At low temperatures SA predominates, but as the temperature is raised S, increases; the transformation, however, is retarded by some gases, e.g.
News, 1891, 63, p. 1); just above the boiling point the vapour is orange-yellow, but on continued heating it darkens, being deep red at 50o; at higher temperatures it lightens, becoming straw-yellow at 650°.
1 3 2, p. 374), is an exceedingly stable colourless gas at ordinary temperatures, becoming solid at about -120° C. Sulphuryl chloride, SO 2 C1 2, first obtained in 1838 by Regnault (Ann.
The runners might encounter any kind of weather, including freezing temperatures, fog, rain, or snow.
It is a bluish-black powder which at high temperatures decomposes into the metal, dioxide and oxygen.
Heated at 190-300° in a current of hydrogen it gives the oxide C0304, while at higher temperatures the monoxide is formed, and ultimately cobalt is obtained.
The variations of temperature are very great in Siberia, amounting near the coast to more than 100° Fahr., between the mean of the hottest and coldest months, and to still more between the extreme temperatures of those months.
The pod was well-insulated; she didn't feel the three-thousand-degree temperatures a foot from her.
Ouray County was perfect for invigorating outdoor activity, with its crystal clear air and dry, windless temperatures just below freezing.
He wondered about the different temperatures of their bodies.
Hansen showed that the microscopic appearance of film cells of the same species of Saccharomycetes varies according to the temperature of growth; the limiting temperatures of film formation, as well as the time of its appearance for the different species, also vary.
Temperatures above ioo° and below-15° are rare.
Thus at high temperatures a helium thermometer is of no special advantage.
It also possesses the power of combining with most metallic oxides at high temperatures, forming borates, which in many cases show characteristic colours.
Summer and mean winter temperatures may be set down as averaging not more than 20°, a range smaller than is found in most other parts of the world.
Temperatures radiates out a most brilliant white light.
Beyond this parallel the gradient is directed towards the north-west, and temperatures are much higher on the European than on the American side.
Below 500 fathoms the western centres of maximum disappear, and higher temperatures occur in the eastern Atlantic off the Iberian peninsula and north-western Africa down to at least 1000 fathoms; at still greater depths temperature gradually becomes more and more uniform.
The communication between the Atlantic and Arctic basins being cut off, as already described, at a depth of about 300 fathoms, the temperatures in the Norwegian Sea below that level are essentially Arctic, usually below the freezing-point of fresh water, except where the distribution is modified by the surface circulation.
The isothermals of mean surface temperature in the South Atlantic are in the lower latitudes of an cn- shape, temperatures being higher on the American than on the African side.
The climate is hot and humid in the lowlands and along the lower Parnahyba, but in the uplands it is dry with high sun temperatures and cool nights.
Rice is cultivated in low-lying, moist lands, where spring and summer temperatures are high.
In greenhouses where plants requiring very different optimum temperatures and illumination are kept together.
Equally disastrous are those climatic or seasonal changes which involve temperatures in themselves not excessive but in wrong sequence; how many more useful plants could be grown in the open in the United Kingdom if the deceptively mild springs were not so often followed by frosts in May and June!
The indirect geographical elements, which, as a rule, act with and intensify the direct, are mainly climatic; the prevailing winds, rainfall, mean and extreme temperatures of every locality depending on the arrangement of land and sea and of land forms. Climate thus guided affects the weathering of rocks, and so determines the kind and arrangement of soil.
The average temperatures are: at Vyernyi (2405 ft.
High), for the year 46.4° F., for January 17°, for July 74°; at Przhevalsk (5450 ft.), for the year 36.5°; for January 23°, for July 63°; still higher in the mountains, at Naryn (6900 ft.) the average temperatures are only, for the year 43.
It is unstable at ordinary temperatures and rapidly decomposes into its generators on warming.
The lowest temperatures are experienced in January, the average being as low as 20° to 5° Fahr.
On the whole, February and March continue to be cold, and their average temperatures rise above zero nowhere except on the Black Sea coast.
The summer isotherms cross the winter isotherms nearly at right angles, so that Kiev and Ufa, Warsaw and Tobolsk, Riga and the upper Kama have the same average summer temperatures of 64°, 622° and 61° respectively.
A " perfect engine " receiving and rejecting steam at the same temperatures as the actual engine of the locomotive, would develop about twice this power, say 1400 I.H.P. This figure represents the ideal but unattainable standard of performance.
Table Xxi It is instructive to inquire into the limiting efficiency of an engine consistent with the conditions under which it is working, because in no case can the efficiency of a steam-engine exceed a certain value which depends upon the temperatures at which it receives and rejects heat.
If h is the water heat at the lower temperature, h l the water heat at the higher temperature, and L the latent heat at the higher temperature, the heat supply per pound of steam is equal to h1 - h2+L1, which, from the steam tables, with the values of the temperatures given, is equal to 1013 B.Th.U.
Compound working permits of a greater range of expansion than is possible with a simple engine, and incidentally there is less range of pressure per cylinder, so that the pressures and temperatures per cylinder have not such a wide range of variation.
Both hot and cold springs are numerous, with temperatures ranging from 50° to 204° F.
In spite of the high temperatures of summer, however, the low humidity prevents the heat from being oppressive, and cases of sunstroke are unknown.
The spleen continues to enlarge; the urine is now scanty and high-coloured; the body temperature is high, but the highest temperatures occur during the chill; there is considerable thirst; and there is the usual intellectual unfitness, and it may be confusion, of the feverish state.
Since the initial and final temperatures, which alone determine the variation in the thermal effect, are in almost all cases within the ordinary laboratory range of a few degrees, this influence may in general be neglected without serious error.
But during the summer, temperatures are affected as much by altitude as by latitude, and the coast is cooled at night by breezes from the Gulf.
The climate of Minas Geraes is characterized by high sun temperatures and cool nights, the latter often dropping below the freezing point on the higher campos.
The temperatures at the head of the Persian Gulf approximate to those of northern India, and those of Aden to Madras.
The extreme temperatures in Siberia may be considered to lie between 80° and 90° Fahr.
These figures sufficiently indicate the main characteristics of the air temperatures of Asia.
The very high summer temperatures of the area north of the tropic of Cancer are sufficiently accounted for, when compared with those observed south of the tropic, by the increased length of the day in the higher latitude, which more than compensates for the loss of heat due to the smaller mid-day altitude of the sun.
Although the foregoing account of the temperatures of Asia supplies the main outline of the observed phenomena, a very important modifying cause, of which more will be said hereafter, comes into operation over the whole of the tropical region, namely, the periodical summer rains.
The arboreous forms which least require the humid and equable heat of the more truly tropical and equatorial climates, and are best able to resist the high temperatures and excessive drought of the northern Indian hot months from April to June, are certain Leguminosae, Bauhinia, Acacia, Butea and Dalbergia, Bombax, Shorea, Nauclea, Lagerstroemia, and Bignonia, a few bamboos and palms, with others which extend far beyond the tropic, and give a tropical aspect to the forest to the extreme northern border of the Indian plain.
Thus its non-liability to freeze (when not absolutely anhydrous, which it practically never is when freely exposed to the air) and its nonvolatility at ordinary temperatures, combined with its power of always keeping fluid and not drying up and hardening, render it valuable as a lubricating agent for clockwork, watches, &c., as a substitute for water in wet gas-meters, and as an ingredient in cataplasms, plasters, modelling clay, pasty colouring matters, dyeing materials, moist colours for artists, and numerous other analogous substances which are required to be kept in a permanently soft condition.
The highest mean temperatures for the whole year are those of Lenkoran (60.3°) and of Sukhum-kaleh and Poti (about 58°), and the lowest at Ardahan (5840 ft.), in the province of Kars, namely, 37.9°, and at Gudaur (7245 ft.), a few miles south of Kasbek, namely, 38.6°.
From 1879 to 1888 he was engaged on difficult experimental investigations, which began with an inquiry into the corrections required, owing to the great pressures to which the instruments had been subjected, in the readings of the thermometers employed by the "Challenger" expedition for observing deep-sea temperatures, and which were extended to include the compressibility of water, glass and mercury.
It is often taught that gneisses are the further stages of the crystallization of schists and belong to a deeper zone where the pressures and the temperatures were greater.
The average temperatures are - year 51 0, January 26°, July 73° at Temir-khanshura (42° 49' N.; alt.
The surface-layers of this immense basin are heated in the summer up to temperatures of 55z° to 57° F., both close to the shores and at some distance from the mouth of the Selenga; but these warmer layers are not deep, and a uniform temperature of nearly 39° F.
At low temperatures, on the other hand, they find, using an initial pressure of 'coo mm., that the temperatures on the helium scale are measurably higher than on the hydrogen scale, owing to the more perfectly gaseous condition of helium.
(4) The grassy steppes or prairies where the rainfall is diminished and temperatures are extreme, and grass is the prevailing form of vegetation.