1 The administration of posts, telegraphs and telephones is assigr works.
Other main sources of revenue are: the domains and forests managed by the state; government monopolies, comprising tobacco, matches, gunpowder; posts, telegraphs, telephones; and state f The tax on land (pro prils non Mties) and that on buildings (pro prietes bhties) are included under the head of contribution foncihre.
The other ministries with the largest outgoings were the ministry of war (the expenditure of which rose from 254 millions in 1895 to over 30 millions in 1995), the ministry of marine (103/4 millions in 1895, over 123/4 millionsin 1905), the ministry of public works (with an expenditure in 1905 of over 20 millions, 10 millions of which was assigned to posts, telegraphs and telephones) and the ministry of public instruction, fine arts and public worship, the expenditure on education having risen from 73/4 millions in 1895 to 93/4 millions in 1905.
The postal services and the telegraphs are administered by the federal government.
Including the total receipts derived from the customs, the Commonwealth revenue, during the year 1906, was made up as follows: Customs and excise £8,999,485 Posts, telegraphs, &c..
Posts, telegraphs, &c. .
In the aerial or overground system of land telegraphs the use of copper wire has become very general.
The instruments used for land telegraphs on this system are of two types - " sounders," which indicate by sound, and " recorders," which record the signals.
The first considerable improvement in type printing telegraphs was made by D.
In Hughes's instrument almost perfect accuracy and certainty have been attained; and in actual practice it has proved to be decidedly superior to all previous type-printing telegraphs, not only in speed and accuracy, but in less liability to mechanical derangement from wear and tear and from accident.
The Murray automatic system is not regarded as suitable for short telegraph lines or moderate traffic, printing telegraphs on the multiplex principle being considered preferable in such circumstances.
For some time it restricted its operations to constructing and maintaining railway telegraphs and was not commercially successful.
After about five years great improvements were made in the working of the telegraphs and the industry began to make progress.
In 1856 the Edinburgh Chamber of Commerce began an agitation for the purchase by the government of the telegraphs, and other chambers of commerce in Great Britain joined the agitation, which was strongly supported by the Press.
The Belgian state telegraphs were started in 1850 and were at first very profitable, but for the years 1866-9 they yielded an average profit of only 2.8 per cent., and subsequently failed to earn operating expenses, the reasons for the steady decline of the profits being the opening of relatively unprofitable lines and offices, increases in wages, and a diminution in growth of the foreign and transit messages which had constituted the most profitable part of the whole business.
Similar experience was adduced by the working of the state telegraphs in Switzerland and in France.
The Chancellor of the Exchequer described the terms as " very liberal but not more liberal than they should be under the circumstances," and stated that Mr Scudamore had estimated that £6,000,000 was the maximum price which the government would have to pay, and that the Postmaster-General would obtain from the telegraphs a net annual revenue of £203,000 at least.
The unprofitable extension of the telegraphs has largely contributed to the loss.
Another reason assigned by the committee appointed by the Treasury in 1875 " to investigate the causes of the increased cost of the telegraphic service since the acquisition of the telegraphs by the state " is the loss on the business of transmitting Press messages, which has been estimated as at least £300,000 a year.
The following table shows the financial results of the business in the year immediately following the purchase of the telegraphs by the state, in the two years preceding and the two years following the introduction of the 6d.
Of new cable having been made, the attempt was renewed, with the same ships, but on this occasion it was * 5th February 1870.-Transfer of telegraphs to the state.
Submarine Telegraphs.-The first commercially successful cable was that laid across the straits of Dover from the South Foreland to Sangatte by T.
The submarine telegraphs are mainly controlled by companies, the amount of issued capital of the existing British telegraph companies (twenty-four in number) being £3 0, 447, 1 9 1, but a certain number of lines are in government hands.
In the case of inland telegraphs and of cable communication with the continent of Europe government control has entirely superseded private companies.
The total lengths of the land lines of the telegraphs throughout the world in 1907 were 1,015,894 m.
Reports to the Postmaster-General upon proposals for transferring to the Post Of f ice the Telegraphs throughout the United Kingdom (1868); Special Reports from Select Committee on the Electric Telegraphs Bills (1868, 1869); Report by Mr Scudamore on the reorganization of the Telegraph system of the United Kingdom (1871); Journ.
Meyer, The British State Telegraphs (London, 1907); The " Electrician " Electrical Trades Directory; E.
Military School (1908) on " Submarine Cable Laying and Repairing," and articles in Quarterly Review (April 1903) on " Imperial Telegraphs," and in Edinburgh Review (April 1908) on " The International RadioTelegraphic Convention."
Of the surplus 1,000,000 was allocated to the improvement of posts, telegraphs and telephones; 1,000,000 to public works (~72o,ooo for harbour improvement and 280,000 for internal navigation); 200,000 to the navy (~I32,ooo for a second dry dock at Taranto and 68,000 for coal purchase); and 200,000 as a nucleus of a fund for the purchase of valuable works of art which are in danger of exportation.
The ministries are as follows: (1) of the Imperial Court, to which the administration of the apanages, the chapter of the imperial orders, the imperial palaces and theatres, and the Academy of Fine Arts are subordinated; (2) Foreign Affairs; (3) War and Marine; (4) Finance; (5) Commerce and Industry (created in 1905); (6) Interior (including police, health, censorship and press, posts and telegraphs, foreign religions, statistics); (7) Agriculture; (8) Ways and Communications; (9) Justice; (10) Public Instruction.
Other noteworthy sources of revenue are trade licences, direct taxes on lands and forests, stamp duties, posts and telegraphs, indirect taxes on tobacco, sugar and other commodities, the crown forests, and land redemption payable annually by the peasants since 1861.
The ministers represent departments for finance, foreign affairs, colonies, justice, the interior, science and arts, war, railways, posts and telegraphs, agriculture, public works, and industry and labour.
Posts, telegraphs and telephones are exclusively under state management and form a government department.
The department of internal affairs consists of six bureaus: the land office, vital statistics, weather service, assessments, industrial statistics, and railroads, canals, telegraphs and telephones.
The system it inaugurated has now extended its scope to telegraphs, copyright, industrial property, railway, traffic, the publication of customs tariffs, metric measures,) monetary systems and agriculture.
A convention for a similar union for telegraphs was signed in Paris in 1875 (revised at St Petersburg and replaced by another the same year).
' A subsidiary convention not quite falling within the scope of the above convention is the submarine telegraphs convention, which was signed in 1884.
Although he was classed in Canada as a Liberal, his tendencies would in England have been considered strongly conservative; an individualist rather than a collectivist, he opposed the intrusion of the state into the sphere of private enterprise, and showed no sympathy with the movement for state operation of railways, telegraphs and telephones, or with any kindred proposal looking to the extension of the obligations of the central government.
The institution by Diaz of the guardias rurales, a mounted gendarmerie composed of the class who in former days drifted into revolution and brigandage, was a potent means of maintaining order, and the extension of railways and telegraphs enabled the government to cope at once with any disturbance.
The heaviest item of expenditure chargeable on the Algerian budget is on public works, posts and telegraphs and agriculture.
He succeeded in imposing an organized government upon the fiercest and most unruly population in Asia; he availed himself of European inventions for strengthening his armament, while he sternly set his face against all innovations which, like railways and telegraphs, might give Europeans a foothold within his country.
The executive Government is placed in charge of 15 ministries concerned with the following matters: - foreign affairs, interior, finance, commerce, labour, food supplies, railways, health, social welfare, justice, agriculture, public instruction, national defence, posts and telegraphs, and the unification of laws.