Finally, as regards structure,S the tentacles may retain their primitive hollow nature, or become solid by obliteration of the axial cavity.
A third point of dispute is whether the nematocysts ar:e formed in situ, or whether the cnidoblasts migrate with them to the region where they are most needed; the fact that in Hydra, for example, there are no interstitial cells in the tentacles, where nematocysts are very abundant, is certainly in favour of the view that the cnidoblasts migrate on to the tentacles from the body, and that like the genital cells the cnidoblasts are wandering cells.
Was there any place far enough away to escape the tentacles of paternal love?
Next in order come the tentacles, common to all Cnidaria.
Just below the crown of tentacles, however, the body widens out to form a " head," termed the hydranth (a), containing a stomach-like dilatation of the digestive cavity.
As regards number, we find in the aberrant forms Protohydra and Microhydra tentacles entirely absent.
With the exception of these forms, reduced for the most part in correlation with a semi-parasitic mode of life, the tentacles are usually numerous.
(2) Sensory cells, which may be fairly numerous in places, especially on the tentacles, but which occur always scattered and isolated, never aggregated to form sense-organs as in the medusa.
The gastrozoids (gz), have the tentacles reduced or absent, but have the mouth and stomach enlarged.
On the pelagic mollusc Phyllirrhoe, attached to it by the subumbral surface, and its tentacles have become rudimentary or absent.
T, tentacles; oc, ocelli.
It is usual for the umbrella to have an even, circular, uninterrupted margin; but in the order Narcomedusae secondary down-growths between the tentacles produce a lobed, indented margin to the umbrella.
The marginal tentacles are rarely absent in non-parasitic forms, and are typically four in number, corresponding to the four perradii marked by the radial canals.
Interradial tentacles may be also developed, so that the total number present may be increased to eight or to an indefinitely large number.
In Willia, Geryonia, &c., however, the tentacles and radial canals are on the plan of six instead of four (figs.
On the other hand, in some cases the tentacles are less in number than the perradii; in Corymorpha (figs.
23 and 25); and, fourthly, in structure, being hollow or solid, as in the polyp. In some medusae, for instance, the remarkable deep-sea family Pectyllidae, the tentacles may bear suckers, by which the animal may attach itself temporarily.
- A eginopsis hensenii, slightly magnified, showing the manner in which the tentacles are carried in life.) medusa usually has a characteristic method of carrying its tentacles.
The sub-umbrella invariably shows a velum as an inwardly projecting ridge or rim at its margin, within the circle .of tentacles; hence the medusae of this sub-class are termed craspedote.
In this order the radial canals are represented only by wide gastric pouches, and in the family Solmaridae are suppressed altogether, so that the tentacles and the festoons of the ring-canal arise directly from the stomach.
- Cladonema radiatum, the medusa walking on the basal branches of its tentacles (t), which are turned up over the body.
Solid larval tentacles, re Radial nerve.
The nematocysts of the ectoderm may be grouped to form batteries on the tentacles, umbrellar margin and oral lappets.
In places the nematocysts may be crowded so thickly as to form a tough, supporting, " chondral " tissue, resembling cartilage, chiefly developed at the margin of the umbrella and forming streaks or bars supporting the tentacles (" Tentakelspangen," peronia) or the tentaculocysts (" Gehorspangen," otoporpae).
The sense-cells form, in the first place, a diffuse system of scattered sensory cells, as in the polyp, developed chiefly on the manubrium, the tentacles and the margin of the umbrella, where they form a sensory ciliated epithelium covering the nerve-centres; in the second place, the sense-cells are concentrated to form definite sense-organs, situated always at the margin of the umbrella, hence often termed " marginal bodies."
The whole structure is innervated oho+ like the tentacles, from1 j' the ex-umbral nerve-ring.
We can distinguish (I) digestive endoderm, in the stomach, often with special glandular elements; (2) circu-, latory endoderm, in the radial and ring canals; (3) supporting endoderm in the axes of the tentacles and in the endodermlamella; the latter is primitively a double layer of cells, produced by concrescence OC-- = w.?"
` tion of the coelenteric 1 V cavity; in the second stage the tentacles Much modified from C. Chun, " Coelenterata," in grow out as secondary Bronn's Tierreich.
Next tentacles (t, fig.
If the three principal organ-systems of the medusa, namely mouth, tentacles and umbrella, be considered in the light of phylogeny, it is evident that the manubrium bearing the mouth must be the oldest, as representing a common property of all the Coelentera, even of the gastrula embryo of all Enterozoa.
Weismann.) I, Ideally primitive method of budding, in which the mouth is formed first (Ia), next the tentacles (Ib), and lastly the umbrella.
II, Method of Cunina; (a) the mouth arises, next the umbrella (b), and lastly the tentacles (c).
The gymnoblastic polyp usually has a distinct perisarc investing the hydrorhiza and the hydrocaulus, sometimes also the hydranth as far as the bases of the tentacles (Bimeria); but in such cases the perisarc forms a closely-fitting investment or cuticule on the hydranth, never a hydrotheca standing off from it, as in the next sub-order.
Arms, tentacles, and antennae stretched for it.
On the upper face of the hydranth the crown of tentacles (t) surrounds the peristome, from which rises the conical hypostome, bearing the mouth at its extremity.
II, A) the polyp bears two tentacles only.
The reduction of the tentacles in all these forms may be correlated with their mode of life, and especially with living in a constant current of water, which brings foodparticles always from one direction and renders a complete whorl or circle of tentacles unnecessary.
It is rare to find in the polyp a regular, symmetrical disposition of the tentacles as in the medusa.
A further stage in evolution is that the muscle-cells lose their connexion with the epithelium and come to lie entirely beneath it, forming a sub-epithelial contractile layer, developed chiefly in the tentacles of the polyp. The of the evolution of the ganglioncells is probably similar; an epithelial cell develops processes of nervous nature from the base, which come into connexion with the bases of the sensory cells, with the muscular cells, and with the similar processes of other nerve-cells; next the nerve-cell loses its connexion with the outer epithelium and becomes a sub-epithelial ganglion-cell which is closely connected with the muscular layer, conveying stimuli from the sensory cells to the contractile elements.
Dz, by the hydranths, each with dactylozoid; gz, gastrozoid; b, mouth and tentacles; and, blastostyle; gon, gonophores; secondly, the " coenosarc," or rh, hydrorhiza.
In some polyps the tentacles are webbed at the base, and it was supposed that a medusa was a polyp of this kind set free, the umbrella being a greatly developed web or membrane extending between the tentacles.
Mechnikov considered the plate thus formed at the base of the polyp as equivalent to the umbrella, and the body of the polyp as equivalent to the manubrium, of the medusa; on this view the marginal tentacles almost invariably present in medusae are new formations, and the tentacles of the polyp are represented in the medusa by the oral arms which may occur round the mouth, and which sometimes, e.g.
The body bears tentacles, but shows no division into hydrorhiza, hydrocaulus or hydranth; it is temporarily fixed and has no perisarc. The polyp is usually hermaphrodite, developing both ovaries and testes in the same individual.
Protohydra is a marine genus characterized by the absence of tentacles, by a great similarity to Hydra in histological structure, and by reproduction by transverse fission.
A " stolon " of unknown origin produces thirty-two buds, which become as many Polypodia; each has twenty-four tentacles and divides by fission repeated twice into four individuals, each with six tentacles.
The daughter-individuals grow, form the full number of twenty-four tentacles and divide again.
When fully developed the medusa is characterized by the sense organs being composed entirely of ectoderm, developed independently of the tentacles, and innervated from the sub-umbral nerve-ring.