A good deal of teak and cutch is worked out.
There are also several extremely valuable soft timbers, the principal being red cedar (Cedrela Toona), silky oak (Grevillea robusta), beech and a variety of teak, with several important species of pine.
The Daniell type consists of a teak trough divided into five cells by slate partitions coated with marine glue.
The chief timber of indigenous growth is padouk (Pterocarpus dalbergioides) used for buildings, boats, furniture, fine joinery and all purposes to which teak, mahogany, hickory, oak and ash are applied.
Among the imported flora are tea, Siberian coffee, cocoa, Ceara rubber (which has not done well), Manila hemp, teak, cocoanut and a number of ornamental trees, fruit-trees, vegetables and garden plants.
The great hardness of teak is due to the silica deposited in the heart-wood, and the special coloring matters of various woods, such as satinwood, ebony, &c., are confined to the heart-wood.
The sal, Shorea robusta, a very durable wood, is most abundant along the skirts of the Himalaya from Assam to the Punjab, and is found in central India, to which the teak also extends.
Their architecture in wood, however, was excellent; and the teak forests of their country afforded the finest timber for building and for carving.
Nux vomica, gamboge, caoutchouc, cardamoms, teak and other valuable woods and gums are among the natural products.
The result is that practically all the trade of these states is in the hands of Bangkok Chinese firms, of a certain number of European houses and others, while most of the manual labour connected with the teak industry is done by Ka Mus, who migrate in large numbers from the left bank of the Mekong.
The forests of Burma are the finest in British India and one of the chief assets of the wealth of the country; it is from Burma that the world draws its main supply of teak for shipbuilding, and indeed it was the demand for teak that largely led to the annexation of Burma.
Since the introduction of iron ships teak has supplanted oak, because it contains an essential oil which preserves iron and steel, instead of corroding them like the tannic acid contained in oak.
There are also timber trees such as mahogany, ebony, teak, lignum vitae, African cedars and planes, while oil, borassus and bamboo palms are abundant.
The bombax or silk-cotton tree attains gigantic proportions in the forests, which are the home of the indiarubber-producing plants and of many valuable kinds of timber trees, such as odum (Chlorophora excelsa), ebony, mahogany (Khaya senegalensis), African teak or oak (Oldfieldia africana) and camwood (Baphia nitida).
The district abounds in rich teak forests, and there are reserves representing 60,000 acres of teak plantation.
There is a good deal of teak in the state, but it has been ruinously worked.
Great part of the river frontage is occupied with rice-mills, teak wharves and similar buildings.
The oak of Britain is still in demand for the construction of merchant shipping, though teak has become in some measure its substitute, and foreign oak of various quality and origin largely takes.
In addition to teak, which provides the bulk of the revenue, the most valuable woods are sha or cutch, india rubber, pyingado, or ironwood for railway sleepers, and padauk.
The carving is done in teak wood when it is meant for fixtures, but teak has a coarse grain, and otherwise yamane dogwood, said to be a species of gmelina, is preferred.
The value of teak exported in 1895 was Rs.1,34,64,303, and in 1905, Rs.1,31,03,401.
Forests cover nearly r z million acres, yielding valuable timber (teak, sandalwood, &c.), and affording grazing-ground for cattle.
Teak timber is floated down the rivers to the Madras coast.
The principal exports are rice and teak, and the principal imports, cotton and silk goods and gold-leaf.
The timber trees found towards the interior, and on the higher elevations, are of great size and beauty, the most valuable being teak (Tectona grandis), then-gan (Hopea odorata), ka-gnyeng (Dipterocarpus laevis), &c. The coast-line of the district, off which lies an archipelago of two hundred and seven islands, is much broken, and for several miles inland is very little raised above sea-level, and is drained by numerous muddy tidal creeks.
A large part of the area is covered with forests, which yield teak and other timber.
From the forests are obtained rubber, copal, bark, various kinds of fibre, and timber (teak, mahogany, &c.).
In the temperate uplands of the interior, as about Luang Prabang, Himalayan and Japanese species occur - oaks, pines, chestnuts, peach and great apple trees, raspberries, honeysuckle, vines, saxifrages, Cichoraceae, anemones and Violaceae; there are many valuable timber trees - teak, sappan, eagle-wood, wood-oil (Hopea), and other Dlpterocarpaceae, Cedrelaceae, Pterocarpaceae, Xylia, ironwood and other dye-woods and resinous trees, these last forming in many districts a large proportion of the more open forests, with an undergrowth of bamboo.
The teak tree grows all over the hill districts north of latitude 15°, but seems to attain its best development on the west, and on the east does not appear to be found south of 17°.
Most of the so-called Burma teak exported from Moulmein is floated down from Siamese territory.
The extraction of teak from the forests of northern Siam employs a large number of people.
Between the three pillars of teak hung thirteen silver lamps.
The forests contain valuable timber trees such as African oak or teak (Oldfieldia Africana), rosewood, ebony, tamarind, camwood, odum - whose wood resists the attacks of termites - and the tolmgah or brimstone tree.
Ship-building, which formerly was an important industry, has now been given up, but there is still a considerable export of teak and rice, and there are several steam riceand saw-mills.
The forests produce abundance of excellent oak and teak timber.
The native flora is rich, and teak, ebony and canari trees are especially abundant; the fauna, which is similarly varied, includes the babirusa, which occurs in this island only of the Moluccas.
The second class includes tracts of teak, sal or deodar timber and the like, where private or village rights of user are few.
A large part of the reserved forests, where the control of the forest department is most complete, consists of valuable timber, in which the first place is held by teak, found at its best in Burma, especially in the upper division, and on the south-west coast of India, in Kanara and Malabar.
About half of this quantity comes from the forests of Burma, where large amounts of teak and other woods are annually extracted, chiefly through the agency of private firms. It is, however, only the more valuable of the woods, such as teak, sandal-wood, ebony and the like, which find a market abroad.
There is a large trade in wood-carving, the material being generally Indian ebony in northern India, sandal-wood in southern India, and teak in Burma and elsewhere.
The most important timber trees are the tu'n (Cedrela Toona), sdl (Shorea robusta), the present area of which forms two belts separated by the Gangetic plain; satin wood (Chloroxylon Swietenia), common in the drier parts of the peninsula; sandalwood, especially characteristic of Mysore; iron-wood (Mesua ferrea), and teak (Tectona grandis).
Teak (Tectona grandis) is a native of southern India and Burma.