It is impossible here to deal with the systems of land tenure in force in other countries.
After five years' tenure of office the grand vizier died and was succeeded by his son, Ahmed Kuprili.
As their tenure of power grew firmer, they advanced dynastic claims, assumed titles, and took the style of petty sovereigns.
Propositions to establish the judiciary on a more permanent tenure were also voted down in 1814, 1822, 1857 and 1870, and the state still elects its judges for two years' terms. On its own suggestion, the council of censors was abolished in 1870 and the present method of amending the constitution was adopted.
As a statesman Lamartine was placed during his brief tenure of office in a position from which it would have been almost impossible for any man, who was not prepared and able to play the dictator, to emerge with credit.
When the government of the state had entered into feudalism, and the king was as much senior as king; when the vassal relationship was recognized as a proper and legal foundation of public duties; when the two separate sides of early feudalism were united as the almost universal rule, so that a man received a fief because he owed a vassal's duties, or looked at in the other and finally prevailing way, that he owed a vassal's duties because he had received a fief; and finally, when the old idea of the temporary character of the precarium tenure was lost sight of, and the right of the vassal's heir to receive his father's holding was recognized as the general rule - then the feudal system may be called full grown.
The great questions upon which the country was divided, were settled within twenty years of the granting of self-government.1 With the disposal of these important problems, politics in Australia became a struggle for office between men whose political principles were very much alike, and the tenure of power enjoyed by the various governments did not depend upon the principles of administration so much as upon the personal fitness of the head of the ministry, and the acceptability of his ministry to the members of the more popular branch of the legislature.
While occupied with work on committees and in administration he pressed forward several schemes of reform, including a large measure of law reform prepared by a commission presided over by Matthew Hale, and the settlement of the church; but very little was accomplished by the parliament, which seemed to be almost exclusively taken up with the maintenance and increase of its own powers; and Cromwell's dissatisfaction, and that of the army which increased every day, was intensified by the knowledge that the parliament, instead of dissolving for a new election, was seeking to perpetuate its tenure of power.
At the expiration of his tenure of the provincialship, he retired to the Dominican convent at Lisbon, where he lived till his death on the last day of 1588.
There are traces of burgage tenure at Horsham in 1210, and it was called a borough in 1236.
During the first six years of federation there were five ministries; the tenure of office under the threeyearly system was naturally uncertain, and this uncertainty was reflected in the proposals of whatever ministry was in office.
This, with the exception of a brief tenure of Cremona (1499-1512), formed her permanent territory down to the fall of the republic. Her frontiers now ran from the seacoast near Monfalcone, following the line of the Carnic and Julian and Raetian Alps to the Adda, down the course of that river till it joins the Po, and thence along the line of the Po back to the sea.
His short tenure of this office calls for no remark.
Dean, who'd been on the force for their entire tenure, was used to their early morning bickering and paid no attention.
In 1502 Warham was consecrated bishop of London and became keeper of the great seal, but his tenure of both these offices was short, as in 1504 he became lord chancellor and archbishop of Canterbury.
Wade was appointed to the post of collector in the first instance, and after a short tenure of office was succeeded by Mr II.
Gardens or plantations were let in the same ways and under the same conditions; but for dategroves four years' free tenure was allowed.
The next demand was for greater fixity of tenure and more regular promotion, as well as for the recognition by the companies of the railwaymens union.
Then, if the tenure were found free alms, the plea was to be heard in the court Christian.
After three months' tenure of this office he was returned by the department to the Constituent Assembly, where he voted with the Mountain, and brought forward the celebrated motion for the abolition of the presidential office.
With this and perhaps some other exceptions, there are not in the Mahratta country many large landlords, nor many of the superior tenure-holders whose position relatively to that of the peasantry has caused much discussion ii: other parts of India.
This land, held in direct tenure from Jehovah, their sovereign, was in theory inalienable.
The reform of land tenure in Ireland, the representation of women, the reduction of the national debt, the reform of London government, the abrogation of the Declaration of Paris, were among the topics on which he spoke with marked effect.
The last public work in which he engaged was the starting of the Land Tenure Reform Association.
Bonaparte signalized his tenure of power by no very important developments in the sphere of elementary education.
His own violations of the treaties of Luneville and Amiens were overlooked; and in particular men forgot that the weakening of the Knights of St John by the recent confiscation of their lands in France and Spain, and the protracted delay of Russia and Prussia to guarantee their tenure of power in Malta, furnished England with good reasons for keeping her hold on that island.
In the first months of his tenure of office he had to deal with the furious opposition to Wood's halfpence, and to counteract the effect of Swift's Draper's Letters.
The crofter enjoys a perpetual tenure subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions as to payment of rent, non-assignment of tenancy, &c., and to defeasance at his own option on giving one year's notice to the landlord.
Holograph or duly tested, do not exceed 31 years, or, except as regards leases of mines and minerals, and of lands held by burgage tenure, relate to an extent of land exceeding 50 acres, and contain provisions for renewal, they may be recorded for publication in the Register of Sasines, and such publication has the effect of possession (Registration of Leases [Scotland] Act 1857).
The way was paved for these changes by the existence in Ulster of a local custom having virtually the force of law, which had two main features - fixity of tenure, and free right of sale by the tenant of his interest.
During the earlier part of his reign, and moreover as a trained and able lawyer, the bishop took a prominent part in the legislative acts of the "English Justinian," whose activity in this direction coincides practically with Burnell's tenure of the office of chancellor.
By a law of Anastasius, at the end of the 5th century, a colonus who had voluntarily come into an estate was by a tenure of thirty years for ever attached to it.
The zadruga, or household community, more common in Servia (q.v.), survives to a small extent in Bosnia and Herzegovina; but, as a rule, the tenure of land resembles, the system called metayage.
Consult further Materials for the Study of the Economic Conditions of West Siberia (22 vols., St Petersburg, 1889-1898), condensed in Peasant Land-Tenure and Husbandry in Tobolsk and Tomsk (St Petersburg, 1894), both in Russian.
He retired into private life, heavily burdened with debts incurred during his tenure of office and narrowly escaping arrest even before he quitted Whitehall.
President Campos Salles entered upon his tenure of office on the 15th of November 1898, and at once proceeded to initiate fiscal legislation for the purpose of reducing expenditure and increasing the revenue.
Thus his name is associated with the Fines and Recoveries Abolition Act 1833; the Inheritance Act 1833; the Dower Act 1833; the Real Property Limitation Act 1833; the Wills Act 1837; one of the Copyhold Tenure Acts 1841; and the Judgments Act 1838.
The tenure of the presidential office was for two years, and at every alternate election Guzman Blanco was declared to be duly and legally chosen to fill the post of chief magistrate of the republic. In 1889 there was an open revolt against the dictatorial system so long in vogue; and President Rojas Paul, Blanco's locum tenens, was forced to flee the country and take refuge in the Dutch colony of Curacoa.
Care was taken that the natives enjoyed security of land tenure - though ownership remained with the State - and the right to dispose of their own labour freely.
Thus a privileged land-tenure was createdbookland; the rules as to the succession of kinsmen were set at nought by concession of testamentary power and confirmations of grants and wills; special exemptions from the jurisdiction of the hundreds and special privileges as to levying fines were conferred.
The Protector and the council together were given a life tenure of office, with a large army and a settled revenue sufficient for public needs in time of peace; while the clauses relating to religion "are remarkable as laying down for the first time with authority a principle of toleration," 2 though this toleration did not apply to Roman Catholics and Anglicans.
In Emilia both mezzadria and lease tenure are widely diffused in the provinces of Ferrara, Reggio and Parma; but other special forms of contract exist, known as the famiglio da spesa, boaria, braccianti obbligati and braccianti disobbligati.
Much good work was done by the Republicans during their brief tenure of power,but it soon came to an endowing to the course of events which favored a reaction against France.
If undoubtedly held in frankalmoign or " free alms," by a " spiritual " tenure only, the claim of jurisdiction for the ecclesiastical forum seems to have been at first conceded.
His tenure of office was marked by an increased zeal for missions in Protestant lands, and by the removal of the society's headquarters from Rome to Fiesole near Florence in 1870.
The notion of holding land of the king became more prominent than the notion of personal service done to the king; but, as the land was held by the tenure of personal service, the actual relation hardly changed.
Thirteen years previously the government had endeavoured to secure greater fixity and permanence of tenure by providing that at least twelve years must elapse between every two redistributions of the land belonging to a mir amongst those entitled to share in it.'
A condition of tenure attached to this chair was that the holder should propose mathematical questions for solution, and should resign in favour of any person who solved them better than himself; but, notwithstanding this, Roberval was able to keep the chair till his death, which occurred at Paris on the 27th of October 1675.
No description of estate or tenure has been exempted.
During his thirty-eight years tenure of the see 67 new churches, 32 convents and nearly 200 mission schools were built.
On the other side, the great men coveted the wide estates of bishop and abbot, and were ready without persuasion to annex portions of them to their own on the easy terms of this tenure, not always indeed observed by the holder, or able to be enforced by the Church.
He forced them to become his dependants in return under a great variety of forms, but especially developing thereby the precarium land tenure and the patrocinium personal service, and organizing a private jurisdiction over his tenants, and a private army for defence.