The service is governed by the international telegraph regulations, but is subject to local inspection and interruption in times of political disorder.
The length of telegraph lines in use is 46,300 m., and the length of wire nearly three times that distance.
It is in fact the electromagnet and spindle of a telegraph relay with a siphon in place of the tongue.
Submarine earthquakes are in some parts sufficiently frequent and violent as seriously to interfere with the working of telegraph cables.
It has post and telegraph offices and a lively trade in wool, cotton and dry fruits (almonds, pistachios).
The telegraph lines of Argentina are subject to the national telegraph law of 1875, the international telegraph conventions, and special conventions with Brazil and Uruguay.
The line crossing Australia which was thus explored has since been occupied by the electric telegraph connecting Adelaide, Melbourne, Sydney, and other Australian cities with London.
In 1825 he bought and afterwards edited in Washington, D.C., The United States Telegraph, which soon became the principal organ of the Jackson men in opposition to the Adams administration.
Mrs. Hutton had already written to mother, asking her to telegraph if she was willing for me to have other advisers besides herself and Teacher.
Forrest and his party safely crossed the entire extent of Western Australia, and entering South Australia struck the overland telegraph line at Peake station, and, after resting, journeyed south to Adelaide.
After resting in Perth for a short time, he commenced the return journey, which was made for the most part between the 24th and 25th parallels, and again successfully traversed the desert, reaching the overland telegraph line in about seven months.
Under the Constitution Act the Commonwealth is given the control of the postal and telegraph departments, public defence and several other services, as well as the power of levying customs and excise duties; its powers of taxation are unrestricted, but so far no taxes Dave been imposed other than those just mentioned.
During this period the Electric Telegraph Company's average receipts per message fell from 4s.
There are three kinds of primary batteries in general use in the British Postal Telegraph Department, viz., the Daniell, the bichromate, and the Leclanche.
In this, as Most important cables, such as those of the Eastern Telegraph and the other with the earth; but it differed from other methods in requiring no " artificial " or balancing cable.
31, from one of the Eastern Telegraph Company's cables about 830 miles long.
The Electric Telegraph Company, formed to undertake the business of transmitting telegrams, was incorporated in 1846.
In the period from 1855 to 1868 the number of messages carried annually by all the telegraph companies of the United Kingdom increased from 1,017,529 to 5,781,989, or an average annual increase of 16.36 per cent.
Scudamore, second secretary to the Post Office, to inquire and report whether the electric telegraph service could be beneficially worked by the Post Office, and whether it would entail any very large expenditure on the.
In order to avoid this sparking, every local instrument in the British Postal Telegraph Department has a " spark " coil connected across the terminals of the electromagnet.
Mr Gosse, with men and horses provided by the South Australian government, started on the 21st of April from the telegraph station So m.
Leaving the telegraph line at Alice Springs (2 3 ° 40' S., 133° 14' E.), 1120 m.
Upon Andrew Jackson's election to the presidency, the Telegraph became the principal mouthpiece of the administration, and received printing patronage estimated in value at $50,000 a year, while Green became one of the coterie of unofficial advisers of Jackson known as the "Kitchen Cabinet."
Although a most serviceable instrument and cheap as regards maintenance, the " single needle " has (except for railway telegraph purposes) been discarded in favour of the " sounder," to secure the advantage of using one general pattern of apparatus, as far as possible, and to avoid the necessity of two different types of instrument being learnt by the telegraphist.
At each station sets of telegraph apparatus are connected to the segments, so that when the arms are kept rotating the set connected to I becomes periodically connected to the set connected to I', the set connected to 2 to the set connected to 2', and so on.
At first the use of the telegraph was alm9st entirely confined to railways.
In the quarrel between Jackson and John C. Calhoun, Green supported the latter, and through the columns of the Telegraph violently attacked the administration.
It merges with the " Telegraph Plateau," which extends across nearly the whole ocean from Ireland to Newfoundland.
On both sides of the central ridge deep troughs extend southwards from the Telegraph plateau to the Southern Ocean, the deep water coming close to the land all the way down on both sides.
The western trough extends northwards into Davis Strait, forming a depression in the Telegraph plateau; to the south of Newfoundland and Nova Scotia are Sigsbee Deep, Libbey Deep and Suhm Deep, each of small area; north-east of the Bahamas Nares Deep forms the largest and deepest depression in the Atlantic, in which a sounding of 4561 fathoms was obtained (70 m.
This road was practically abandoned when the Indian government telegraph line, which ran along it, was removed to a road farther east in 1906.
Etymologically the word implies that the messages are written, but its earliest use was of appliances that depended on visual signals, such as the semaphore or optical telegraph of Claude Chappe.
The word is still sometimes employed in this sense, as of the ship's telegraph, by means of which orders are mechanically transmitted from the navigating bridge to the engine room, but when used without qualification it usually denotes telegraphic apparatus worked by electricity, whether the signals that express the words of the message are visual, auditory or written.
Besides these we have in the same period the spark telegraph of Reiser, of Don Silva, and of Cavallo, the pith ball telegraph of Francis Ronalds (a model of which is in the collection of telegraph apparatus in the Victoria and Albert Museum), and several others.
Davy on the decomposition of the solutions of salts by the voltaic current were turned to account in the water voltameter telegraph of Sdmmering and the modification of it proposed by Schweigger, and in a similar method proposed by Coxe, in which a solution of salts was substituted for water.
Steinheil communicated to the GÃ¶ttingen Academy of Sciences in September 1838 an account of his telegraph, which had been constructed about the middle of the preceding year.
In 1836 Cooke, to whom the idea appears to have been suggested by Schilling's method, invented a telegraph in which an alphabet was worked out by the single and combined movement of three needles.
This telegraph required six wires, and was shortly afterwards displaced by the single-needle system, still to a large extent used on railway and other less important circuits.
In order to maintain a system of telegraph lines in good working condition, daily tests are essential.
In the British Postal Telegraph Department all the most important wires are tested every morning between 7.30 and 7.45 A.M., in sections of about 200 miles.
A noticeable feature in the modern A B C indicator, as well as in all modern forms of telegraph instruments, is the adoption of " induced " magnets in the moving portion of the apparatus.
This was the principle of the chemical telegraph proposed by Edward Davy in 1838 and of that proposed by Bain in 1846.
The perforation of the paper when done by hand is usually performed by means of small mallets, but at the central telegraph office in London, and at other large offices, the keys are only used for opening air-valves, the actual punching being done by pneumatic pressure.
It can also be duplexed or repeated similar to any other telegraph system.
Per forating machines equipped with typewriter keyboards are used for the preparation of the messages, two or three keyboard perforators being employed at each end of the telegraph lines on which the Murray system is used.
As it uses the Baudot telegraph alphabet it has an advantage in theory over the Wheatstone using the Morse alphabet in regard to the speed that can be obtained on a long telegraph line in the ratio of eight to five, and this theoretical advantage is more or less realized in practice.
The Murray automatic system is not regarded as suitable for short telegraph lines or moderate traffic, printing telegraphs on the multiplex principle being considered preferable in such circumstances.
These indications form the telegraph alphabet and are read in the same manner as in the case of the " single needle " instrument used on land.
In 1868 there were in France over 300 telegraph offices whose average receipts did not exceed 8 per annum.
Messages are thus typed upon a slip which is gummed to the telegraph form.
The postal and telegraph services are administered by the national government, and are under the immediate supervision of the minister of the interior.
The same year a postal express to Leavenworth, Kansas (ro days, letters 25 cents an ounce) was established; and telegraph connexion with Boston and New York ($9 for ro words) in 1863.
Long., an extent of half a million square miles, still remained a blank in the map. But the two expeditions of 1873, conducted by William Christie Gosse (1842-1881), afterwards deputy surveyorgeneral for South Australia, and Colonel (then Major) Egerton Warburton, made a beginning in the exploration of this terra incognita west of the central telegraph route.
House, of Vermont, U.S., and was very successfully worked on some of the American telegraph lines till 1860, after which it was gradually displaced by other forms. Various modifications of the instrument are still employed for stock telegraph purposes.
Telegraph operators used to have to send every message by hand.