SOCAGE, a free tenement held in fee simple by services of an economic kind, such as the payment of rent or the performance of some agricultural work, was termed in medieval English law a socage tenement.
In the case of mixed marriages, the condition of the child is determined by the free or villein condition of the tenement in which it was born.
Still, even at that time it might happen that a freeholder owned some land in villenage by the side of his free tenement, and that a villein held some land freely by agreement with his lord or with a third person.
He was one of the founders of the Free Art League, of the International Copyright League, and of the Authors' Club; was chairman of the New York Tenement House Commission in 18 9 4; and was a prominent member of the National Institute of Arts and Letters, of the Council of the National Civil Service Reform League, and of the executive committee of the Citizens' Union of New York City.
This notion of the influence of the tenement is well adapted to feudal notions and makes itself felt again in the case of the pursuit of a fugitive villein.
There is nothing to ensure that the supply will be equal to the demand, and Nature has not arranged that the borrowed tenement shall continue to grow with the growth of its new tenant.
Two most interesting provisions, to which the clergy offered no opposition, were: (I) if a dispute arose between a clerk and a layman concerning a tenement which the clerk claimed as free-alms (frankalmoign) and the layman as a lay-fee, it should be determined by the recognition of twelve lawful men before the king's justice whether it belonged to free-alms or lay-fee, and if it were found to belong to free-alms then the plea was to be held in the ecclesiastical court, but if to lay-fee, in the court of the king or of one of his magnates; (2) a declaration of the procedure for election to bishoprics and royal abbeys, generally considered to state the terms of the settlement made between Henry I.
There are few or no large congested tenement-house districts; most of the wage-earners own their own homes or rent cottages.
But this interference of 15th-century chancellors paved the way towards one of the greatest revolutions in the law; without formally enfranchising villeins and villein tenure they created a legal basis for it in the law of the realm: in the formula of copyhold - tenement held at the will of the lord and by the custom of the manor - the first part lost its significance and the second prevailed, in downright contrast with former times when, on the contrary, the second part had no legal value and the first expressed the view of the courts.
The term tenement, too, was substituted for that of storey, as the subdivision of a house, whilst in addition to inhabited and uninhabited houses, those occupied by day, but not by night, were separately recorded.
The juvenile court, the arts and tenement commissions, the municipal employment bureau, and a park board are provided for by the charter.
Of late the so-called "Zinspalaste" ("tenement palaces") have been built on a magnificent scale, often profusely adorned without and within with painting and sculpture.