Ancyra was the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes which settled in Galatia in the 3rd century B.C., and became the capital of the Roman province of Galatia when it was formally constituted in 25 B.C. During the Byzantine period, throughout which it occupied a position of great importance, it was captured by Persians and Arabs; then it fell into the hands of the Seljuk Turks, was held for eighteen years by the Latin Crusaders, and finally passed to the Ottoman Turks in 1360.
Originally a large and prosperous Phrygian city on the Persian Royal Road, Ancyra became the centre of the Tectosages, one of the three Gaulish tribes that settled permanently in Galatia about 232 B.C. The barbarian occupation dislocated civilization, and the town sank to a mere village inhabited chiefly by the old native population who carried on the arts and crafts of peaceful life, while the Gauls devoted themselves to war and pastoral life (see Galatia).
The Gaulish invaders appeared in Asia Minor in 278-277 B.C. They numbered 20,000, of which only one-half were fighting men, the rest being doubtless women and children; and not long after their arrival we find them divided into three tribes, Trocmi, Tolistobogii and Tectosages, each of which claimed a separate sphere of operations.
The tribes were settled where they afterwards remained, the Tectosages round Ancyra, the Tolistobogii round Pessinus, and the Trocmi round Tavium.
Towards both the south and west the Teutonic peoples seem to have been pressing the Celts for some considerable time, since we are told that the Helvetii had formerly extended as far as the Main, while another important Celtic tribe, the Volcae Tectosages, had occupied a still more remote position, which it is impossible now to identify.
Caesar also mentions a Gaulish tribe named Volcae Tectosages as living in Germany in his time.
The Volcae Arecomici in the south of France and the Tectosages of Galatia were in all probability offshoots of this people.
VOLCAE, a Celtic people in the province of Gallia Narbonensis, who occupied the district between the Garumna (Garonne), Cerbenna mons (CÃ©vennes), and the Rhodanus (or even farther to the east in earlier times), corresponding roughly to the old province of Languedoc. They were divided into two tribes, the Arecomici on the east and the Tectosages (whose territory included that of the Tolosates) on the west, separated by the river Arauris (HÃ©rault) or a line between the Arauris and Orbis (Orbe).
The chief town of the Tectosages was Tolosa (Toulouse); of the Arecomici, Nemausus (NÃ®mes); the capital of the province and residence of the governor was Narbo Martius (Narbonne).
It was said that there was an early settlement of Volcae Tectosages near the Hercynia Silva in Germany; Tectosages was also the name of one of the three great communities of Gauls who invaded and settled in Asia Minor in the country called after them Galatia.
Their three tribes - Trocmi, Tolistobogians and Tectosages--submitted to Rome (189 B.C.), but they remained autonomous till the death of their king Amyntas, when Augustus erected Galatia into a province.