II.), succeeded by the isolation of the organisms of typhoid, cholera, diphtheria, actinomycosis, tetanus, &c. The knowledge we now possess of the causes of immunity from contagious disease has resulted from this study of pathological bacteriology: momentous practical issues have also followed upon this study.
Amongst these may be mentioned the neutralizing of the toxins in cases of diphtheria, tetanus and poisonous snake-bite; " serum therapeutics "; and treatment by " vaccines."
When we consider that tuberculosis, diphtheria, cholera, tetanus, typhoid fever, anthrax, malaria and a host of other contagious diseases have each been proved to be of parasitical origin, an idea may be conve y ed of the range of the subject.
On the other hand, not a few disorders proved to be alien to classes to which narrower views of causation had referred them; of such are tabes dorsalis, neuritis, infantile palsy or tetanus, now removed from the category of primary nervous diseases and placed in one or other of the class of infections; or, conversely, certain forms of disease of the joints are now regarded with some certainty as members of more than one series of diseases chiefly manifest in the nervous system.
Toxins may thus become so closely keyed into their corresponding atom groups, as for instance in tetanus, that they are no longer free to combine with the antitoxin; or, again, an antitoxin injected before a toxin may anticipate it and, preventing its mischievous adhesion, dismiss it for excretion.
Of such are tetanus and diphtheria, now known to be due to the establishment from without of a local microbic infection, from which focus a toxin is diffused to the nervous matter.
The typhoid organism was not found to be taken off from the decomposing masses of semi-liquid filth largely contaminated with a culture of bacillus typhosus; but, on the other hand, it was abundantly proved that it could grow over moist surfaces of stones, &c. Certain disease-producing organisms, such as the bacillus of tetanus and malignant oedema, appear to be universally distributed in soil, while others, as the bacillus typhosus and spirillum cholerae, appear to have only a local distribution.
It has undoubtedly been of value in many cases of tetanus, in which it must be given in maximal doses.
(The tetanus antitoxin should invariably be employed as well.) Sir Thomas Fraser differs from nearly all other authorities in regarding the drug as useless in cases of strychnine poisoning, and the question must be left open.
Tetanus resembles strychnine poisoning, but the development of the symptoms in tetanus is usually much slower, death rarely occurring within 24 hours.
In strychnine poisoning trismus or lockjaw is generally secondary to spasm of the other muscles, while in tetanus it is usually the first symptom, no relaxation taking place between the spasms.
The uses of chloroform which fall to be mentioned here are: - as a counter-irritant; as a local anaesthetic for toothache due to caries, it being applied on a cotton wool plug which is inserted into the carious cavity; as an antispasmodic in tetanus and hydrophobia; and as the best and most immediate and effective antidote in cases of strychnine poisoning.
On the 6th of November 1902, nineteen persons who had been inoculated on the 30th of October in the village of Malkowal from a single bottle (labelled 53-n) of the new fluid were found to be suffering from tetanus, and all of them subsequently died.
They found that the germ of tetanus had been introduced into the fluid before the bottle was opened at Malkowal, and they thought it probable that this might have occurred owing either to insufficient sterilization or to the process of filling the bottle from a larger flask having been performed with defective precautions.
They also expressed the opinion that carbolic acid was a valuable agent in restraining tetanus growth when added to plague prophylactic, ' and they, therefore, thought that its omission was a grave mistake.
H.) protection against plague; (2) on the comparative liability of each fluid to contamination; and (3) on the probable origin of tetanus virus in the Malkowal cases.
(3) The Institute is in entire agreement with the commission as to the value of 5% carbolic acid in restraining tetanus growth when added to plague prophylactic, and its experiments emphasize still further the importance of this addition in preventing growth and toxin formation in a vaccine which might be liable to the possibility of contamination with spores of tetanus.
(4) The conclusions of the Institute coincide with those of the commission that in all probability tetanus was at the time of inoculation in the fluid contained in the bottle, but that it is impossible to determine at what stage in its history or in what way the bottle (53-n) became contaminated."
The evidence showed that it had been much too readily believed that the tetanus germs had entered the fluid before the bottle was opened, and that a grave injustice had been done to Mr Haffkine.
Thus the organisms of suppuration, tubercle, glanders, diphtheria, typhoid fever, cholera, tetanus, and others were identified, and their relationship to the individual diseases established.
Yersin (1888), and in the case of tetanus a little later by various observers.
Immunity against toxins also became a subject of investigation, and the result was the discovery of the antitoxic action of the serum of animals immunized against tetanus toxin by E.
In the case of the tetanus and diphtheria bacilli, the production of soluble toxins can be readily demonstrated by filtering a culture in bouillon germ-free by means of a porcelain filter, and then injecting some of the filtrate into an animal.
A later research by Brieger along with Fraenkel pointed to the extracellular toxins of diphtheria, tetanus and other diseases being of proteid nature, and various other observers have arrived at a like conclusion.
Thus in cholera the bacteria are practically confined to the intestine, in diphtheria to the region of the false membrane, in tetanus to some wound.
In the lastmentioned disease even the local multiplication depends upon the presence of other bacteria, as the tetanus bacillus has practically no power of multiplying in the healthy tissues when introduced alone.
Thus in diphtheria changes in both nerve cells and nerve fibres have been found, and in tetanus minute alterations in the nucleus and protoplasm of nerve cells.
Wassermann and Takaki in the case of tetanus, that there do exist in the nervous system molecules with combining affinity for the tetanus toxin.
If, for example, the brain and spinal cord removed from an animal be bruised and brought into contact with tetanus toxin, a certain amount of the toxicity disappears, as shown by injecting the mixture into another animal.
Further, these molecules in the nervous system present the same susceptibility to heat and other physical agencies as does tetanus antitoxin.
Natural immunity against toxins must be taken into account, and, if Ehrlich's view with regard to toxic action be correct, this may depend upon either the absence of chemical affinity of the living molecules of the tissues for the toxic molecule, or upon insensitiveness to the action of the toxophorous group. It has been shown with regard to the former, for example, that the nervous system of the fowl, which possesses immunity against tetanus toxin, has little combining affinity for it.
GREENSHANK, one of the largest of the birds commonly known as sandpipers, the Tetanus glottis of most ornithological writers.
In North America it is represented by two species, Tetanus semipalmatus and T.