During his tenancy of office the system adopted at Shanghai was applied to the other treaty ports, so that when on Mr Lay's resignation Mr Hart was appointed inspector-general of foreign customs, he found himself at the head of an organization which collected a revenue of upwards of eight million taels per annum at fourteen treaty ports.
The god and his viceregent, the king, had long ceased to disturb tenancy, and were content with fixed dues in naturalia, stock, money or service.
The theory, as expressed in legal phrase by St Cyprian in the 3rd century, was that the apostolic power of delegated sovereignty from the Lord, alike legislative and judicial, was held in joint-tenancy by the whole body of Catholic bishops.
In Roman Law, the relationship of landlord and tenant arose from the contract of letting and hiring (locatio conductio), and existed also with special incidents, under the forms of tenure known as emphyteusis - the long lease of Roman law - and precarium, or tenancy at will (see Roman Law).
If he profess, however, to create a tenancy for a period longer than that to which his own interest extends, he does not thereby give to his tenant an interest available against the reversioner or remainder man.
The following are the principal forms of tenancy: (i.) Tenancy for Life.
(ii.) Tenancy for Years, i.e.
- This tenancy is created by an express contract between the parties and never by implication, as in the case of tenancy from year to year and tenancy at will.
Here the tenancy ends on the expiry of the prescribed term, without notice to quit or any other formality.
(iii.) Tenancy from Year to Year.
- This tenancy may be created by express agreement between the parties, or by implication as, e.g.
In the absence of express agreement or custom or statutory provision (such as is made by the Agricultural Holdings Act 1883), a tenancy from year to year is determinable on half a year's notice expiring at the end of some current year of the tenancy.
Where there is no express stipulation creating a yearly tenancy, if the parties have contracted that the tenant may be dispossessed by a notice given at any time, effect will be given to this provision.
The common law doctrine of a six months' notice being required to terminate a tenancy from year to year of a corporeal hereditament, does not apply to an incorporeal hereditament such as a right to shoot.
The issue is one of fact; the date at which the rent is payable is a material circumstance, but it may be said generally that a week's notice should be given to determine a weekly tenancy, a month's to determine a monthly tenancy, and a quarter's to determine a quarterly tenancy.
(v.) Tenancy at Will.
- A tenancy at will is one which endures at the will of the parties only, i.e.
Any signification of a desire to terminate the tenancy, whether expressed as " notice " or not, will bring it to an end.
This form of tenancy, like tenancy from year to year, may be treated either by express contract or by implication, as where premises are occupied with the consent of the owner, but without any express or implied agreement as to the duration of the tenancy, or where a house is lent rent free by one person to another.
A tenancy at will is determined by either party alienating his interest as soon as such alienation comes to the knowledge of the other.
(vi.) Tenancy at Suferance.- A tenant who comes into possession by a lawful demise, but " holds over " or continues in possession after his estate is ended, is said to be a " tenant at sufferance."
Properly speaking, tenancy at sufferance is not a tenancy at all, inasmuch as if the landlord acquiesces in it, it becomes a tenancy at will; and it is to be regarded merely as a legal fiction which prevented the rightful owner from treating the tenant as a trespasser until he had himself made an actual entry on or had brought an action to recover the land.
There is no tenancy by sufferance against the crown.
Where there is an unqualified covenant to repair, and the premises during the tenancy are burnt down, or destroyed by some other inevitable calamity, the tenant is bound to rebuild and restore them at his own expense, even although the landlord has taken out a policy on his own account and been paid by the insurance company in respect of it.
A breach of the covenant to repair gives the landlord an action for damages which will be measured by the estimated injury to the reversion if the action be brought during the tenancy, and by the sum necessary to execute the repairs, if the action be brought later.
An assignment which creates the relationship of landlord and tenant between the lessor or lessee and the assignee, must be by deed, but the acceptance by a landlord of rent from a tenant under an invalid assignment may create an implied tenancy from year to year; and similarly payment of rent by a tenant may amount to an acknowledgment of his landlord's title.
This is one form of tenancy by estoppel.
Another form of alteration in a contract of tenancy is an under-lease, which differs from assignment in this - that the lessor parts with a portion of his estate instead of, as in assignment, with the whole of it.
The contract of tenancy may also be altered by operation of law.
Tenancy is dissolved by the expiry of the term for which it was created, or by forfeiture of the tenant's interest on the ground of the breach of some condition by the tenant and re-entry by the landlord.
A forfeiture is also waived if the landlord elects not to take advantage of it - and shows his election either expressly or impliedly by some act, which acknowledges the continuance of the tenancy, e.g.
A tenancy may also be determined by merger, i.e.
There may also be a surrender, either voluntary or by operation of law, which will determine a tenancy, as, for example, when a tenant is party to some act, the validity of which he is legally estopped from denying and which would not have been valid had the tenancy continued to exist.
The land, on the expiration of the tenancy, becomes at common law the absolute property of the landlord, no matter how it may have been altered or improved during the occupation.
Such customary tenant right only arises at the expiration of the lease, and on the substantial performance of the covenants; and is forfeited if the tenant abandons his tenancy during the term.
The Agricultural Holdings (Scotland) Acts 1883 and 1900, already referred to incidentally, contain provisions - similar to those of the English acts - as to a tenant's right to compensation for unexhausted improvements, removal for non-payment of rent, notice to quit at the termination of a tenancy, and a tenant's property in fixtures.
The crofter enjoys a perpetual tenure subject to the fulfilment of certain conditions as to payment of rent, non-assignment of tenancy, &c., and to defeasance at his own option on giving one year's notice to the landlord.
A Crofters' Commission constituted under the acts has power to fix fair rents, and the crofter on renunciation of his tenancy or removal from his holding is entitled to compensation for permanent improvements.
The notice necessary to determine a monthly or weekly tenancy is generally a month or a week (see further under Lodger; Lodgings).
To a certain extent, both forms of tenancy are governed by the same rules.
The basis of municipal qualification is ownership of real property of the value of £ioo, or the tenancy of premises of the value of £300, or annual value of £2 4.
Among the rectors of Hadleigh several notable names appear, such as Rowland Taylor, the martyr, who was burned at the stake outside the town in 1 555, and Hugh James Rose, during whose tenancy of the rectory an initiatory meeting of the leaders of the Oxford Movement took place here in 1833.
Dr Temple's tenancy of the bishopric of London was marked, if possible, by more strenuous labours than ever.
DEMESNE (DEMEINE, DEMAIN, DOMAIN, &C.), 1 that portion of the lands of a manor not granted out in freehold tenancy, but (a) retained by the lord of the manor for his own use and occupation or (b) let out as tenemental land to his retainers or "villani."
A widow has a dower right in one-third of the real property to which her husband had absolute title, but a wife may convey or devise her real property free from her husband's right of tenancy by courtesy.
During the tenancy of Henry Fox, third Lord Holland (1773-1840), the house gained a European reputation as a meeting-place of statesmen and men of letters.
Compensation, under the Lands Clauses Acts, is assessed in four different modes: - (I) by justices, where the claim does not exceed £50, or a claimant who has no greater interest than that of a tenant for a year, or from year to year, is required to give up possession before the expiration of his tenancy; (2) by arbitration (a) when the claim exceeds £50, and the claimant desires arbitration, and the interest is not a yearly tenancy, (b) when the amount has been ascertained by a surveyor, and the claimant is dissatisfied, (c) when superfluous lands are to be sold, and the parties entitled to pre-emption and the promoters cannot agree as to the price.
As representative of the landowners of Berar and Bengal he took an important part in the discussion on the Bengal Tenancy Bill.
The system of nineteen years' leases had proved distinctly superior to the system of yearly tenancy so general in England, although prejudicially affected by customs and conditions which, for a considerable time, seriously strained the relations between landlord and tenant.
In the following year he was again looking for a country house, and lighted upon Kelmscott manor house, in the Upper Thames valley, which he took at first in joint-tenancy with Rossetti and used principally as a holiday home.