Six miles below this the ruins of Kai' at Dibse mark the site of the ancient Thapsacus (Tiphsah of 1 Kings iv.
Across it were drawn seven parallels, running through Meroe, Syene, Alexandria, Rhodes, Lysimachia on the Hellespont, the mouth of the Borysthenes and Thule, and these were crossed at right angles by seven meridians, drawn at irregular intervals, and passing through the Pillars of Hercules, Carthage, Alexandria, Thapsacus on the Euphrates, the Caspian gates, the mouth of the Indus and that of the Ganges.
His realm extended from Tiphsah (Thapsacus) on the Euphrates to the borders of Egypt (iv.
(I) An obvious series of routes followed the course of the rivers: from Thapsacus (Dibse) down the Euphrates, from Jeziret ibn `Omar down the Tigris, from Circesium up the Khabur.
The route followed by Alexander, though he also crossed at Thapsacus, took him unresisted across the northern parts; but the poor people of Mesopotamia suffered from the measures taken by their satrap Mazaeus to impede Alexander's progress.
3 This is seen in the Greek names which now appear: such are Seleucia opposite Samosata, Apamea (= Birejik) opposite 'Zeugma, Hierapolis (= Membij), Europos, Nicatoris, Amphipolis (= Thapsacus, or near it), Nicephorium (er-Rakka,) Zenodotium (stormed by Crassus), all on or by the Euphrates; Edessa (q.v.) on the upper waters of the Belikh, Ichnae (perhaps Khnes, above the junction of the Qaramuch with the Belikh).