See BIBLE: Old Testament, Texts and Versions.
Probably he was educated at the school attached to the monastery, and in his Testament he has drawn a lively picture of himself as a typical orchard-robbing boy, who had scant relish for matins, fought, and threw creed and paternoster at the cock.
Davidson, The Theology of the Old Testament (1904); A.
TIGRIS (Old Persian Tigra, Diklat of the cuneiform inscriptions, Hiddekel of the Old Testament, Diglath of the Targum, Digla of the Arabs), a great river of western Asia, rising from two principal sources.
But this book itself was a farrago of heterogeneous elements - pieces of genuine history, ancient stories once told in Babylon of Gilgamesh or Etanna, literary forgeries of the days soon after Alexander, like the oldest part of the "Testament of Alexander," variations due to Egyptian patriotic sentiment, like that which made Alexander the son of the last Pharaoh, Nectanebus.
Gentilis in Latin, properly meaning "tribesman," came to be used of foreigners and non-Roman peoples, and was adopted in ecclesiasticaI usage for the non-Christian nations and in the Old Testament for non-Jewish races.
24), are a last echo in Old Testament prophecy of the theocratic importance of the house of David.
EPISTLE TO THE COLOSSIANS, the twelfth book of the New Testament, the authorship of which is ascribed to the Apostle Paul.
He was a deeply religious man, but his exemption of Jewish origins from the canons of historical inquiry which he elsewhere applied was probably due to the conditions of his age, which preceded the dawn of Semitic investigation and regarded the Old Testament and the Hebrew religion as sui generis.
He was professor of sacred literature in Andover Seminary in 1864-82, and in 1884 succeeded Ezra Abbot as Bussey professor of New Testament criticism in the Harvard Divinity School.
In New Testament criticism Pfleiderer belonged to the critical school which grew out of the impulse given by F.
On the place of Haggai in the history of Old Testament prophecy, see Duhm, Theologie der Propheten (Bonn, 18 75); A.
The fact that standards of Methodist doctrine are laid down as consisting of "Mr Wesley's Notes on the New Testament and the 1st Series of his Sermons" (fiftythree in number), might seem to indicate a departure from existing systems, but it was not so.
This is not expressly stated in the New Testament but is regarded as a necessary inference.
Testament authority for it, there are certain differences of view in regard to details which may be noticed.
That while the New Testament recognizes but one order of presbyters there are in this order two degrees or classes, known as teaching elders and ruling elders.
A second theory is contended for by Principal Campbell in his treatise on the eldership, and by others also, that there is no warrant in Scripture for the eldership as it exists in the Presbyterian Church; that the ruling elder is not, and is not designed to be, a counterpart of the New Testament elder; in other words, that he is not a presbyter, but only a layman chosen to represent the laity in the church courts and permitted to assist in the government of the church.
Luther gave little attention to New Testament polity, though he believed in and clung passionately to the universal priesthood of all true Christians, and rejected the idea of a sacerdotal caste.
While Luther studied the Scriptures in search of true doctrine and Christian life and was indifferent to forms of church polity, they studied the New Testament not only in search of primitive church doctrine but also of primitive of the church polity.
Organs used to be regarded as contrary to New Testament example, but their use is now all but universal.
Imitation of the New Testament practice; and where it is not marred by undue prolixity commends itself to most Christian people as a solemn and impressive service.
Thirteen bishops subscribed this proposition: that in the New Testament there is no mention made of any distinctions or degrees in orders but only deacons and priests or bishops.
15 (more technical); also the larger commentaries on Exodus-Joshua and the ordinary critical works on Old Testament literature.
And in this connexion He introduces two of the main methods to which historical criticism of the Old Testament has recurred in modern times: He appeals to the oldest history rather than to the Pentateuchal code as proving that the later conception of the law was unknown in ancient times (Matt.
The frequent Old Testament association of "new moons and Sabbaths" may point to an original observance of the 1st and 15th days of the month.
Bohn, Sabbat im Alten Testament u.
From 1859 the title of his chair was Oriental and Old Testament Literature.
He wrote The Religion of Israel (1882); Quotations from the Old Testament in the New Testament (1884); Judaism and Christianity (1890); and the Book of Proverbs (1899) in the "International Critical Commentary"; and edited a translation of Erdmann's commentary on Samuel (1877) in Lange's commentaries; Murray's Origin of the Psalms (1880); and, in Haupt's Sacred Books of the Old Testament, the Book of Ezekiel (Hebrew text and English version, 1899).
In the New Testament such experiences are recorded in Caesarea (Acts x.
The existence of an African Cush cannot reasonably be questioned, though the term is employed in the Old Testament with some latitude.
Although decisive evidence is lacking, it seems extremely probable that several references to Cush in the Old Testament cannot refer to Ethiopia, despite the likelihood that considerable confusion existed in the minds of early writers.
The use of the word "father" as a title of respect is found in the Old Testament, where it is applied to patriarchs (Gen.
A list of fathers drawn up on this principle will begin with the Christian writers of the 1st century whose writings are not included in the New Testament: where it ought to end is a more difficult point to determine.
And the Old Testament (Eng., E.
The existence of blights and mildews of cereals had been observed and recorded in very ancient times, as witness the Bible, where half a dozen references to such scourges occur in the Old Testament alone.
The art of the apothecary is alluded to very early in the Old Testament history (Exod.
Philo is Greek enough to believe in the eternity of matter; otherwise he preserves the main outlines of Old Testament theism.
24, &c.) is the main New Testament passage which seems to recognize a Natural Theology, Rom.
That of the Old Testament, along with what are historically the daughter faiths, Christianity and Islam.
The works of St Francis consist of the Rule (in two redactions), the Testament, spiritual admonitions, canticles and a few letters.
2 The elders were appointed to teach and rule; 3 the deacons to minister to the poor.4 There were elders in the church at Jerusalem,' and in the church at Ephesus; 6 Paul and Barnabas appointed elders in the cities of Lycaonia and Pisidia; 7 Paul left Titus in Crete to appoint elders in every city; 8 the elders amongst the strangers scattered throughout Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia and Bithynia received a special exhortation by Peter.° These elders were rulers, and the only rulers in the New Testament Church.
He studied at Bonn, was ordained priest in 1859, was nominated professor extraordinary at the university of Bonn in 1864, and a professor in ordinary of the exegesis of the New Testament in 1867 - an office which he held till his death.