In Rome spint of the Milanese, stirred up the Romans to shake off the temporal sway of their bishop. He attempted~
As a precaution against an eventual French attempt to restore the temporal power, orders were hurriedly given to complete the defences of Rome, but in other respects the Italian government maintained its subservient attitude.
Concordatum, agreed upon, from con-, together, and cor, heart), a term originally denoting an agreement between ecclesiastical persons or secular persons, but later applied to a pact concluded between the ecclesiastical authority and the secular authority on ecclesiastical matters which concern both, and, more specially, to a pact concluded between the pope, as head of the Catholic Church, and a temporal sovereign for the regulation of ecclesiastical affairs in the territory of such sovereign.
That this individual life of all of us is not something limited in its temporal expression to the life that now we experience, follows from the very fact that here nothing final or individual is found expressed (pp. 144-146).
The impei~ial chancery, without inquiring closely into the deeds furnished by the papal curia, made a deed of gift, which placed the pope in the position of a temporal sovereign.
Was able before his death in 1455 to secure the modern status of the pontiff as a splendid patron and a wealthy temporal potentate.
Your Holiness (he wrote) is sovereign of Rome, but I am its emperor; and he threatened to annul the presumed donation of Rome by Charlemagne, unless the pope yielded implicit obedience to him in all temporal affairs.
The gth it voted the downfall of the temporal power and proclaimed the republic. Mazzini hurried p~c7ama to Rome to see his dream realized, and was chosen tlon,of the head of the Triumvirate.
In Rome, after the restoration of the temporal power by the French troops, the pope paid no attention to Louis Napoleons advice to maintain some form of constitution, to grant a general amnesty, and to secularize the administration.
A Negotiations were resumed with Napoleon for the evacuation ad Rome by the French troops; but the emperor, though he saw by wee that the temporal power could not for ever be supported sti Jy and by French bayonets, desired some guarantee that the Pr Roman evacuation should not be followed, at all events wa, stion.
Asking him in the name of religion and peace to accept Italian protection instead of the temporal power, to which the pope replied that he Italian would only yield to force.
Prussia, while satisfied at the fall of the temporal power, seemed to fear lest Italy might recompense the absence of French opposition to the occupation of Rome by armed intervention in favor of France.
To the bishops of the Catholic Church on the 15th of May 1871 repudiated the Law of Guarantees, and summoned Catholic princes to co-operate in restoring the temporal power.
It became clear that neither the influence of the regular clergy, of which the Society of Jesus is the most powerful embodiment, nor that of foreign clerical parties, which largely control the Peters Pence fund, would ever permit renunciation of the papal claim to temporal power.
Temporal power to be too valuable a pecuniary asset Question.
The new pontiff, although nominally upholding the claims of the temporal power, in practice attached but little importance to it.
At the general elections of March I9o9, over a score of Clerical deputies were returned, Clericals of a very mild tone who had no thought of the temporal power and were supporters of the monarchy and anti-socialists; where no Clerical candidate was in the field the Catholic voters plumped for the constitutional candidate against all representatives of the Extreme Left.
Such authority in the minds of lay Roman lawyers who first used this word " jurisdiction " was essentially temporal in its origin and in its sphere.
Even before the edict of Milan, at least as early as the latter half of the 3rd century, the spiritual sentences of deposition from office had sometimes indirect temporal consequences recognized by the secular courts.
Saints Ambrose and Augustine both spent days in deciding temporal causes.
In the West expressly provided that bishops were not to be permitted to be judges (that is, of course, in temporal causes), save by the consent of the parties.
Were at once enforced in this temporal manner.
Provides that a recent decree of the usurper John should be disregarded and that clerks whom he had brought before secular judges should be reserved for the episcopal jurisdictions," since it is not lawful to subject the ministers of the divine office to the arbitrament of temporal powers."
Certain enactments of later Saxon times in England have been sometimes spoken of as though they united together the temporal and spiritual jurisdictions into one mixed tribunal deriving its authority from the State.
Gradually, however, doubtless by way of commutation of excommunication and of penance, temporal penalties were added, as scourging, banishment, seclusion in a monastery, fines.
Denouncing the temporal power of the pope he implored the emperor to deliver Italy, and especially Rome, from their oppressors; but, heedless of his invitations, Charles kept him in prison for more than a year in the fortress of Raudnitz, and then handed him over to Clement, who had been clamouring for his surrender.
The temporal dignitaries declared the evidence to be insufficient and suggested that Alexius should be examined by torture.
No one now questions the profound distinction that exists between the two powers, spiritual and temporal, between the church and the state.
The Jews would have thought that He had returned to Sinai, the holy mountain; and that they were deprived of the temporal blessings which were the gifts of a God who literally dwelt in the midst of his people."
In 1188 William secured a papal bull which declared that the Church of Scotland was directly subject only to the see of Rome, thus rejecting the claims to supremacy put forward by the English archbishop. This step was followed by the temporal independence of Scotland, which was one result of the continual poverty of Richard I.
Thus, a second time, fell the temporal power of the papacy.