye could see on the Apian Way, the main road through Rome, as a warning to other slaves who might consider rebellion.
  • In 106, the Roman Emperor Trajan celebrated his defeat over the Dacians by ordering 123 consecutive days of gladiatorial games in the Roman Coliseum.
  • This is how people lived their lives in the past and if asked about it, they would have defended it.
  • The disturbing thing to realize is we would have been those people had we been born in those times.
  • The ancient world was a cruel place.
  • The only thing that separates us from that world is this thing called civilization.
  • I want to spend some time talking about civilization, but first I want to recount the progress that we have made through civilization.
  • Although slavery still exists and the low price of slaves speaks to the low value of a human life, the legal institution of slavery is gone.
  • No longer can a person own another person and have the power of the state backing him up.
  • Yet in most parts of the world, emancipation came peacefully as the civilizing effects of culture transformed society.
  • In most parts of the world, women are no longer legally regarded as chattel.
  • While inequalities still exist around the world for women, the tide of history is flowing inexorably in favor of women's rights.
  • In many places, we have ended the legal discrimination of people based on race.
  • We have seen the end of hereditary monarchy.
  • As recently as 1900, most of the world was governed this way.
  • Boxing matches still occur, but the boxers participate voluntarily.
  • In many parts of the world, we have even outlawed the use of animals fighting as entertainment, such as cockfighting and dogfighting.
  • There was a period when intellectuals believed and spoke openly of the idea that the "breeding" of the "unfit" should be limited.
  • The end of "Off with his head."
  • People in power used to be able to order executions as capriciously as the queen did in Alice in Wonderland.
  • During World War II, when General Patton got sacked for slapping a soldier whom he regarded as cowardly, the Germans couldn't believe it: Their officers could have soldiers shot without trial!
  • Every day fewer places exist where a single person has legal right to end the life of another.
  • In the past, when the power of the state was absolute in many parts of the world, it was harder to argue that every person on the planet had rights no monarch or state could violate.
  • We call these rights "human rights" because they apply to every single person on the planet by virtue of simply being alive.
  • And that advance continues, as the group of rights so acknowledged keeps expanding.
  • The idea that a person can be a political prisoner, jailed for his beliefs about government, politics, or politicians, is ancient but happily fading.
  • The very fact that we have debated in recent years whether we can use torture to get information that will save lives is a sign of the effects of civilization.
  • The very fact that we have debated in recent years whether we can use torture to get information that will save lives is a sign of the effects of civilization.
  • The right to representation is spreading around the world.
  • The right to representation is spreading around the world.
  • Democracies are thereby prone to the majority abusing the rights of the minority.
  • The United States is a republic, as even the Pledge of Allegiance says.
  • The United States is a republic, as even the Pledge of Allegiance says.
  • In contrast, courts of law apply the law to everyone.
  • Courts of law are now the norm in the world, with laws being democratically established and widely published.
  • We have not only outlawed cruelty to animals, but increasingly, people care about the living conditions of even the animals they eat.
  • As clichéd as it is to complain about rising rates of crime, the statistics tell a different story.
  • In terms of murders per one hundred thousand inhabitants, England fell from roughly twenty-three in the 1300s to about one today.
  • The Netherlands and Belgium fell from forty-seven in 1300s to about one today.
  • Scandinavia was at forty-six in the 1400s and has fallen to one today.
  • Germany and Switzerland fell from thirty-seven in the 1300s to about one today.
  • Murder isn't the only form of violent crime that is falling.
  • More and more, those wishing to change the status quo adopt this as their primary tactic.
  • They do this for a variety of reasons, not the least of which is that it often works.
  • We have eliminated debtors prisons, developed the idea of "women and children first," stigmatized child labor, made accommodations for conscientious objectors, widely adopted freedom of speech and the press and freedom of assembly, and a hundred more.
  • The civilizing process is not flawless, and we may disagree on the ways it has manifested itself.
  • The civilizing process is not flawless, and we may disagree on the ways it has manifested itself.
  • Maybe you think the British ban on fox hunting with dogs is ridiculous.
  • Ask people in what way they hope the world will become better and you will certainly get replies about reducing poverty, disease, and hunger.
  • It is true that there is much disagreement over how to achieve these ideals, but the fact remains we want a just society for all.
  • Yes, you can still see a cockfight in the United States.
  • That is not the point.
  • The point is that it is now illegal in every state, with Louisiana being the last to outlaw it in 2008.
  • The point is that it is now illegal in every state, with Louisiana being the last to outlaw it in 2008.
  • That is not the important point.
  • The point is that he went to jail for it.
  • These documents, products themselves of civilization, try to provide legal protections for the most elemental features of civilization.
  • The most difficult work is in the past.
  • The most difficult work is in the past.
  • They made civilization in times of adversity and want, not in the relative luxury and stability we enjoy today.
  • War is the ultimate barbarism, the primitive belief that fighting determines who is right—but of course it doesn't.
  • The chapter title poses a valid question.
  • I feel we have set the bar way too low and in doing so have fundamentally cheapened life, everyone's life.
  • Of course, the people making that judgment call and the people doing the actual dying usually are not one and the same, and therein lies the problem.
  • President Dwight Eisenhower, lifelong military man and five-star general, had much to say on the waging of war.
  • Early in his presidency, in a 1953 address that would become known as his "Cross of Iron" speech, he declared, "Every gun that is made, every warship launched, every rocket fired, signifies in the final sense a theft from those who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold and are not clothed.
  • It is spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of its scientists, the houses of its children ...
  • Under the cloud of war, it is humanity hanging itself on a cross of iron.
  • After speaking about the economic costs of war, the burden it places on the economy, and the toll this takes on the people, Eisenhower closed by describing the peace proposals he was offering Russia and China.
  • Their aim, he said, was nothing less than "the lifting, from the backs and from the hearts of men, of their burden of arms and of fears, so that they may find before them a golden age of freedom and of peace."
  • So did de Tocqueville, touring nineteenth-century America, when he wrote that "All those who seek to destroy the liberties of a democratic nation ought to know that war is the surest and shortest means to accomplish it."
  • Journalist Brooks Atkinson, said: "After each war, there is a little less democracy left to save."
  • Nearly two terms of fighting the Cold War led him to conclude, as he put it, War in our time has become an anachronism.
  • Whatever the case in the past, war in the future can serve no useful purpose.
  • A war which became general, as any limited action might, would only result in the virtual destruction of mankind.
  • The virtual destruction of mankind.
  • The ability of humanity to destroy is now exponentially higher.
  • As Denzel Washington's character observed in the movie Crimson Tide, "In the nuclear world, the true enemy is war itself."
  • It has led us up those last few steps to the mountain pass; and beyond there is a different country.
  • In the past, humanity has been able to sustain both wars and progress.
  • But in the future this will not be the case.
  • A full-scale, no-holds-barred, nuclear-missiles-raining-down kind of world war would profoundly change the course of human history for all time.
  • So realistically, we know that we either must end war, or face the prospect that war will end us.
  • If we conclude that we must end war, the next question is: Is that even possible?
  • Those asking it didn't offer a means for the world to escape from war.
  • This is not a section about hope, ideals, wishes, or the brotherhood of all mankind.
  • The word kumbaya appears in this book only once, and you just saw it.
  • My aim is to show you how war will end and convince you that the end of war is inevitable.
  • This is not me fighting against the tide of history but being swept along with it.
  • The flow of history will naturally end war.
  • (Yes, I know that statement should earn the "Screamingly Obvious Statement of the Year Award," but bear with me.)
  • If it can be demonstrated that in the future, peace will always be preferable to all nations, then war will end.
  • I define war as armed conflict occurring between nation-states or, in the case of civil wars, between factions within nation-states.
  • In our individual countries, sets of laws are created by the citizenry and are designed to protect life, liberty, and property.
  • These laws provide recourse in the event that one citizen infringes on the rights of another.
  • We have a police force and a court system to apply the laws equally to all.
  • By this means, we largely keep the peace.
  • At the world level is no equivalent.
  • No such system of laws controls relations among nations, no significant world police force exists, and the world court system is very weak.
  • The way to end war is not to set up some big world government or eliminate nation-states, which will always retain the right to take unilateral military action to defend themselves.
  • The way to end war is not to set up some big world government or eliminate nation-states, which will always retain the right to take unilateral military action to defend themselves.
  • The government must reflect the different values these groups have.
  • The government must reflect the different values these groups have.
  • For these reasons and a hundred more, government should be the smallest unit that is economically and politically viable.
  • I won't speculate on what that size is, but it certainly is not a size 0.
  • Through the adoption of standardized treaties, they can enter into economic agreements, adopt the same weights and measures, and agree to honor the intellectual property of the others.
  • When the Berlin Wall fell in 1989, I was an undergraduate at Rice University.
  • The atmosphere on campus was electric!
  • We sensed we were witnessing something spectacular happening in the affairs of the world.
  • When the Soviet Union dissolved only two years later, not with a bang but with a whimper, we were slack-jawed with surprise.
  • I had not heard anyone predict even the possibility of these two events before they came upon us, in what seemed the blink of an eye.
  • Everything we understood about the world and politics changed.
  • No one I knew of had ever seriously considered the possibility that without any conflict, treaty, war, or even a coin toss, the Soviet Union would simply vote itself into nonexistence in 1991.
  • Francis Fukuyama wrote a famous essay entitled "The End of History?" which became the catchphrase of the day.
  • Francis Fukuyama wrote a famous essay entitled "The End of History?" which became the catchphrase of the day.
  • Of course, politics being what it is, the Peace Dividend was spent a dozen times over by as many special interests who felt they were the most deserving of such an unexpected largess.
  • So, when I tell you we will see the end of war, if you are over thirty-five years of age, you have every reason to roll your eyes and tell me you have seen this movie before and aren't up for the sequel.
  • Anyone projecting an end to the historical constant of war had better be ready to overcome no small amount of justified skepticism.
  • After all, World War I was called The War to End War.
  • You could have the libertarian state, the green state, the clothing-optional state, the state with free public housing for all, the state where puns are outlawed, the state with a two-drink minimum, the fiercely pro-business state—even a state that guarantees free speech but requires that you sing your speech like a show tune.
  • As long as these states were to share a currency, a military, provide for interstate trade, and have a single foreign policy, they could retain the economic advantages of being a large nation while maximizing individual liberty and self-determination.
  • Parents whose children are in the military generally aren't the ones hawkishly pushing for war.
  • Anyone who has a child knows the love and concern parents feel for their offspring.
  • Someone else decides to empty the cities and send all the young people to go fight in the war?
  • That is exactly what happens, again and again, with unspeakable results: dead bodies by the millions, each someone's child, and millions more mutilated.
  • When the leaders of nations decide war is the best choice, they should know better.
  • They are elected or appointed to protect the rights of the citizens, yet they become the agents of their death.
  • So why do we choose the latter?
  • The demise of war, now that is inevitable.
  • In the 1968 book The Lessons of History, Will and Ariel Durant calculated that, "In the last 3,421 years of recorded history only 268 have seen no war."
  • In the 1968 book The Lessons of History, Will and Ariel Durant calculated that, "In the last 3,421 years of recorded history only 268 have seen no war."
  • Second, in the past, technological improvements did not decrease human beings' propensity to wage war; they only made people better at killing.
  • By far, the world's bloodiest century was the twentieth century, which saw one hundred million people die from war.
  • Fifty years after Eisenhower's warning, the armament industry is the largest industry on the planet.
  • As Frederick the Great observed almost two centuries earlier, "If my soldiers were to begin to think, not one of them would remain in the army."
  • Even in civilized corporate offices, professionals in business attire say their work tasks place them "down in the trenches" or that a certain "campaign" requires "guerrilla" marketing.
  • Lest I try the patience of my readers, I will offer, in no particular order, forty-three that seem most worthy.
  • Technically speaking, I have included a few that are not dependent on the Internet per se, but in which the Internet and technology plays some role.
  • We will begin with the economic factors I believe will help end war, eleven in all.
  • As recently as the early twentieth century, relatively few careers existed in which young men of drive and ambition could distinguish themselves and leave a mark on the world.
  • Because military accomplishments were one way to do that, the military attracted the most ambitious young men eager to prove themselves—and "proving themselves" meant battle.
  • Trivia question: How old was Colonel William Travis when he died leading the Texans at the Alamo?
  • In the 1960 version of the film, he was played by a thirty-one-year-old Laurence Harvey.
  • In the 2004 incarnation of the film, he was played by thirty-one-year-old Patrick Wilson.
  • Now the brightest start businesses.
  • Now the "war stories" are about how Mark Zuckerberg was nineteen when he started Facebook, Bill Gates was nineteen when he started Microsoft, and Larry Page and Sergey Brin were in their early twenties when they started Google.
  • In the past, impetuous young men would drop out of college and run off to join the army.
  • This need for competition existed in the past the same as it does in the present.
  • In the modern age, we have simply transferred the competition to a new arena: the business world.
  • Military heroes of the last several centuries, such as the aforementioned Lafayette and Hamilton and Travis, were not bloodthirsty.
  • They didn't enter war to satisfy a desire to kill and maim but to be victorious in the way their society rewarded.
  • Today's new battlefield, the battlefield of the market, is much better.
  • The rising prosperity of wealthy nations and the emergence of more wealthy nations.
  • The rising prosperity of wealthy nations and the emergence of more wealthy nations.
  • The wealthier a nation gets, the more it stands to lose in war, and the less marginal utility it gains in conquest.
  • The wealthier a nation gets, the more it stands to lose in war, and the less marginal utility it gains in conquest.
  • The increasing destructiveness of war.
  • It is not just that the price of weapons falls and that their destructive ability increases.
  • It is this combined with the fact that their targets, too, are worth more; the cost of rebuilding a modern city today dwarfs the cost of rebuilding that city fifty years ago.
  • These trends will continue into the foreseeable future.
  • The reasoning behind MAD was that if we can annihilate the Soviets or the Chinese and they in turn can annihilate us, then none of us will start a war.
  • The reasoning behind MAD was that if we can annihilate the Soviets or the Chinese and they in turn can annihilate us, then none of us will start a war.
  • But at the time the doctrine was in force, MAD was effective (or at least, not proven ineffective).
  • It was the basis for the movie War Games in which the military's computer finally figures out it can't win in a nuclear launch scenario and says of such a war, Strange game.
  • The only winning move is not to play.
  • I propose that peace will be maintained in the future by something I will call Mutually Assured Poverty, or MAP.
  • In the past, war could increase your financial position, both as a nation (through spoils) and a soldier (through plunder).
  • The seventeenth-century Spanish writer Baltasar Gracián once offered this advice: "Never contend with a man who has nothing to lose."
  • As the poorest nations become wealthier, they too will grow less and less inclined toward war.
  • Since the poorest nations will improve their financial conditions indefinitely, this is a long-term trend toward peace.
  • While the previous two points focused at the macro level and the overall costs of war, I speak here of consumers' perspective on war.
  • We are used to non-rationed goods, unlimited food in grocery stores, and the overall widespread availability of inexpensive quality products.
  • Some people regard their iPod the same way.
  • More and more of the things we have, we "can't live without."
  • This isn't the final triumph of consumerism—nothing nearly that sinister.
  • Civilization and the division of labor have gotten ever better at creating and adding value, thereby making things we love.
  • Since war historically has interrupted the flow of consumer goods, and would do so even more in our present interconnected world, preserving our hard-earned possessions provides an additional disincentive to war.
  • This is not to say that if another Pearl Harbor or another 9/11 occurred, people in any country wouldn't rise to the occasion and make great sacrifices if needed.
  • The decline in the economic benefits of war for businesses.
  • The decline in the economic benefits of war for businesses.
  • If you made a product the military could use, government contracts came a-flowin'.
  • If you did not, you could retool and make something the military could buy.
  • In World War II, for instance, the Singer Corporation, of sewing-machine fame, made handguns for the war effort.
  • The pacifist manufacturer was a conflicted individual during wartime.
  • By the time Eisenhower left office, this had changed, and a dedicated military industry existed.
  • This means that non-military manufacturing interests in the United States no longer profit as in the past from war.
  • The military doesn't buy their haircuts, website design, or piano lessons.
  • What I am saying is that as more factors align toward peace, peace becomes ever more the better economic option.
  • Public opinion is ever more in the peace camp because the vast majority of the economy doesn't benefit financially in times of war.
  • But let's adopt the cynic's view for a moment and assume people in these corporations are chiefly concerned about their financial benefit, not about human suffering, when it comes to war.
  • In that hypothetical situation, what would the defense contractor want?
  • Imagine you are a defense contractor on top of the world.
  • You would argue that no other widget on the market can beat the C2000, no nation can ever gain widget superiority if the government just buys the C2000—and so they do.
  • You get the contract.
  • You can almost hear the champagne corks popping.
  • Finally, you are making money hand over fist manufacturing the C2000.
  • If the nation stays at peace, you will still sell the C2000.
  • You are already on top of the world, remember?
  • If the nation goes to war, the military would need more C2000s, right?
  • The enemy has a widget too, the D2001.
  • The enemy has a widget too, the D2001.
  • (Not to mention the fact that, if the stuff all hits the fan, widget factories like yours would almost certainly be marked with bull's-eyes on the enemy's aerial bombing maps.)
  • Even if you don't accept this, try to accept that war is financially disadvantageous to 99 percent of the business owners in the country and that this is new and meaningful.
  • But in addition, when nations trade, the underlying economies themselves grow ever more intertwined.
  • Supply chains are spread across the world.
  • But the point really is different.
  • The more I have a personal vested interest in your success, the better.
  • The more I have a personal vested interest in your success, the better.
  • Because of this, "two bits" is still slang for twenty-five cents in the United States.
  • In the modern age, money is once again represented by bits, but a different kind altogether: Money went from gold to paper and is now digital.
  • Now we have an interlocked banking system that moves money around the world at light speed.
  • Electronic transfers mean the money of a government, business, or individual might be anywhere at any time.
  • At the end of their day, the loan is repaid with a slight bit of interest.
  • They might even own foreign currencies the same way.
  • It used to be that if you conquered another nation, your soldiers became looters and the military got to haul off everything of value in the country.
  • If you visit Rome and make your way to the Forum, nearby you will see the Arch of Titus.
  • The arch not only celebrates this military victory, it points out that it was profitable.
  • More wealth is digital, to be sure, but immeasurably more wealth is tied up in the intricacies of society itself.
  • Is the value of the city just the value of the buildings, cars, furniture, and other physical items in the city?
  • Asymmetry is a mixed bag as far as the future goes.
  • It is bad in that it allows a few to harm the many.
  • In the affairs of nations, large and powerful ones long have imposed their wills on the small and weak ones.
  • If the weak nation will not willingly do the bidding of the strong one, then it is made to.
  • The weak can now do substantial harm to the strong.
  • The weak can now do substantial harm to the strong.
  • They cannot destroy the strong, but they can inflict significant damage.
  • In one sense, it's a peaceful world: The bully insists on the lunch money of the small kid, who has no recourse but to capitulate.
  • In one sense, it's a peaceful world: The bully insists on the lunch money of the small kid, who has no recourse but to capitulate.
  • The benefits of asymmetry happen when the small kid gets a Taser.
  • The benefits of asymmetry happen when the small kid gets a Taser.
  • The bully will now be more inclined to leave the kid alone.
  • The bully will now be more inclined to leave the kid alone.
  • When might no longer makes right for the strong, they think twice about preying on the weak.
  • Roughly a quarter of the way through our list of factors that will end war, we have reached the end of the economic ones.
  • As true as that was in Jefferson's time, our age has amplified all of it: both the miseries war can produce and the blessings peace can produce.
  • Now, let's move on to the political factors that will cause war to cease.
  • The end of monarchies.
  • (Of course, when a king proves himself through battle, he is not risking his life but the lives of thousands of his subjects.
  • Notable examples exist, but the flow of history in this regard has rendered its verdict.
  • Monarchies with any real, significant power are just waiting out the clock.
  • The end of dictators.
  • For many of the same reasons as monarchies, dictatorships are inherently warlike.
  • The way they secure their positions is through the ruthless application of violence.
  • The way they secure their positions is through the ruthless application of violence.
  • Because this is the only power they know, it is the only power they respect.
  • They wage war because it is the only language they speak.
  • Dictators, in short, are the scourge of the earth.
  • Or, they were the scourge of the earth.
  • The number of dictatorships is falling.
  • The theory is that democracies do not go to war with other democracies.
  • In World War II, the United States went to war with Germany, Italy, and Japan, a trio of undemocratic countries.
  • But all in all, the theory seems to hold.
  • What underlying mechanisms would make the Democratic Peace Theory "work"?
  • No matter why the theory works, is it good for the world that it does.
  • The decline of military alliances and the rise of economic ones.
  • The decline of military alliances and the rise of economic ones.
  • That should have been the end of it, right?
  • Germany viewed the Russian mobilization as an act of war and therefore declared war on Russia.
  • Between Austria-Hungary declaring war on Serbia and all the treaty partners entering the fray, how many days passed?
  • With Britain in the war, its colonies and dominions joined in as well.
  • By the end of the month, Japan, bound by treaty with Great Britain, declared war on Germany.
  • The Japanese soldiers who battled the German soldiers must have wondered why they were fighting.
  • The Japanese soldiers who battled the German soldiers must have wondered why they were fighting.
  • Almost three-quarters of all defense spending occurs within NATO countries, meaning the alliance is largely the only military show in town.
  • Unless one can somehow imagine NATO countries going to war with each other, such as Belgium invading the United Kingdom, it is hard to see how "world wars" could escalate outside of NATO member countries.
  • If NATO is responsible for the bulk of the world's military spending and NATO no longer has the stomach for full-on war with modern states, then large-scale war seems less likely.
  • We could go on here and talk about other military powers and alliances, but the simple fact is that large countries are less willing to risk war in defense of small ones.
  • This has come about as we have left a polarized world behind us and the importance of military alliances has fallen.
  • The increased economic viability of smaller countries.
  • After World War I, as the Ottoman Empire collapsed, several new countries emerged.
  • These countries, particularly in the Balkans, were often small and tended toward war.
  • And yet over the last century, we also have seen colonies gain their independence and become nations, and nations peaceably divide.
  • Fifteen new nations formed as the Soviet Union dissolved; Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, and Sudan into North Sudan and South Sudan.
  • This is exactly the sort of thinking that makes nation-states useful.
  • The fact that small nations can adopt standard treaties, laws, currencies, and international practices of larger countries means that a small economic unit can be viable.
  • It has one of the highest per-capita incomes in the world, almost no crime, and no public or foreign debt.
  • I am not saying tthe world would be better if every country was the size of Liechtenstein.
  • In the treaty, language describing the border between the United States and Canada, still part of Great Britain, included this:
  • From the northwest angle of Nova Scotia, viz., that angle which is formed by a line drawn due north from the source of St. Croix River to the highlands; along the said highlands which divide those rivers that empty themselves into the river St. Lawrence ...
  • The tricky part is the bit about the highlands, or mountains.
  • The tricky part is the bit about the highlands, or mountains.
  • There are no mountains between the Atlantic Ocean and the St. Lawrence river.
  • Once this became known, the question was submitted for arbitration to the king of the Netherlands, who ruled the St. John River to be the border.
  • They expected the king to choose one border or another, not create his own compromise border.
  • Tensions mounted all through the 1830s as militias were raised on both sides in what later came to be known as the Aroostook War, even though there was never actually a war or casualties.
  • The border issue was finally resolved by the Webster-Ashburton treaty of 1842.
  • The border issue was finally resolved by the Webster-Ashburton treaty of 1842.
  • As the number of touch points with other countries rises, so must our shared understanding of acceptable conduct.
  • Is it OK to dump nuclear waste in the ocean?
  • If someone writes a book in one country, does another country enforce the copyright within its borders?
  • What about extradition, if a citizen of one country visits another and breaks the local law?
  • Satellite photos can uncover those who would transgress the rules.
  • Ever more accurate sensors can track the contents of ocean water or assess food safety.
  • By making expectations explicit and public, these agreements reduce the number of sparks that can set off the powder keg of war.
  • The demise of war will be hastened when every impulse to war is regarded, at least initially, with a healthy measure of distrust.
  • In the past, a weak group unjustly persecuted by a strong group had few options.
  • The weak group could fight and lose, or comply with whatever the strong group demanded.
  • The weak group could fight and lose, or comply with whatever the strong group demanded.
  • The rise of public opinion as the most powerful political force in the world.
  • The rise of public opinion as the most powerful political force in the world.
  • Next, entire cities banned smoking in all indoor public places, contending a private business's right to allow smoking was trumped by the dangers of exposing patrons to secondhand smoke.
  • In a fine Alfred Hitchcock movie called Notorious, the troubled character played by Ingrid Bergman gets very drunk at a party and asks Cary Grant to come for a drive.
  • She swerves off the road and narrowly averts collisions.
  • Under Hollywood's production code at the time, movies could not include nudity, criminal activity, or offensive language, or depict illegal drug use, venereal disease, or childbirth.
  • We need to stigmatize war in the same fashion.
  • As Alfred Einstein once observed, "Nothing will end war unless the people themselves refuse to go to war."
  • While the right thing to do is never to drive drunk, be a smoker, or be a racist, occasionally war is the right thing to do.
  • The day after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, civilization had to be defended.
  • The day after the Japanese bombed Pearl Harbor, civilization had to be defended.
  • But war is seldom the answer.
  • Thanks to the burgeoning of technology and social media, public opinion is the most powerful political force in the world today.
  • Well, here we are, not quite halfway through our list of ways the Internet, technology, and civilization will come together to end war.
  • Having covered the financial and political factors, let's look at thirteen ways communication and information will help bring about war's demise.
  • This was done in large part because the two powers came so close to going to war over the Cuban Missile Crisis.
  • Two examples: the Battle of New Orleans, fought after the treaty ending the War of 1812 was signed; and the Battle of Palmito Ranch, fought a month after the Civil War ended.
  • In the absence of efficient communication, potential belligerents are left to impute the worst possible motives to the unexplained actions of others.
  • This is starkly different than if violence breaks out in a distant, unreal place where the only flow of information is from official sources.
  • The World Wide Web will play an enormous role in ending war, on several levels.
  • First, the web promotes access to information, a huge force for peace.
  • Second, in addition to facts, the web has become the face of almost all organizations of the planet.
  • When everyone, and every nation, and every organization, and every movement all have a presence on the web, they can be understood in terms of it.
  • It is the ultimate manifestation of the marketplace of ideas; the more people who proffer their ideas to the world, the better the outcome will be for us all.
  • Plus it promotes empathy, the ability to see the other guy's viewpoint.
  • Third, the web acts as a feedback loop in that it allows all people to say what is on their minds.
  • Public opinion is a powerful force, and if it is generally a force for peace, then the web magnifies it.
  • The web is a force for truth, connectedness, understanding, and communication—all things whose absence can trigger war.
  • I include Twitter in this list as a larger idea, not only as the literal Twitter.com.
  • The idea is the power of short, instant messages broadcast to interested crowds.
  • The idea is the power of short, instant messages broadcast to interested crowds.
  • Twitter.com is unquestionably the most efficient way in the history of humanity to send a single idea, invitation, complaint, or observation to the world.
  • Despite being the most efficient method ever, it is still highly inefficient, and this inefficiency inspires hope.
  • I have no doubt there are all kinds of things in the Twitterverse that I want to know about, but I only find the ones that I first knew to look for.
  • Twitter is profound, and it unquestionably furthers peace because it promotes the interests of the many against the interests of the few.
  • While the few may be for war, the many are almost always for peace.
  • Before it is all over, the number of Facebook accounts will exceed the number of people on the planet.
  • Everyone will be on Facebook, as will be every business, every idea, every brand, and all the people who were once members but have since passed away.
  • Our "strong ties"—family, close friends and the like—we can always count on, but they are relatively few.
  • Also, simply having a Facebook friend in Albania will tend to make you more interested in the events of Albania.
  • Seldom will one decide that war with a friend's nation is the only recourse.
  • This is not a particularly new idea, similar to the phenomenon of getting to know and care about "pen pals" in far-flung places by exchanging postal-mail letters.
  • Friedman goes on to point out that almost anywhere in the world today, it would be impossible to get away with this fraud.
  • I mention FactCheck and Snopes as two examples of the many enterprises on the Internet that subject every government utterance to scrutiny in something approximating real time.
  • Governments in the past could lie with impunity.
  • Publishing was expensive, and by the time news of the lie came out, days or weeks had passed.
  • This is no longer the case.
  • The system we have is not perfect, but it is highly distributed and bottom up.
  • No one has the monopoly on truth.
  • In the Internet age, everyone fact checks everyone else.
  • However, practically speaking, it sometimes has a corrupting influence on those whom it empowers to act for the state.
  • If this happens, the government becomes an agent that works against the very ideals it purports to protect.
  • Practically speaking, governments often act as if their first duty is to protect the government, not the people.
  • But if these other news outlets contradict the official account, then all the better.
  • In the sorting through of the facts from a multiplicity of new sources, truth can be determined.
  • They need the Internet, mobile phones, computers, and the other accoutrements of the modern age for the wealth they bring.
  • But along with wealth, these technologies bring information and thereby sow the seeds of their undoing.
  • O'Neill observed that scrutiny of government had become so intense that officials never could have gotten away with that—and he was writing in the late 1980s.
  • Fast-forward a couple of decades, and the Internet has done vastly more than O'Neill could have imagined to promote open information about government.
  • In O'Neill's day, getting a copy of the federal budget meant writing away and buying a hefty paper copy.
  • You still can buy it from the government's bookstore; a recent one ran about two thousand pages and cost about $200.
  • The National Security Agency even has a website with a section called CryptoKids for "America's Future Codemakers & Codebreakers."
  • But a sizable number are attempting this, and the direction the world is heading is obvious.
  • That would average over three SMS messages per day per person on the planet.
  • They were not, for the most part, military men.
  • This was the strategy in Tehran, Tunisia, Cairo, Syria, Jordan, Morocco, Oman, Lebanon, and Kuwait.
  • We have seen it most recently and most profoundly in the Arab Spring, where the motto we see again and again is Ash-sha'b yurid isqat an-nizam, or "The people want to bring down the regime."
  • We have seen it most recently and most profoundly in the Arab Spring, where the motto we see again and again is Ash-sha'b yurid isqat an-nizam, or "The people want to bring down the regime."
  • But if that is the case, they will fall in due course.
  • Autocrats can hold power indefinitely if they control the media, the military, business, the money, and information.
  • Around the world, more than a billion mobile devices that both take and send photographs are currently in use, spread even to the poorest parts of the globe.
  • We saw the results of this in the 2009 Iranian protests, when these devices captured and relayed powerful, real-time images of events.
  • All of this means examples of atrocities by the government or by the mob are increasingly likely to be documented and publicized.
  • "Internet in a suitcase" and the "shadow Internet."
  • The Internet is still able to be "turned off" by despotic rulers.
  • Two interesting government programs are under way in the United States, according to a June 2011 article in The New York Times.
  • Two interesting government programs are under way in the United States, according to a June 2011 article in The New York Times.
  • The effort includes secretive projects to create independent cellphone networks inside foreign countries, the paper reported.
  • The effort includes secretive projects to create independent cellphone networks inside foreign countries, the paper reported.
  • The article also describes a second project where a group of young entrepreneurs who look as if they could be in a garage band are fitting deceptively innocent-looking hardware into a prototype 'Internet in a suitcase.'
  • In the end, this means more peace.
  • The end of language barriers.
  • It will be English, although not really the English we speak today.
  • Imagine if today everyone spoke one language and I said that in the future we will speak hundreds of different languages and not be able to understand each other.
  • Everyone in the future will learn English because it will be the language of the Internet and thus the language of the world and commerce.
  • To be successful in the world, for a while both English and one's native tongue will be requirements.
  • And if everyone you know speaks English and it is the language of the world, commerce, the Internet, and success, what will be the primary language you teach your children?
  • Long before English became the lingua franca of the Internet age, the world has wanted a common language.
  • In the ancient world, it was Greek in the European arena.
  • French became the language of diplomacy and international affairs.
  • But English seems to have taken hold, thanks to the Internet.
  • More people are learning English in China than there are people who speak it in the United States.
  • It is already the official language in more than fifty countries spread across every continent.
  • Keeping that one comes at a large financial price: Learn proficiency at two languages or remain separate from the world economy.
  • Wars have often been the result of misunderstandings brought about by language.
  • It is easy to be suspicious of the person who speaks in some strange tongue.
  • During World War I in the United States, fourteen states outlawed speaking German.
  • In Montana, where 10 percent of residents spoke German and another 10 percent were of German descent, ministers weren't allowed to preach in German to congregants who understood no English, and one town publicly burned German textbooks, the Bozeman Daily Chronicle reported.
  • Honestly, if we all spoke the same language today, would you want to change that?
  • In the future, we will need no translators, because we will understand each other.
  • It seems fitting to end this part of the list—ways that information and communication will help end war—by noting that every day, every moment, more and more people have access to the Internet.
  • In 2006, roughly a billion people had access to the Internet.
  • As of the end of 2012, the Internet has more than two billion users.
  • By 2020, it is estimated that five billion people will be online, representing two-thirds the population of the planet.
  • The Internet is still in its adolescence.
  • Oddly, it could, however, join the military and go fight in a war overseas.
  • We are more than three-quarters of the way through our forty-three steps toward world peace.
  • The final ten cover a range of topics that don't fit neatly elsewhere.
  • Because dictators have the intellectuals killed, not the farmers.
  • And of course the Nazis were ardent book burners themselves.
  • The future German man will not just be a man of books, but a man of character.
  • In 1966, Mao Zedong closed the universities in China and sent their students and professors to the country to farm.
  • In 1980, Iran closed the universities.
  • When there was a coup in Burma, now Myanmar, in 1988, they closed the universities.
  • The world is becoming more educated at an amazing rate.
  • On the other end of the education spectrum, college degrees are up: A recent Harvard University study reports that 6.7 percent of the world has a college degree, up from 5.9 percent in 2000.
  • A shift in power to the young.
  • This is because, like technology, money also multiplies the labor of man.
  • However, at present—and for the future as far as we can see—growth in technology outpaces growth in wealth.
  • Young people, who would be expected to do the dying if another war came, are generally more determined to keep the peace than their elders.
  • In the past, political alliances were sealed by marriages among monarchs or nobles.
  • We see this process democratized and popularized in the world today.
  • A record 15 percent—about one out of every seven—of new marriages in 2008 landed in the 'Marrying Out' category.
  • This is a force for peace, as more and more people have family members in more than one culture and share the interests of more than one nationality.
  • American universities are thought by many to be among the best in the world.
  • Being educated in the United States has long been a mark of distinction for the elites of other nations.
  • But the notion of "elites" is broadening, as is the number of non-Americans who study in the United States.
  • According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.
  • According to Allan Goodman, president and CEO of the Institute of International Education, The United States continues to host more international students than any other country in the world.
  • In addition, more than one billion of the world's seven billion people visited a country other than their own in 2011.
  • More than 70 percent of the British have passports, as do 50 percent of Canadians and 25 percent of Japanese.
  • Half a century ago, the United States had three channels on TV and everyone watched them.
  • The world is developing a shared popular culture with elements drawn from around the globe.
  • The world is developing a shared popular culture with elements drawn from around the globe.
  • The United States contributes much to this, including its movies, products such as iPhones, and websites such as Google, YouTube, Twitter, Amazon, and eBay.
  • And, of course, American fast food is the food the world loves to say it hates.
  • Nations all around the world make their contributions.
  • British music is known and loved around the world, as is its comedy and royalty.
  • Italian exotic cars are the daydreams of much of the world.
  • This is a force for peace—to the extent that as we share the same set of cultural references, we understand each other better.
  • One might have expected to find YouTube making its cameo in the earlier "communication" section, but I deliberately moved it here.
  • I do not think the importance of YouTube lies in its role as a communication method nor as a fundamentally new means of distribution of media.
  • In an era when cameras were cumbersome and the number of channels on TV could be counted on one hand with enough fingers left over to snap, very little video of any kind was seen.
  • Now video is everywhere—on my phone, in my cab in New York, and in the elevator as I zoom to the fourteenth floor.
  • How did we endure the monotony?
  • The range of subject matter on YouTube is as incomprehensibly large as the range in quality.
  • The range of subject matter on YouTube is as incomprehensibly large as the range in quality.
  • Instead of reading words on a page and trying to imagine a concept, we can see it, as the old expression goes, in Technicolor.
  • Now, instead of just intellectually engaging with the news, we feel the government brutality, we experience the war, we are electrified by the demonstrations, and we are horrified at the suffering.
  • And if an image can end a war, a video can change the world.
  • Nationalism, in my use of the term, is being an uncritical fan of your country.
  • Come what may, the nationalist will stick by his country.
  • It is the same spirit that makes people fanatical about a certain sports team, regardless of the players or the score.
  • The nationalists are the ones who say, "My country, right or wrong."
  • The nationalists are the ones who say, "My country, right or wrong."
  • They view the opposition by others to the actions of their country as treason, or at least, inexplicably self-destructive.
  • From the way I have written this, it is clear where my sympathies lie.
  • Nationalism is on the decline.
  • But the decline of nationalism is a force for peace.
  • The continuing advancement of civilization.
  • The social reformer of the past is depicted as a dour spinster wielding an axe to break barrels of "Demon Rum."
  • The social reformer of the past is depicted as a dour spinster wielding an axe to break barrels of "Demon Rum."
  • Nowadays, the social reformer is cool and hip.
  • The population at that time was a tenth of what it is today.
  • So if a battle today were similarly costly, the proportional number of casualties would be 230,000.
  • Can you imagine the public reaction to that today: A quarter of a million people killed or wounded in a single day?
  • In World War I, in the Battle of the Somme, were over a million casualties, and the action advanced the Allied line just seven miles, or about two deaths for every inch of ground.
  • Another million people were lost in the Battle of Verdun.
  • Their stories circulate around the web and their families make blog posts.
  • This is the present reality in a world defined by the ease of communication.
  • I hope that along the way you thought of a few I missed, a few trends or developments that lead toward peace.
  • In the future, nations still will have differences.
  • But the critical question is, will they resort to war to resolve them?
  • In the end, violence will become obsolete.
  • We will live out the realization that, as Bertrand Russell said, "War does not determine who is right, only who is left."
  • War as the remedy will fall out of favor for the many reasons I outline above.
  • The world is happiest when this process is one of persuasion, goodwill, reason, logic, and negotiation.
  • Whether it is the notion of manufacturing meat or having the computer tell you what you should order at the restaurant, you may have cringed and thought, "Man, that's kind of creepy."
  • We value our humanity, and insofar as life in the future seems different from our life today, it somehow seems less human.
  • Anything that looks too much like The Matrix movies or The Terminator movies is just, well, kind of creepy.
  • So let's address it head-on: In this world of the future, do we lose our humanity?
  • My answer to that begins in the past, in the time of William Shakespeare.
  • Shakespeare was undoubtedly the greatest master the English language has ever known and, quite probably, will ever know.
  • Nearly four hundred years after his death, Shakespeare's works are read and studied around the globe.
  • His plays run in every major city in the English-speaking world, and Hollywood makes movies of them—good movies!
  • Kenneth Branagh's Much Ado about Nothing and Julie Taymor's The Tempest with Helen Mirren.
  • All kinds of artists have come and gone in the last four centuries, popular in their time but forgotten now.
  • All these things are the same today as they were in Shakespeare's time, and because of that, his stories are still very relevant to us.
  • Under the terms of the definition I offered earlier, that makes Shakespeare the epitome of art—that is, something that continues to speak to future generations.
  • Othello ends up killing the virtuous Desdemona out of jealousy.
  • Macbeth is the story of a ruthless wife, Lady Macbeth, who persuades her husband to murder the king and take his throne.
  • Infuriated, the king disowns the honest daughter and gives the kingdom to the two deceptive daughters.
  • But first we must go further back, from Shakespeare at the end of the sixteenth century to Plato around 370 BC.
  • When the final work included extensive praise for the twin gods Castor and Pollux, Scopas complained.
  • He told Simonides he was only going to pay him half the fee and if he wanted the other half, he should collect it from Castor and Pollux.
  • He went to the door but didn't see anyone so went outside to look for them.
  • While Simonides was outside, the roof of the house caved in and killed everyone.
  • The implication was that Castor and Pollux, knowing of the imminent collapse of the roof, had come calling with the purpose of saving Simonides's life as their payment for the poem.
  • The implication was that Castor and Pollux, knowing of the imminent collapse of the roof, had come calling with the purpose of saving Simonides's life as their payment for the poem.
  • That's what interests me about this story (which may or may not be purely true): What Simonides did—recalling the names and locations of everyone at a large banquet—is described as entirely possible and an enviable, practical skill.
  • Augustine said this could not be the case because he could neither hear Ambrose nor see his lips moving.
  • Ambrose replied that he was looking at the words and reading them that way.
  • The libraries that existed, such as the one at Alexandria, contained reading rooms because when you read a book, you read it aloud.
  • The libraries that existed, such as the one at Alexandria, contained reading rooms because when you read a book, you read it aloud.
  • You processed the information through your ears.
  • In both those cases, a technology or technique came along that actually changed the way people think.
  • In one case, the technology, writing, probably resulted in our memories getting worse, but we gained much more than we lost.
  • In the second case, the technique of reading without vocalizing allowed for faster reading and a new, visual way to process verbal information—again, a net gain.
  • So in the present and future, when a technology comes along that represents such a change—that saves details of our activities with which to advise us later, or has us speaking to machines as if they were creatures—it will simply be more of the same.
  • Yet at the time that we devised each plan, we were confident it would succeed.
  • As we approached the end of the flawless narrative, one of us would invariably ask sardonically (but never sarcastically), "What could possibly go wrong?"
  • The implied answer: everything.
  • I remember in autumn of '87 thinking it was perfectly reasonable to take the red 1964 Corvair convertible for a test drive, despite its lack of functioning brakes.
  • The title of Ralph Nader's book was right: That car was Unsafe at Any Speed, at least with the master cylinder removed.
  • The title of Ralph Nader's book was right: That car was Unsafe at Any Speed, at least with the master cylinder removed.
  • It also seemed perfectly reasonable to take the 1962 Nash Metropolitan for a spin around the block, even though it didn't have brakes either.
  • The problem for us was always that it is easier to get a car running than it is to fix the brakes.
  • The problem for us was always that it is easier to get a car running than it is to fix the brakes.
  • It just happens to be the case with old cars.
  • From those adventures, though, I did learn (the hard way) to think ahead about what could possibly go wrong.
  • Though the world foreseen in this book may seem far away to you, I believe it will be achieved—and once achieved, that it will grow in stability over time.
  • At that point, the iffy parts of human history are behind us and it is blue skies and clean sailing ahead.
  • First, we will list the basics of my thesis about the future.
  • Then we will list the things that might derail us on the way to that future.
  • Technology brings about economic wealth through improved production, facilitation of trade, and promoting the division of labor.
  • In the next eighteen months, we will double that.
  • Through all of this, we can end war by making it a worse choice than the status quo for everyone. 3.
  • The availability and propagation of cheap sensors, cheap storage, and cheap computational cycles will allow humanity to develop a collective memory of the activities and outcomes of everyone on the planet.
  • The availability and propagation of cheap sensors, cheap storage, and cheap computational cycles will allow humanity to develop a collective memory of the activities and outcomes of everyone on the planet.
  • Instead of relearning things over the course of centuries, people will be able to learn from the choices others have made.
  • The wealth created by technological advance will grow as fast as technology grows.
  • The world will still face many challenges, which we will discuss shortly.
  • Because the advances are highly distributed, they are thus highly likely.
  • The economy makes new machines that replace manual labor because many thousands of people are paid very well to do so.
  • Thousands of people research alternative energy because a breakthrough will change the world and make fortunes.
  • Once they become more educated, they are better able to participate in the modern economy.
  • If the whole world had only ten thousand people, how many breakthroughs would you expect?
  • But imagine the difference if the world had ten billion healthy, well-educated people!
  • Yes, a comet slamming into the planet or some galactic cataclysm could wipe us all out.
  • Certainly this could happen, although the odds are remote.
  • The ability of a few people to do a massive amount of damage rises as civilization becomes more complex and destructive power increases.
  • We all saw what happened on 9/11, and it is likely similar acts will occur in the future.
  • In spite of the massive benefits civilization offers to every person in every station of life, a crazy few will always see it very differently.
  • Their ability to inflict carnage will rise in the future.
  • As troubling as this thought is, equally troubling would be the response of the country so attacked.
  • Prosperity requires civil liberties, prosperity thrives under lower taxes, and prosperity shrivels as wars disrupt the free flow of labor and capital.
  • So while such an attack and its aftermath would not derail our eventual arrival at the next golden age, it quite possibly would delay it.
  • Anyone who loves civilization necessarily appreciates the role of government in protecting liberties.
  • Without protections in place, the strong merely prey on the weak.
  • The government operating in its correct role is instrumental to civilization.
  • In the United States, where we have mostly Democrats and Republicans, life is largely the same no matter who is in charge.
  • Instead, you have to find small things over which to argue, like whether the capital gains tax should be raised.
  • Having said all of that, government should certainly be watched with a suspicious eye, for it could conceivably delay or derail our ascent to the next golden age.
  • It can overspend and rack up public debt and destroy the currency.
  • And most damaging, it can wage war and thereby siphon off wealth, technology, and the lives of its citizens.
  • As a government grows in size, even if the growth is in social programs, it inevitably grows in its intrusion on civil liberty.
  • Or how IBM got flattened in the PC wars.
  • "Big Whale Oil" couldn't stop the move to kerosene.
  • The benefits of civilization—from wealth to individual liberty and self-determination, from better health to safety and peace—all outweigh what its proponents can offer.
  • As I see it, the grandchildren of those who would strap bombs on themselves today will not be rushing to imitate their elders.
  • I think the future I describe is pretty secure.
  • I think the range of problems that technology can solve is confined to technological problems.
  • Four of the problems I address in this book—ignorance, disease, famine, and poverty—are purely technical problems.
  • When confronted with any thorny societal problem, I apply the same basic thought process I used on the five topics of this book.
  • Are we moving in the direction of the solution now?
  • If the answers to those questions are affirmative, then making assumptions about increasing rates of technological progress is very reasonable.
  • This book began with the assertion that it is the optimists who get things done.
  • Pessimism is all the reasons "this won't work."
  • Optimism, on the other hand, says, "There is a way."
  • It is based on the idea that what we believe about the future determines what we do in the present.
  • My goal is not to convince people that the world will be perfect in the future.
  • Rather, I aim to show that the world will be what we make it to be.
  • If we have the will and if we do the work, we can make the world greater than we have ever imagined.
  • As a historian, I know it has been the vanity of every age to think it represents a high point in history.
  • We live at a defining moment for humanity, as the compounding effects of technology and civilization reach an inflection point.
  • I think the technological leap beyond the next one will take us to the stars.
  • I look for the day when a billion planets are populated with a billion people each.
  • Atmospheres will form, then plants will be seeded, and then the colonists will arrive.
  • So, far from reaching that point the pessimists foretold—where we have exhausted the meager resources of earth and find ourselves dwindling away—something entirely different is happening.
  • It is consistent with all we know of the past, which is progress and prosperity.
  • At the time in history when our future has never looked brighter, it is baffling that some people are more pessimistic than ever.
  • No, quite the opposite: We live in what can only be termed the Age of Change.
  • But we will see it begin to take shape and will know that we were there the moment the world changed.
  • And because it changed for the better, wondrously better, we can proudly claim our part in its forming.
  • The woman paints the child's experiences in her own fantasy.
  • The woman paints the child's experiences in her own fantasy.
  • When the Civil War broke out, he fought on the side of the South and became a brigadier-general.
  • After the war was over the family moved to Memphis, Tennessee.
  • I lived, up to the time of the illness that deprived me of my sight and hearing, in a tiny house consisting of a large square room and a small one, in which the servant slept.
  • It is a custom in the South to build a small house near the homestead as an annex to be used on occasion.
  • Such a house my father built after the Civil War, and when he married my mother they went to live in it.
  • The little porch was hidden from view by a screen of yellow roses and Southern smilax.
  • It was the favourite haunt of humming-birds and bees.
  • The Keller homestead, where the family lived, was a few steps from our little rose-bower.
  • The Keller homestead, where the family lived, was a few steps from our little rose-bower.
  • It was called "Ivy Green" because the house and the surrounding trees and fences were covered with beautiful English ivy.
  • Its old-fashioned garden was the paradise of my childhood.
  • Even in the days before my teacher came, I used to feel along the square stiff boxwood hedges, and, guided by the sense of smell would find the first violets and lilies.
  • There, too, after a fit of temper, I went to find comfort and to hide my hot face in the cool leaves and grass.
  • Never have I found in the greenhouses of the North such heart-satisfying roses as the climbing roses of my southern home.
  • They used to hang in long festoons from our porch, filling the whole air with their fragrance, untainted by any earthy smell; and in the early morning, washed in the dew, they felt so soft, so pure, I could not help wondering if they did not resemble the asphodels of God's garden.
  • The beginning of my life was simple and much like every other little life.
  • I came, I saw, I conquered, as the first baby in the family always does.
  • There was the usual amount of discussion as to a name for me.
  • But in the excitement of carrying me to church my father lost the name on the way, very naturally, since it was one in which he had declined to have a part.
  • Even after my illness I remembered one of the words I had learned in these early months.
  • It was the word "water," and I continued to make some sound for that word after all other speech was lost.
  • I ceased making the sound "wah-wah" only when I learned to spell the word.
  • They tell me I walked the day I was a year old.
  • The impulse gone, I fell down and cried for her to take me up in her arms.
  • One brief spring, musical with the song of robin and mocking-bird, one summer rich in fruit and roses, one autumn of gold and crimson sped by and left their gifts at the feet of an eager, delighted child.
  • They called it acute congestion of the stomach and brain.
  • The doctor thought I could not live.
  • Early one morning, however, the fever left me as suddenly and mysteriously as it had come.
  • There was great rejoicing in the family that morning, but no one, not even the doctor, knew that I should never see or hear again.
  • But during the first nineteen months of my life I had caught glimpses of broad, green fields, a luminous sky, trees and flowers which the darkness that followed could not wholly blot out.
  • If we have once seen, "the day is ours, and what the day has shown."
  • I cannot recall what happened during the first months after my illness.
  • Soon I felt the need of some communication with others and began to make crude signs.
  • A shake of the head meant "No" and a nod, "Yes," a pull meant "Come" and a push, "Go."
  • Then I would imitate the acts of cutting the slices and buttering them.
  • If I wanted my mother to make ice-cream for dinner I made the sign for working the freezer and shivered, indicating cold.
  • I knew by the way my mother and aunt dressed when they were going out, and I invariably begged to go with them.
  • One day some gentlemen called on my mother, and I felt the shutting of the front door and other sounds that indicated their arrival.
  • Standing before the mirror, as I had seen others do, I anointed mine head with oil and covered my face thickly with powder.
  • Thus attired I went down to help entertain the company.
  • But I cannot remember any instance in which this feeling prevented me from repeating the naughtiness when I failed to get what I wanted.
  • Inspired, perhaps, by Master Gobbler's success, we carried off to the woodpile a cake which the cook had just frosted, and ate every bit of it.
  • I was quite ill afterward, and I wonder if retribution also overtook the turkey.
  • The guinea-fowl likes to hide her nest in out-of-the-way places, and it was one of my greatest delights to hunt for the eggs in the long grass.
  • The guinea-fowl likes to hide her nest in out-of-the-way places, and it was one of my greatest delights to hunt for the eggs in the long grass.
  • When we were fortunate enough to find a nest I never allowed her to carry the eggs home, making her understand by emphatic signs that she might fall and break them.
  • The sheds where the corn was stored, the stable where the horses were kept, and the yard where the cows were milked morning and evening were unfailing sources of interest to Martha and me.
  • The sheds where the corn was stored, the stable where the horses were kept, and the yard where the cows were milked morning and evening were unfailing sources of interest to Martha and me.
  • The milkers would let me keep my hands on the cows while they milked, and I often got well switched by the cow for my curiosity.
  • The milkers would let me keep my hands on the cows while they milked, and I often got well switched by the cow for my curiosity.
  • Of course I did not know what it was all about, but I enjoyed the pleasant odours that filled the house and the tidbits that were given to Martha Washington and me to keep us quiet.
  • We were sadly in the way, but that did not interfere with our pleasure in the least.
  • They allowed us to grind the spices, pick over the raisins and lick the stirring spoons.
  • The other was white, with long golden curls.
  • One child was six years old, the other two or three years older.
  • The younger child was blind--that was I--and the other was Martha Washington.
  • The younger child was blind--that was I--and the other was Martha Washington.
  • We were busy cutting out paper dolls; but we soon wearied of this amusement, and after cutting up our shoestrings and clipping all the leaves off the honeysuckle that were within reach, I turned my attention to Martha's corkscrews.
  • Thinking that turn and turn about is fair play, she seized the scissors and cut off one of my curls, and would have cut them all off but for my mother's timely interference.
  • Belle, our dog, my other companion, was old and lazy and liked to sleep by the open fire rather than to romp with me.
  • This vexed me and the lesson always ended in a one-sided boxing match.
  • Many incidents of those early years are fixed in my memory, isolated, but clear and distinct, making the sense of that silent, aimless, dayless life all the more intense.
  • One day I happened to spill water on my apron, and I spread it out to dry before the fire which was flickering on the sitting-room hearth.
  • The apron did not dry quickly enough to suit me, so I drew nearer and threw it right over the hot ashes.
  • The apron did not dry quickly enough to suit me, so I drew nearer and threw it right over the hot ashes.
  • The fire leaped into life; the flames encircled me so that in a moment my clothes were blazing.
  • The fire leaped into life; the flames encircled me so that in a moment my clothes were blazing.
  • I made a terrified noise that brought Viny, my old nurse, to the rescue.
  • Throwing a blanket over me, she almost suffocated me, but she put out the fire.
  • About this time I found out the use of a key.
  • One morning I locked my mother up in the pantry, where she was obliged to remain three hours, as the servants were in a detached part of the house.
  • I could not be induced to tell where the key was.
  • My father was obliged to get a ladder and take Miss Sullivan out through the window--much to my delight.
  • Months after I produced the key.
  • When I was about five years old we moved from the little vine-covered house to a large new one.
  • The family consisted of my father and mother, two older half-brothers, and, afterward, a little sister, Mildred.
  • I imitated this action, even wearing his spectacles, thinking they might help solve the mystery.
  • But I did not find out the secret for several years.
  • My father was most loving and indulgent, devoted to his home, seldom leaving us, except in the hunting season.
  • His special pride was the big garden where, it was said, he raised the finest watermelons and strawberries in the county; and to me he brought the first ripe grapes and the choicest berries.
  • I was in the North, enjoying the last beautiful days of the summer of 1896, when I heard the news of my father's death.
  • I knew that I had ceased to be my mother's only darling, and the thought filled me with jealousy.
  • She was, alas, the helpless victim of my outbursts of temper and of affection, so that she became much the worse for wear.
  • I guarded both doll and cradle with the most jealous care; but once I discovered my little sister sleeping peacefully in the cradle.
  • Meanwhile the desire to express myself grew.
  • The few signs I used became less and less adequate, and my failures to make myself understood were invariably followed by outbursts of passion.
  • If my mother happened to be near I crept into her arms, too miserable even to remember the cause of the tempest.
  • After awhile the need of some means of communication became so urgent that these outbursts occurred daily, sometimes hourly.
  • We lived a long way from any school for the blind or the deaf, and it seemed unlikely that any one would come to such an out-of-the-way place as Tuscumbia to teach a child who was both deaf and blind.
  • His methods had probably died with him; and if they had not, how was a little girl in a far-off town in Alabama to receive the benefit of them?
  • I made friends with many people on the train.
  • The conductor, too, was kind.
  • Often when he went his rounds I clung to his coat tails while he collected and punched the tickets.
  • Curled up in a corner of the seat I amused myself for hours making funny little holes in bits of cardboard.
  • It was the most comical shapeless thing, this improvised doll, with no nose, mouth, ears or eyes--nothing that even the imagination of a child could convert into a face.
  • Curiously enough, the absence of eyes struck me more than all the other defects put together.
  • I pointed this out to everybody with provoking persistency, but no one seemed equal to the task of providing the doll with eyes.
  • A bright idea, however, shot into my mind, and the problem was solved.
  • I tumbled off the seat and searched under it until I found my aunt's cape, which was trimmed with large beads.
  • The beads were sewed in the right place and I could not contain myself for joy; but immediately I lost all interest in the doll.
  • The beads were sewed in the right place and I could not contain myself for joy; but immediately I lost all interest in the doll.
  • During the whole trip I did not have one fit of temper, there were so many things to keep my mind and fingers busy.
  • Child as I was, I at once felt the tenderness and sympathy which endeared Dr. Bell to so many hearts, as his wonderful achievements enlist their admiration.
  • This was in the summer of 1886.
  • But Miss Sullivan did not arrive until the following March.
  • The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, came to me.
  • The most important day I remember in all my life is the one on which my teacher, Anne Mansfield Sullivan, came to me.
  • It was the third of March, 1887, three months before I was seven years old.
  • On the afternoon of that eventful day, I stood on the porch, dumb, expectant.
  • I guessed vaguely from my mother's signs and from the hurrying to and fro in the house that something unusual was about to happen, so I went to the door and waited on the steps.
  • The afternoon sun penetrated the mass of honeysuckle that covered the porch, and fell on my upturned face.
  • The afternoon sun penetrated the mass of honeysuckle that covered the porch, and fell on my upturned face.
  • My fingers lingered almost unconsciously on the familiar leaves and blossoms which had just come forth to greet the sweet southern spring.
  • I was like that ship before my education began, only I was without compass or sounding-line, and had no way of knowing how near the harbour was.
  • "Light! give me light!" was the wordless cry of my soul, and the light of love shone on me in that very hour.
  • The morning after my teacher came she led me into her room and gave me a doll.
  • The little blind children at the Perkins Institution had sent it and Laura Bridgman had dressed it; but I did not know this until afterward.
  • The little blind children at the Perkins Institution had sent it and Laura Bridgman had dressed it; but I did not know this until afterward.
  • Running downstairs to my mother I held up my hand and made the letters for doll.
  • In the days that followed I learned to spell in this uncomprehending way a great many words, among them pin, hat, cup and a few verbs like sit, stand and walk.
  • In despair she had dropped the subject for the time, only to renew it at the first opportunity.
  • I became impatient at her repeated attempts and, seizing the new doll, I dashed it upon the floor.
  • I was keenly delighted when I felt the fragments of the broken doll at my feet.
  • I had not loved the doll.
  • In the still, dark world in which I lived there was no strong sentiment or tenderness.
  • I felt my teacher sweep the fragments to one side of the hearth, and I had a sense of satisfaction that the cause of my discomfort was removed.
  • She brought me my hat, and I knew I was going out into the warm sunshine.
  • We walked down the path to the well-house, attracted by the fragrance of the honeysuckle with which it was covered.
  • Some one was drawing water and my teacher placed my hand under the spout.
  • As the cool stream gushed over one hand she spelled into the other the word water, first slowly, then rapidly.
  • I stood still, my whole attention fixed upon the motions of her fingers.
  • I left the well-house eager to learn.
  • That was because I saw everything with the strange, new sight that had come to me.
  • On entering the door I remembered the doll I had broken.
  • I felt my way to the hearth and picked up the pieces.
  • Then my eyes filled with tears; for I realized what I had done, and for the first time I felt repentance and sorrow.
  • I do not remember what they all were; but I do know that mother, father, sister, teacher were among them--words that were to make the world blossom for me, "like Aaron's rod, with flowers."
  • I recall many incidents of the summer of 1887 that followed my soul's sudden awakening.
  • I did nothing but explore with my hands and learn the name of every object that I touched; and the more I handled things and learned their names and uses, the more joyous and confident grew my sense of kinship with the rest of the world.
  • I learned how the sun and the rain make to grow out of the ground every tree that is pleasant to the sight and good for food, how birds build their nests and live and thrive from land to land, how the squirrel, the deer, the lion and every other creature finds food and shelter.
  • As my knowledge of things grew I felt more and more the delight of the world I was in.
  • Long before I learned to do a sum in arithmetic or describe the shape of the earth, Miss Sullivan had taught me to find beauty in the fragrant woods, in every blade of grass, and in the curves and dimples of my baby sister's hand.
  • The morning had been fine, but it was growing warm and sultry when at last we turned our faces homeward.
  • Two or three times we stopped to rest under a tree by the wayside.
  • Our last halt was under a wild cherry tree a short distance from the house.
  • The shade was grateful, and the tree was so easy to climb that with my teacher's assistance I was able to scramble to a seat in the branches.
  • The shade was grateful, and the tree was so easy to climb that with my teacher's assistance I was able to scramble to a seat in the branches.
  • It was so cool up in the tree that Miss Sullivan proposed that we have our luncheon there.
  • I promised to keep still while she went to the house to fetch it.
  • Suddenly a change passed over the tree.
  • All the sun's warmth left the air.
  • I knew the sky was black, because all the heat, which meant light to me, had died out of the atmosphere.
  • A strange odour came up from the earth.
  • I knew it, it was the odour that always precedes a thunderstorm, and a nameless fear clutched at my heart.
  • I felt absolutely alone, cut off from my friends and the firm earth.
  • The immense, the unknown, enfolded me.
  • The immense, the unknown, enfolded me.
  • There was a moment of sinister silence, then a multitudinous stirring of the leaves.
  • A shiver ran through the tree, and the wind sent forth a blast that would have knocked me off had I not clung to the branch with might and main.
  • The tree swayed and strained.
  • The small twigs snapped and fell about me in showers.
  • I crouched down in the fork of the tree.
  • The branches lashed about me.
  • I clung to her, trembling with joy to feel the earth under my feet once more.
  • The mere thought filled me with terror.
  • It was the sweet allurement of the mimosa tree in full bloom that finally overcame my fears.
  • It seemed as if the spirit of spring had passed through the summer-house.
  • I asked, and the next minute I recognized the odour of the mimosa blossoms.
  • I felt my way to the end of the garden, knowing that the mimosa tree was near the fence, at the turn of the path.
  • Yes, there it was, all quivering in the warm sunshine, its blossom-laden branches almost touching the long grass.
  • Was there ever anything so exquisitely beautiful in the world before!
  • Its delicate blossoms shrank from the slightest earthly touch; it seemed as if a tree of paradise had been transplanted to earth.
  • I had some difficulty in holding on, for the branches were very large and the bark hurt my hands.
  • I had now the key to all language, and I was eager to learn to use it.
  • But whatever the process, the result is wonderful.
  • I remember the morning that I first asked the meaning of the word, "love."
  • I had found a few early violets in the garden and brought them to my teacher.
  • I smelt the violets in her hand and asked, half in words, half in signs, a question which meant, "Is love the sweetness of flowers?"
  • The warm sun was shining on us.
  • I asked, pointing in the direction from which the heat came.
  • It seemed to me that there could be nothing more beautiful than the sun, whose warmth makes all things grow.
  • Finally I noticed a very obvious error in the sequence and for an instant I concentrated my attention on the lesson and tried to think how I should have arranged the beads.
  • In a flash I knew that the word was the name of the process that was going on in my head.
  • For a long time I was still--I was not thinking of the beads in my lap, but trying to find a meaning for "love" in the light of this new idea.
  • The sun had been under a cloud all day, and there had been brief showers; but suddenly the sun broke forth in all its southern splendour.
  • The sun had been under a cloud all day, and there had been brief showers; but suddenly the sun broke forth in all its southern splendour.
  • "Love is something like the clouds that were in the sky before the sun came out," she replied.
  • You cannot touch love either; but you feel the sweetness that it pours into everything.
  • The beautiful truth burst upon my mind--I felt that there were invisible lines stretched between my spirit and the spirits of others.
  • The beautiful truth burst upon my mind--I felt that there were invisible lines stretched between my spirit and the spirits of others.
  • From the beginning of my education Miss Sullivan made it a practice to speak to me as she would speak to any hearing child; the only difference was that she spelled the sentences into my hand instead of speaking them.
  • If I did not know the words and idioms necessary to express my thoughts she supplied them, even suggesting conversation when I was unable to keep up my end of the dialogue.
  • The conversation he hears in his home stimulates his mind and suggests topics and calls forth the spontaneous expression of his own thoughts.
  • The conversation he hears in his home stimulates his mind and suggests topics and calls forth the spontaneous expression of his own thoughts.
  • This natural exchange of ideas is denied to the deaf child.
  • My teacher, realizing this, determined to supply the kinds of stimulus I lacked.
  • This she did by repeating to me as far as possible, verbatim, what she heard, and by showing me how I could take part in the conversation.
  • But it was a long time before I ventured to take the initiative, and still longer before I could find something appropriate to say at the right time.
  • The deaf and the blind find it very difficult to acquire the amenities of conversation.
  • The deaf and the blind find it very difficult to acquire the amenities of conversation.
  • How much more this difficulty must be augmented in the case of those who are both deaf and blind!
  • One day, Miss Sullivan tells me, I pinned the word girl on my pinafore and stood in the wardrobe.
  • On the shelf I arranged the words, is, in, wardrobe.
  • Often everything in the room was arranged in object sentences.
  • From the printed slip it was but a step to the printed book.
  • I took my "Reader for Beginners" and hunted for the words I knew; when I found them my joy was like that of a game of hide-and-seek.
  • Of the time when I began to read connected stories I shall speak later.
  • I cannot explain the peculiar sympathy Miss Sullivan had with my pleasures and desires.
  • Perhaps it was the result of long association with the blind.
  • She went quickly over uninteresting details, and never nagged me with questions to see if I remembered the day-before-yesterday's lesson.
  • We read and studied out of doors, preferring the sunlit woods to the house.
  • All my early lessons have in them the breath of the woods--the fine, resinous odour of pine needles, blended with the perfume of wild grapes.
  • The loveliness of things taught me all their use.
  • Sometimes I rose at dawn and stole into the garden while the heavy dew lay on the grass and flowers.
  • Few know what joy it is to feel the roses pressing softly into the hand, or the beautiful motion of the lilies as they sway in the morning breeze.
  • Another favourite haunt of mine was the orchard, where the fruit ripened early in July.
  • The large, downy peaches would reach themselves into my hand, and as the joyous breezes flew about the trees the apples tumbled at my feet.
  • The large, downy peaches would reach themselves into my hand, and as the joyous breezes flew about the trees the apples tumbled at my feet.
  • Oh, the delight with which I gathered up the fruit in my pinafore, pressed my face against the smooth cheeks of the apples, still warm from the sun, and skipped back to the house!
  • Our favourite walk was to Keller's Landing, an old tumbledown lumber-wharf on the Tennessee River, used during the Civil War to land soldiers.
  • She made raised maps in clay, so that I could feel the mountain ridges and valleys, and follow with my fingers the devious course of rivers.
  • I liked this, too; but the division of the earth into zones and poles confused and teased my mind.
  • The illustrative strings and the orange stick representing the poles seemed so real that even to this day the mere mention of temperate zone suggests a series of twine circles; and I believe that if any one should set about it he could convince me that white bears actually climb the North Pole.
  • The illustrative strings and the orange stick representing the poles seemed so real that even to this day the mere mention of temperate zone suggests a series of twine circles; and I believe that if any one should set about it he could convince me that white bears actually climb the North Pole.
  • Arithmetic seems to have been the only study I did not like.
  • From the first I was not interested in the science of numbers.
  • These were the keys which unlocked the treasures of the antediluvian world for me.
  • After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.
  • After I had learned a great many interesting things about the life and habits of the children of the sea--how in the midst of dashing waves the little polyps build the beautiful coral isles of the Pacific, and the foraminifera have made the chalk-hills of many a land--my teacher read me "The Chambered Nautilus," and showed me that the shell-building process of the mollusks is symbolical of the development of the mind.
  • Again, it was the growth of a plant that furnished the text for a lesson.
  • Very soon the green, pointed buds showed signs of opening.
  • I remember the eagerness with which I made discoveries about them.
  • It was great fun to plunge my hand into the bowl and feel the tadpoles frisk about, and to let them slip and slide between my fingers.
  • The only sign of life was a slight wriggling of his tail.
  • He had made his leap, he had seen the great world, and was content to stay in his pretty glass house under the big fuchsia tree until he attained the dignity of froghood.
  • Then he went to live in the leafy pool at the end of the garden, where he made the summer nights musical with his quaint love-song.
  • At the beginning I was only a little mass of possibilities.
  • It was my teacher's genius, her quick sympathy, her loving tact which made the first years of my education so beautiful.
  • It was because she seized the right moment to impart knowledge that made it so pleasant and acceptable to me.
  • I feel that her being is inseparable from my own, and that the footsteps of my life are in hers.
  • All the best of me belongs to her--there is not a talent, or an aspiration or a joy in me that has not been awakened by her loving touch.
  • The first Christmas after Miss Sullivan came to Tuscumbia was a great event.
  • Every one in the family prepared surprises for me, but what pleased me most, Miss Sullivan and I prepared surprises for everybody else.
  • My friends did all they could to excite my curiosity by hints and half-spelled sentences which they pretended to break off in the nick of time.
  • Miss Sullivan and I kept up a game of guessing which taught me more about the use of language than any set lessons could have done.
  • On Christmas Eve the Tuscumbia schoolchildren had their tree, to which they invited me.
  • I danced and capered round the tree in an ecstasy.
  • When I learned that there was a gift for each child, I was delighted, and the kind people who had prepared the tree permitted me to hand the presents to the children.
  • In the pleasure of doing this, I did not stop to look at my own gifts; but when I was ready for them, my impatience for the real Christmas to begin almost got beyond control.
  • I was persuaded, however, to content myself with the gifts from the tree and leave the others until morning.
  • Next morning it was I who waked the whole family with my first "Merry Christmas!"
  • I found surprises, not in the stocking only, but on the table, on all the chairs, at the door, on the very window-sill; indeed, I could hardly walk without stumbling on a bit of Christmas wrapped up in tissue paper.
  • Miss Sullivan taught me to take all the care of my new pet.
  • Every morning after breakfast I prepared his bath, made his cage clean and sweet, filled his cups with fresh seed and water from the well-house, and hung a spray of chickweed in his swing.
  • One morning I left the cage on the window-seat while I went to fetch water for his bath.
  • When I returned I felt a big cat brush past me as I opened the door.
  • The next important event in my life was my visit to Boston, in May, 1888.
  • As if it were yesterday I remember the preparations, the departure with my teacher and my mother, the journey, and finally the arrival in Boston.
  • How different this journey was from the one I had made to Baltimore two years before!
  • I was no longer a restless, excitable little creature, requiring the attention of everybody on the train to keep me amused.
  • On the seat opposite me sat my big rag doll, Nancy, in a new gingham dress and a beruffled sunbonnet, looking at me out of two bead eyes.
  • She was covered with dirt – the remains of mud pies I had compelled her to eat, although she had never shown any special liking for them.
  • The laundress at the Perkins Institution secretly carried her off to give her a bath.
  • The laundress at the Perkins Institution secretly carried her off to give her a bath.
  • When I next saw her she was a formless heap of cotton, which I should not have recognized at all except for the two bead eyes which looked out at me reproachfully.
  • When the train at last pulled into the station at Boston it was as if a beautiful fairy tale had come true.
  • The "once upon a time" was now; the "far-away country" was here.
  • The "once upon a time" was now; the "far-away country" was here.
  • We had scarcely arrived at the Perkins Institution for the Blind when I began to make friends with the little blind children.
  • It delighted me inexpressibly to find that they knew the manual alphabet.
  • In the school where Laura Bridgman was taught I was in my own country.
  • It took me some time to appreciate the fact that my new friends were blind.
  • I knew I could not see; but it did not seem possible that all the eager, loving children who gathered round me and joined heartily in my frolics were also blind.
  • I remember the surprise and the pain I felt as I noticed that they placed their hands over mine when I talked to them and that they read books with their fingers.
  • But they were so happy and contented that I lost all sense of pain in the pleasure of their companionship.
  • One day spent with the blind children made me feel thoroughly at home in my new environment, and I looked eagerly from one pleasant experience to another as the days flew swiftly by.
  • I could not quite convince myself that there was much world left, for I regarded Boston as the beginning and the end of creation.
  • The story of the brave men who had fought on the spot where we stood excited me greatly.
  • The story of the brave men who had fought on the spot where we stood excited me greatly.
  • The next day we went to Plymouth by water.
  • This was my first trip on the ocean and my first voyage in a steamboat.
  • But the rumble of the machinery made me think it was thundering, and I began to cry, because I feared if it rained we should not be able to have our picnic out of doors.
  • I was more interested, I think, in the great rock on which the Pilgrims landed than in anything else in Plymouth.
  • I could touch it, and perhaps that made the coming of the Pilgrims and their toils and great deeds seem more real to me.
  • I have often held in my hand a little model of the Plymouth Rock which a kind gentleman gave me at Pilgrim Hall, and I have fingered its curves, the split in the centre and the embossed figures "1620," and turned over in my mind all that I knew about the wonderful story of the Pilgrims.
  • How my childish imagination glowed with the splendour of their enterprise!
  • I idealized them as the bravest and most generous men that ever sought a home in a strange land.
  • I thought they desired the freedom of their fellow men as well as their own.
  • I was keenly surprised and disappointed years later to learn of their acts of persecution that make us tingle with shame, even while we glory in the courage and energy that gave us our "Country Beautiful."
  • Among the many friends I made in Boston were Mr. William Endicott and his daughter.
  • Their kindness to me was the seed from which many pleasant memories have since grown.
  • I also remember the beach, where for the first time I played in the sand.
  • It was hard, smooth sand, very different from the loose, sharp sand, mingled with kelp and shells, at Brewster.
  • Mr. Endicott told me about the great ships that came sailing by from Boston, bound for Europe.
  • I saw him many times after that, and he was always a good friend to me; indeed, I was thinking of him when I called Boston "the City of Kind Hearts."
  • Just before the Perkins Institution closed for the summer, it was arranged that my teacher and I should spend our vacation at Brewster, on Cape Cod, with our dear friend, Mrs. Hopkins.
  • I was delighted, for my mind was full of the prospective joys and of the wonderful stories I had heard about the sea.
  • My most vivid recollection of that summer is the ocean.
  • I felt the great billows rock and sink.
  • The buoyant motion of the water filled me with an exquisite, quivering joy.
  • The buoyant motion of the water filled me with an exquisite, quivering joy.
  • Suddenly my ecstasy gave place to terror; for my foot struck against a rock and the next instant there was a rush of water over my head.
  • I thrust out my hands to grasp some support, I clutched at the water and at the seaweed which the waves tossed in my face.
  • The waves seemed to be playing a game with me, and tossed me from one to another in their wild frolic.
  • At last, however, the sea, as if weary of its new toy, threw me back on the shore, and in another instant I was clasped in my teacher's arms.
  • Oh, the comfort of the long, tender embrace!
  • After I had recovered from my first experience in the water, I thought it great fun to sit on a big rock in my bathing-suit and feel wave after wave dash against the rock, sending up a shower of spray which quite covered me.
  • The breakers would swoop back to gather themselves for a mightier leap, and I clung to the rock, tense, fascinated, as I felt the dash and roar of the rushing sea!
  • The breakers would swoop back to gather themselves for a mightier leap, and I clung to the rock, tense, fascinated, as I felt the dash and roar of the rushing sea!
  • I could never stay long enough on the shore.
  • The tang of the untainted, fresh and free sea air was like a cool, quieting thought, and the shells and pebbles and the seaweed with tiny living creatures attached to it never lost their fascination for me.
  • The tang of the untainted, fresh and free sea air was like a cool, quieting thought, and the shells and pebbles and the seaweed with tiny living creatures attached to it never lost their fascination for me.
  • One day Miss Sullivan attracted my attention to a strange object which she had captured basking in the shallow water.
  • It was a great horseshoe crab--the first one I had ever seen.
  • It suddenly occurred to me that he might make a delightful pet; so I seized him by the tail with both hands and carried him home.
  • But next morning I went to the trough, and lo, he had disappeared!
  • In the autumn I returned to my Southern home with a heart full of joyous memories.
  • It seems to have been the beginning of everything.
  • The treasures of a new, beautiful world were laid at my feet, and I took in pleasure and information at every turn.
  • I spent the autumn months with my family at our summer cottage, on a mountain about fourteen miles from Tuscumbia.
  • Three frolicsome little streams ran through it from springs in the rocks above, leaping here and tumbling there in laughing cascades wherever the rocks tried to bar their way.
  • The opening was filled with ferns which completely covered the beds of limestone and in places hid the streams.
  • The opening was filled with ferns which completely covered the beds of limestone and in places hid the streams.
  • The rest of the mountain was thickly wooded.
  • The rest of the mountain was thickly wooded.
  • Here were great oaks and splendid evergreens with trunks like mossy pillars, from the branches of which hung garlands of ivy and mistletoe, and persimmon trees, the odour of which pervaded every nook and corner of the wood--an illusive, fragrant something that made the heart glad.
  • In places the wild muscadine and scuppernong vines stretched from tree to tree, making arbours which were always full of butterflies and buzzing insects.
  • It was delightful to lose ourselves in the green hollows of that tangled wood in the late afternoon, and to smell the cool, delicious odours that came up from the earth at the close of day.
  • Our cottage was a sort of rough camp, beautifully situated on the top of the mountain among oaks and pines.
  • The small rooms were arranged on each side of a long open hall.
  • Round the house was a wide piazza, where the mountain winds blew, sweet with all wood-scents.
  • We lived on the piazza most of the time--there we worked, ate and played.
  • In the evening, by the campfire, the men played cards and whiled away the hours in talk and sport.
  • "To-morrow to the chase!" was their good-night shout as the circle of merry friends broke up for the night.
  • The men slept in the hall outside our door, and I could feel the deep breathing of the dogs and the hunters as they lay on their improvised beds.
  • The men slept in the hall outside our door, and I could feel the deep breathing of the dogs and the hunters as they lay on their improvised beds.
  • At dawn I was awakened by the smell of coffee, the rattling of guns, and the heavy footsteps of the men as they strode about, promising themselves the greatest luck of the season.
  • I could also feel the stamping of the horses, which they had ridden out from town and hitched under the trees, where they stood all night, neighing loudly, impatient to be off.
  • At last the men mounted, and, as they say in the old songs, away went the steeds with bridles ringing and whips cracking and hounds racing ahead, and away went the champion hunters "with hark and whoop and wild halloo!"
  • Later in the morning we made preparations for a barbecue.
  • A fire was kindled at the bottom of a deep hole in the ground, big sticks were laid crosswise at the top, and meat was hung from them and turned on spits.
  • The savoury odour of the meat made me hungry long before the tables were set.
  • The savoury odour of the meat made me hungry long before the tables were set.
  • I called him Black Beauty, as I had just read the book, and he resembled his namesake in every way, from his glossy black coat to the white star on his forehead.
  • We always returned to the cottage with armfuls of laurel, goldenrod, ferns and gorgeous swamp-flowers such as grow only in the South.
  • I did not eat them; but I loved their fragrance and enjoyed hunting for them in the leaves and grass.
  • We also went nutting, and I helped them open the chestnut burrs and break the shells of hickory-nuts and walnuts--the big, sweet walnuts!
  • At the foot of the mountain there was a railroad, and the children watched the trains whiz by.
  • It was very difficult to walk over, the ties were wide apart and so narrow that one felt as if one were walking on knives.
  • I had never crossed it until one day Mildred, Miss Sullivan and I were lost in the woods, and wandered for hours without finding a path.
  • Suddenly Mildred pointed with her little hand and exclaimed, "There's the trestle!"
  • We would have taken any way rather than this; but it was late and growing dark, and the trestle was a short cut home.
  • I had to feel for the rails with my toe; but I was not afraid, and got on very well, until all at once there came a faint "puff, puff" from the distance.
  • I felt the hot breath from the engine on my face, and the smoke and ashes almost choked us.
  • As the train rumbled by, the trestle shook and swayed until I thought we should be dashed to the chasm below.
  • With the utmost difficulty we regained the track.
  • Long after dark we reached home and found the cottage empty; the family were all out hunting for us.
  • After my first visit to Boston, I spent almost every winter in the North.
  • I recall my surprise on discovering that a mysterious hand had stripped the trees and bushes, leaving only here and there a wrinkled leaf.
  • The birds had flown, and their empty nests in the bare trees were filled with snow.
  • The birds had flown, and their empty nests in the bare trees were filled with snow.
  • The earth seemed benumbed by his icy touch, and the very spirits of the trees had withdrawn to their roots, and there, curled up in the dark, lay fast asleep.
  • The earth seemed benumbed by his icy touch, and the very spirits of the trees had withdrawn to their roots, and there, curled up in the dark, lay fast asleep.
  • All life seemed to have ebbed away, and even when the sun shone the day was
  • The withered grass and the bushes were transformed into a forest of icicles.
  • The withered grass and the bushes were transformed into a forest of icicles.
  • Then came a day when the chill air portended a snowstorm.
  • We rushed out-of-doors to feel the first few tiny flakes descending.
  • Hour by hour the flakes dropped silently, softly from their airy height to the earth, and the country became more and more level.
  • A snowy night closed upon the world, and in the morning one could scarcely recognize a feature of the landscape.
  • All the roads were hidden, not a single landmark was visible, only a waste of snow with trees rising out of it.
  • In the evening a wind from the northeast sprang up, and the flakes rushed hither and thither in furious melee.
  • But during the night the fury of the wind increased to such a degree that it thrilled us with a vague terror.
  • The rafters creaked and strained, and the branches of the trees surrounding the house rattled and beat against the windows, as the winds rioted up and down the country.
  • The rafters creaked and strained, and the branches of the trees surrounding the house rattled and beat against the windows, as the winds rioted up and down the country.
  • On the third day after the beginning of the storm the snow ceased.
  • Narrow paths were shoveled through the drifts.
  • The air stung my cheeks like fire.
  • Half walking in the paths, half working our way through the lesser drifts, we succeeded in reaching a pine grove just outside a broad pasture.
  • The trees stood motionless and white like figures in a marble frieze.
  • The rays of the sun fell upon the trees, so that the twigs sparkled like diamonds and dropped in showers when we touched them.
  • The rays of the sun fell upon the trees, so that the twigs sparkled like diamonds and dropped in showers when we touched them.
  • So dazzling was the light, it penetrated even the darkness that veils my eyes.
  • As the days wore on, the drifts gradually shrunk, but before they were wholly gone another storm came, so that I scarcely felt the earth under my feet once all winter.
  • At intervals the trees lost their icy covering, and the bulrushes and underbrush were bare; but the lake lay frozen and hard beneath the sun.
  • In places the shore of the lake rises abruptly from the water's edge.
  • Plunging through drifts, leaping hollows, swooping down upon the lake, we would shoot across its gleaming surface to the opposite bank.
  • For one wild, glad moment we snapped the chain that binds us to earth, and joining hands with the winds we felt ourselves divine!
  • It was in the spring of 1890 that I learned to speak.
  • The impulse to utter audible sounds had always been strong within me.
  • I used to make noises, keeping one hand on my throat while the other hand felt the movements of my lips.
  • I was pleased with anything that made a noise and liked to feel the cat purr and the dog bark.
  • I used to sit in my mother's lap all day long and keep my hands on her face because it amused me to feel the motions of her lips; and I moved my lips, too, although I had forgotten what talking was.
  • Even this became less and less intelligible until the time when Miss Sullivan began to teach me.
  • I stopped using it only after I had learned to spell the word on my fingers.
  • One who is entirely dependent upon the manual alphabet has always a sense of restraint, of narrowness.
  • My thoughts would often rise and beat up like birds against the wind, and I persisted in using my lips and voice.
  • But I persisted, and an accident soon occurred which resulted in the breaking down of this great barrier--I heard the story of Ragnhild Kaata.
  • This lovely, sweet-natured lady offered to teach me herself, and we began the twenty-sixth of March, 1890.
  • Miss Fuller's method was this: she passed my hand lightly over her face, and let me feel the position of her tongue and lips when she made a sound.
  • I shall never forget the surprise and delight I felt when I uttered my first connected sentence, "It is warm."
  • Only such a one can appreciate the eagerness with which I talked to my toys, to stones, trees, birds and dumb animals, or the delight I felt when at my call Mildred ran to me or my dogs obeyed my commands.
  • I had learned only the elements of speech.
  • Nor is it true that, after I had learned these elements, I did the rest of the work myself.
  • All teachers of the deaf know what this means, and only they can at all appreciate the peculiar difficulties with which I had to contend.
  • In reading my teacher's lips I was wholly dependent on my fingers: I had to use the sense of touch in catching the vibrations of the throat, the movements of the mouth and the expression of the face; and often this sense was at fault.
  • In such cases I was forced to repeat the words or sentences, sometimes for hours, until I felt the proper ring in my own voice.
  • Discouragement and weariness cast me down frequently; but the next moment the thought that I should soon be at home and show my loved ones what I had accomplished, spurred me on, and I eagerly looked forward to their pleasure in my achievement.
  • I could not be despondent while I anticipated the delight of talking to my mother and reading her responses from her lips.
  • It astonished me to find how much easier it is to talk than to spell with the fingers, and I discarded the manual alphabet as a medium of communication on my part; but Miss Sullivan and a few friends still use it in speaking to me, for it is more convenient and more rapid than lip-reading.
  • Just here, perhaps, I had better explain our use of the manual alphabet, which seems to puzzle people who do not know us.
  • One who reads or talks to me spells with his hand, using the single-hand manual alphabet generally employed by the deaf.
  • I place my hand on the hand of the speaker so lightly as not to impede its movements.
  • The position of the hand is as easy to feel as it is to see.
  • The position of the hand is as easy to feel as it is to see.
  • Constant practice makes the fingers very flexible, and some of my friends spell rapidly--about as fast as an expert writes on a typewriter.
  • The mere spelling is, of course, no more a conscious act than it is in writing.
  • At last the happiest of happy moments arrived.
  • I had made my homeward journey, talking constantly to Miss Sullivan, not for the sake of talking, but determined to improve to the last minute.
  • Almost before I knew it, the train stopped at the Tuscumbia station, and there on the platform stood the whole family.
  • The winter of 1892 was darkened by the one cloud in my childhood's bright sky.
  • The winter of 1892 was darkened by the one cloud in my childhood's bright sky.
  • A little story called "The Frost King," which I wrote and sent to Mr. Anagnos, of the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was at the root of the trouble.
  • A little story called "The Frost King," which I wrote and sent to Mr. Anagnos, of the Perkins Institution for the Blind, was at the root of the trouble.
  • I wrote the story when I was at home, the autumn after I had learned to speak.
  • I thought then that I was "making up a story," as children say, and I eagerly sat down to write it before the ideas should slip from me.
  • My thoughts flowed easily; I felt a sense of joy in the composition.
  • Now, if words and images come to me without effort, it is a pretty sure sign that they are not the offspring of my own mind, but stray waifs that I regretfully dismiss.
  • At that time I eagerly absorbed everything I read without a thought of authorship, and even now I cannot be quite sure of the boundary line between my ideas and those I find in books.
  • I suppose that is because so many of my impressions come to me through the medium of others' eyes and ears.
  • At dinner it was read to the assembled family, who were surprised that I could write so well.
  • This question surprised me very much; for I had not the faintest recollection of having had it read to me.
  • Accordingly I copied the story and sent it to him for his birthday.
  • It was suggested that I should change the title from "Autumn Leaves" to "The Frost King," which I did.
  • It was suggested that I should change the title from "Autumn Leaves" to "The Frost King," which I did.
  • I carried the little story to the post-office myself, feeling as if I were walking on air.
  • Mr. Anagnos was delighted with "The Frost King," and published it in one of the Perkins Institution reports.
  • Mr. Anagnos was delighted with "The Frost King," and published it in one of the Perkins Institution reports.
  • This was the pinnacle of my happiness, from which I was in a little while dashed to earth.
  • No child ever drank deeper of the cup of bitterness than I did.
  • He was unusually tender and kind to me, and for a brief space the shadow lifted.
  • I was to be Ceres in a kind of masque given by the blind girls.
  • How well I remember the graceful draperies that enfolded me, the bright autumn leaves that wreathed my head, and the fruit and grain at my feet and in my hands, and beneath all the piety of the masque the oppressive sense of coming ill that made my heart heavy.
  • Something I said made her think she detected in my words a confession that I did remember Miss Canby's story of "The Frost Fairies," and she laid her conclusions before Mr. Anagnos, although I had told her most emphatically that she was mistaken.
  • He believed, or at least suspected, that Miss Sullivan and I had deliberately stolen the bright thoughts of another and imposed them on him to win his admiration.
  • I was brought before a court of investigation composed of the teachers and officers of the Institution, and Miss Sullivan was asked to leave me.
  • I felt so cold, I imagined I should die before morning, and the thought comforted me.
  • But the angel of forgetfulness has gathered up and carried away much of the misery and all the bitterness of those sad days.
  • Miss Sullivan had never heard of "The Frost Fairies" or of the book in which it was published.
  • Miss Sullivan had never heard of "The Frost Fairies" or of the book in which it was published.
  • One thing is certain, the language was ineffaceably stamped upon my brain, though for a long time no one knew it, least of all myself.
  • But the fact remains that Miss Canby's story was read to me once, and that long after I had forgotten it, it came back to me so naturally that I never suspected that it was the child of another mind.
  • All the friends I loved best, except one, have remained my own to the present time.
  • I have never played with words again for the mere pleasure of the game.
  • For a long time, when I wrote a letter, even to my mother, I was seized with a sudden feeling of terror, and I would spell the sentences over and over, to make sure that I had not read them in a book.
  • I have read "The Frost Fairies" since, also the letters I wrote in which I used other ideas of Miss Canby's.
  • I have read "The Frost Fairies" since, also the letters I wrote in which I used other ideas of Miss Canby's.
  • I find in one of them, a letter to Mr. Anagnos, dated September 29, 1891, words and sentiments exactly like those of the book.
  • At the time I was writing "The Frost King," and this letter, like many others, contains phrases which show that my mind was saturated with the story.
  • At the time I was writing "The Frost King," and this letter, like many others, contains phrases which show that my mind was saturated with the story.
  • I represent my teacher as saying to me of the golden autumn leaves, "Yes, they are beautiful enough to comfort us for the flight of summer"--an idea direct from Miss Canby's story.
  • In a composition which I wrote about the old cities of Greece and Italy, I borrowed my glowing descriptions, with variations, from sources I have forgotten.
  • Mr. Anagnos, in speaking of my composition on the cities, has said, "These ideas are poetic in their essence."
  • The young writer, as Stevenson has said, instinctively tries to copy whatever seems most admirable, and he shifts his admiration with astonishing versatility.
  • It is only after years of this sort of practice that even great men have learned to marshal the legion of words which come thronging through every byway of the mind.
  • It is certain that I cannot always distinguish my own thoughts from those I read, because what I read becomes the very substance and texture of my mind.
  • Likewise my compositions are made up of crude notions of my own, inlaid with the brighter thoughts and riper opinions of the authors I have read.
  • It seems to me that the great difficulty of writing is to make the language of the educated mind express our confused ideas, half feelings, half thoughts, when we are little more than bundles of instinctive tendencies.
  • Then, perhaps, my own thoughts and experiences will come to the surface.
  • So this sad experience may have done me good and set me thinking on some of the problems of composition.
  • My only regret is that it resulted in the loss of one of my dearest friends, Mr. Anagnos.
  • Since the publication of "The Story of My Life" in the Ladies' Home Journal, Mr. Anagnos has made a statement, in a letter to Mr. Macy, that at the time of the "Frost King" matter, he believed I was innocent.
  • Since the publication of "The Story of My Life" in the Ladies' Home Journal, Mr. Anagnos has made a statement, in a letter to Mr. Macy, that at the time of the "Frost King" matter, he believed I was innocent.
  • He says, the court of investigation before which I was brought consisted of eight people: four blind, four seeing persons.
  • For two years he seems to have held the belief that Miss Sullivan and I were innocent.
  • Nor did I know the details of the investigation.
  • I never knew even the names of the members of the "court" who did not speak to me.
  • The summer and winter following the "Frost King" incident I spent with my family in Alabama.
  • The summer and winter following the "Frost King" incident I spent with my family in Alabama.
  • "The Frost King" was forgotten.
  • The thought that what I wrote might not be absolutely my own tormented me.
  • At other times, in the midst of a paragraph I was writing, I said to myself, "Suppose it should be found that all this was written by some one long ago!"
  • And even now I sometimes feel the same uneasiness and disquietude.
  • It was with the hope of restoring my self-confidence that she persuaded me to write for the Youth's Companion a brief account of my life.
  • Up to the time of the "Frost King" episode, I had lived the unconscious life of a little child; now my thoughts were turned inward, and I beheld things invisible.
  • The chief events of the year 1893 were my trip to Washington during the inauguration of President Cleveland, and visits to Niagara and the World's Fair.
  • The chief events of the year 1893 were my trip to Washington during the inauguration of President Cleveland, and visits to Niagara and the World's Fair.
  • It is difficult to describe my emotions when I stood on the point which overhangs the American Falls and felt the air vibrate and the earth tremble.
  • It seems strange to many people that I should be impressed by the wonders and beauties of Niagara.
  • You cannot see the waves rolling up the beach or hear their roar.
  • In the most evident sense they mean everything.
  • Every day in imagination I made a trip round the world, and I saw many wonders from the uttermost parts of the earth--marvels of invention, treasuries of industry and skill and all the activities of human life actually passed under my finger tips.
  • I liked to visit the Midway Plaisance.
  • It seemed like the "Arabian Nights," it was crammed so full of novelty and interest.
  • I also went on board a Viking ship which lay a short distance from the little craft.
  • At a little distance from this ship there was a model of the Santa Maria, which I also examined.
  • The captain showed me Columbus's cabin and the desk with an hour-glass on it.
  • The captain showed me Columbus's cabin and the desk with an hour-glass on it.
  • Mr. Higinbotham, President of the World's Fair, kindly gave me permission to touch the exhibits, and with an eagerness as insatiable as that with which Pizarro seized the treasures of Peru, I took in the glories of the Fair with my fingers.
  • It was a sort of tangible kaleidoscope, this white city of the West.
  • At the Cape of Good Hope exhibit, I learned much about the processes of mining diamonds.
  • Whenever it was possible, I touched the machinery while it was in motion, so as to get a clearer idea how the stones were weighed, cut, and polished.
  • I searched in the washings for a diamond and found it myself--the only true diamond, they said, that was ever found in the United States.
  • Dr. Bell went everywhere with us and in his own delightful way described to me the objects of greatest interest.
  • In the electrical building we examined the telephones, autophones, phonographs, and other inventions, and he made me understand how it is possible to send a message on wires that mock space and outrun time, and, like Prometheus, to draw fire from the sky.
  • From these relics I learned more about the progress of man than I have heard or read since.
  • I read the histories of Greece, Rome and the United States.
  • I had a French grammar in raised print, and as I already knew some French, I often amused myself by composing in my head short exercises, using the new words as I came across them, and ignoring rules and other technicalities as much as possible.
  • I even tried, without aid, to master the French pronunciation, as I found all the letters and sounds described in the book.
  • I also gave considerable time to the improvement of my speech.
  • Miss Sullivan and I were at that time in Hulton, Pennsylvania, visiting the family of Mr. William Wade.
  • I learned for the first time to know an author, to recognize his style as I recognize the clasp of a friend's hand.
  • There it was arranged that I should go to the Wright-Humason School for the Deaf in New York City.
  • Before the end of the first year I read "Wilhelm Tell" with the greatest delight.
  • I studied it with Madame Olivier, a French lady who did not know the manual alphabet, and who was obliged to give her instruction orally.
  • I hung about the dangerous frontier of "guess," avoiding with infinite trouble to myself and others the broad valley of reason.
  • The two years in New York were happy ones, and I look back to them with genuine pleasure.
  • I remember especially the walks we all took together every day in Central Park, the only part of the city that was congenial to me.
  • In the spring we made excursions to various places of interest.
  • We sailed on the Hudson River and wandered about on its green banks, of which Bryant loved to sing.
  • I liked the simple, wild grandeur of the palisades.
  • Among the places I visited were West Point, Tarrytown, the home of Washington Irving, where I walked through "Sleepy Hollow."
  • The teachers at the Wright-Humason School were always planning how they might give the pupils every advantage that those who hear enjoy--how they might make much of few tendencies and passive memories in the cases of the little ones--and lead them out of the cramping circumstances in which their lives were set.
  • The teachers at the Wright-Humason School were always planning how they might give the pupils every advantage that those who hear enjoy--how they might make much of few tendencies and passive memories in the cases of the little ones--and lead them out of the cramping circumstances in which their lives were set.
  • Before I left New York, these bright days were darkened by the greatest sorrow that I have ever borne, except the death of my father.
  • In October, 1896, I entered the Cambridge School for Young Ladies, to be prepared for Radcliffe.
  • The thought of going to college took root in my heart and became an earnest desire, which impelled me to enter into competition for a degree with seeing and hearing girls, in the face of the strong opposition of many true and wise friends.
  • The thought of going to college took root in my heart and became an earnest desire, which impelled me to enter into competition for a degree with seeing and hearing girls, in the face of the strong opposition of many true and wise friends.
  • When I left New York the idea had become a fixed purpose; and it was decided that I should go to Cambridge.
  • This was the nearest approach I could get to Harvard and to the fulfillment of my childish declaration.
  • My studies for the first year were English history, English literature, German, Latin, arithmetic, Latin composition and occasional themes.
  • I had had, moreover, a good start in French, and received six months' instruction in Latin; but German was the subject with which I was most familiar.
  • For a while, indeed, I had to copy my Latin in braille, so that I could recite with the other girls.
  • Each day Miss Sullivan went to the classes with me and spelled into my hand with infinite patience all that the teachers said.
  • The tedium of that work is hard to conceive.
  • I took the greatest delight in these German books, especially Schiller's wonderful lyrics, the history of Frederick the Great's magnificent achievements and the account of Goethe's life.
  • Mr. Gilman instructed me part of the year in English literature.
  • My mind stirred with the stirring times, and the characters round which the life of two contending nations centred seemed to move right before me.
  • I thought how strange it was that such precious seeds of truth and wisdom should have fallen among the tares of ignorance and corruption.
  • At the Cambridge school, for the first time in my life, I enjoyed the companionship of seeing and hearing girls of my own age.
  • I lived with several others in one of the pleasant houses connected with the school, the house where Mr. Howells used to live, and we all had the advantage of home life.
  • Some of the girls learned to speak to me, so that Miss Sullivan did not have to repeat their conversation.
  • It makes me most happy to remember the hours we spent helping each other in study and sharing our recreation together.
  • The subjects I offered were Elementary and Advanced German, French, Latin, English, and Greek and Roman history, making nine hours in all.
  • Perhaps an explanation of the method that was in use when I took my examinations will not be amiss here.
  • The examination papers were given out at nine o'clock at Harvard and brought to Radcliffe by a special messenger.
  • It was thought advisable for me to have my examinations in a room by myself, because the noise of the typewriter might disturb the other girls.
  • Mr. Gilman read all the papers to me by means of the manual alphabet.
  • A man was placed on guard at the door to prevent interruption.
  • The first day I had German.
  • Mr. Gilman sat beside me and read the paper through first, then sentence by sentence, while I repeated the words aloud, to make sure that I understood him perfectly.
  • The papers were difficult, and I felt very anxious as I wrote out my answers on the typewriter.
  • The papers were difficult, and I felt very anxious as I wrote out my answers on the typewriter.
  • At Radcliffe no one reads the papers to me after they are written, and I have no opportunity to correct errors unless I finish before the time is up.
  • In that case I correct only such mistakes as I can recall in the few minutes allowed, and make notes of these corrections at the end of my paper.
  • If I passed with higher credit in the preliminaries than in the finals, there are two reasons.
  • In the finals, no one read my work over to me, and in the preliminaries I offered subjects with some of which I was in a measure familiar before my work in the Cambridge school; for at the beginning of the year I had passed examinations in English, History, French and German, which Mr. Gilman gave me from previous Harvard papers.
  • Mr. Gilman sent my written work to the examiners with a certificate that I, candidate No. 233, had written the papers.
  • All the other preliminary examinations were conducted in the same manner.
  • I remember that the day the Latin paper was brought to us, Professor Schilling came in and informed me I had passed satisfactorily in German.
  • This encouraged me greatly, and I sped on to the end of the ordeal with a light heart and a steady hand.
  • But during the first few weeks I was confronted with unforeseen difficulties.
  • The classes I was in were very large, and it was impossible for the teachers to give me special instruction.
  • The classes I was in were very large, and it was impossible for the teachers to give me special instruction.
  • I could not follow with my eyes the geometrical figures drawn on the blackboard, and my only means of getting a clear idea of them was to make them on a cushion with straight and curved wires, which had bent and pointed ends.
  • The embossed books and other apparatus arrived, and I threw myself into the work with renewed confidence.
  • The embossed books and other apparatus arrived, and I threw myself into the work with renewed confidence.
  • Algebra and geometry were the only studies that continued to defy my efforts to comprehend them.
  • As I have said before, I had no aptitude for mathematics; the different points were not explained to me as fully as I wished.