Of testaments and other matters (Keith, History of the Scottish Bishops, Edinburgh, 1824, p. 38).
Thus the English canon of 1571 directs preachers "to take heed that they do not teach anything in their sermons as though they would have it completely held and believed by the people, save what is agreeable to the doctrine of the Old and New Testaments, and what the Catholic Fathers and ancient Bishops have gathered from that doctrine."
The subjects are scenes from the Old and New Testaments, and the Last Judgment, with Heaven and Hell.
Charles has done much by his editions to restore to their proper prominence in connexion with Jewish history the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, The Book of Jubilees, Enoch, &c. But Scharer gives a complete bibliography to which it must suffice to refer.
His special work was the exposition of the Old and New Testaments in the light of his great Oriental learning and according to his characteristic principle of "natural explanation."
Historical and critical - Das religiose Bewusstsein der Menschheit; Geschichte der Metaphysik (2 vols.); Kant's Erkenntnistheorie; Kritische Grundlegung des transcendentalen Realismus; Ober die dialektische Methode; studies of Schelling, Lotze, von Kirchmann; Zur Geschichte des Pessimismus; Neukantianismus, Schopenhauerismus, Hegelianismus; Geschichte der deutschen Asthetik seit Kant; Die Krisis des Christentums in der modernen Theologie; Philosophische Fragen der Gegenwart; Ethische Studien; Moderne Psychologie; Das Christentum des neuen Testaments; Die Weltanschauung der modernen Physik.
Adversus Paganos, 1844); besides the Old and New Testaments, he appears to have consulted Caesar, Livy, Justin, Tacitus, Suetonius, Florus and a cosmography, attaching also great value to Jerome's translation of the Chronicles of Eusebius.
In the Old and New Testaments the dog is spoken of almost with abhorrence; it ranked amongst the unclean beasts: traffic in it was considered as an abomination, and it was forbidden to he offered in the sanctuary in the discharge of any vow.
TESTAMENTS OF THE TWELVE PATRIARCHS.
The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (see Apocalyptic Literature: Ii.
Charles's The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs, translated from the Editor's Greek Text (A.
241, 1899), and later, with considerable fullness, in his edition of the Greek text of the Testaments (1908), brought to light a number of facts that put the question of a Hebrew original beyond the range of doubt.
The Hebrew Text of one of the Testaments of the XII.
" The date of the groundwork of the Testaments is not difficult to determine.
Hence we conclude that the Testaments were written between 137 and 107."
In that case the Testaments were written between 109 and 107 B.C.
- These additions are to be found in most of the Testaments and were made at different periods.
Charles's Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs (1908), Introd.
But of still greater interest are the passages in the Gospels which show the influence of the Testaments, and these belong mainly to the sayings and discourses of our Lord.
Charles's Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs.
- Charles, The Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs translated from the Editor's Greek Text (1908).
In the interpretation of testaments it was to be assumed that members of the same family were not to be separated by the division of the succession.
We cannot here enter into the infinite details of the other subdivisions imagined by Joachim, or into his system of perpetual concordances between the New and the Old Testaments, which, according to him, furnish the prefiguration of the third age.
Gherardo, however, did not say, as has been supposed, that Joachim's books were the new gospel, but merely that the Calabrian abbot had supplied the key to Holy Writ, and that with the help of that intelligentia mystica it would be possible to extract from the Old and New Testaments the eternal meaning, the gospel according to the Spirit, a gospel which would never be written; as for this eternal sense, it had been entrusted to an order set apart, to the Franciscan order announced by Joachim, and in this order the ideal of the third age was realized.
In 1799 a new edition was brought out by the Society, and he managed to secure 700 copies of the io,000 issued; the Sunday School Society got 3000 testaments printed, and most of them passed into his hands in 1801.
Neuen Testamente (1841-1844; 2nd ed., 1857-1860); DerSchriftbeweis (1852-1856; 2nd ed., 18 571860); Die heilige Schrift des neuen Testaments zusammenhangend untersucht (1862-1875); Schutzschriften (1856-1859), in which he defends himself against the charge of denying the Atonement; and Theologische Ethik (1878).
The influence of the Testaments of the Twelve Patriarchs is still more apparent in the Pauline Epistles and the Gospels, and the same holds true of Jubilees and the Assumption of Moses, though in a very slight degree.
Trans., 1885; 5th German edition, 1899; first published in 1878 as Geschichte Israels); Muhammed in Medina (Berlin, 1882); Die Komposition des Hexateuchs and .der historischen Bucher des Alten Testaments (1889, 3rd ed.
His other works include: Lehrbuch der biblischen Theologie des Neuen Testaments (1868, 9th ed., 1903; Eng.
Testaments of the XII.
Testaments of the III.
The Testaments were written about the same date as the Book of Jubilees.
(See Testaments Of The Xii.
For an account of these three Testaments (referred to in the Apost.
The Testaments of Isaac and Jacob are still preserved in Arabic and Ethiopic (see James, Op. cit.
See Testaments Of The Iii.
- Reland, Decas exercitationum philologicarum de vera pronuntiatione nominis Jehova, 1707; Reinke, " Philologisch-historische Abhandlung fiber den Gottesnamen Jehova," in Beitrc ge zur Erklcirung des Alten Testaments, III.
In his principal work, Die geschichtlichen Bucher des Allen Testaments (1866), he sought to show that the priestly legislation of Exodus, Leviticus and Numbers is of later origin than the book of Deuteronomy.
Annales Veteris et Novi Testaments, by Archbishop Ussher, whose dates have by some means gained a place in the authorized version of the Bible.
In this spirit he wrote commentaries upon portions of Aristotle, and upon the Summa of Aquinas, and towards the end of his life made a careful translation of the Old and New Testaments, excepting Solomon's Song, the Prophets and the Revelation of St John.
The above method was adopted by Bousset in his work Der Antichrist in der Uberlieferung des Judenthums, des Neuen Testaments, and der alter Kirche (1895), in which he sought to show that a fixed tradition of the Antichrist originating in Judaism can be traced from New Testament times down to the middle ages, and that this tradition was in the main unaffected by the Apocalypse, though in chap. xi.
His Einleitung in die Schriften des Neuen Testaments, undoubtedly his most important work, was completed in 1808 (fourth German edition, 1847;, English translations by D.
For that, when it came, much was due to the work of Graf (a pupil of Reuss, whose Geschichtliche Bucher des Alten Testaments appeared in 1866); to the Dutch scholar Kuenen, who, starting from the earlier criticism, came over to the new, made it the basis of his Religion of Israel (1869-1870), a masterly work and a model of sound method, and continued to support it by a long series of critical essays in the Theologisch Tijdschrift; and to Wellhausen, who displayed an unrivalled combination of grasp of details and power of historical construction: his Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels was published in 1878 and translated into English in 1885; the history itself, Israelitische u.
Diestel, Geschichte des Alten Testaments in derChristlichen Kirche (1869); C. A.
The first method distinguishes between uncial or majuscule, and cursive or minuscule; the second between papyrus, vellum or parchment, and paper (for further details see Manuscript and Palaeography); and the third distinguishes mainly between Gospels, Acts and Epistles (with or without the Apocalypse), New Testaments (the word in this connexion being somewhat broadly interpreted), lectionaries and commentaries.
(2) To remedy these drawbacks an entirely new system was introduced in 1902 by von Soden in his Die Schriften des neuen Testaments, Bd.
(1) New Testaments (the Apocalypse being not regarded as a necessary part), Gospels, and (3) Acts, Epistles and Apocalypse (the latter again being loosely regarded).
Von Soden's Die Schriften des neuen Testaments (Berlin, Band i., 1902-1907); F.
Originally, the MS. contained the whole of the Old and New Testaments, including the Psalms of Solomon in the former and I and 2 Clement in the latter.
Von Soden, Die Schriften des Neuen Testaments (i.