It is traversed by the Grampian mountains and watered by the Tay, Tummel, Garry, Tilt, Bruar and other streams. Glen Garry and Glen Tilt are the chief glens, and Loch Rannoch and Loch Tummel the principal lakes.
DUNKELD, a town of Perthshire, Scotland, on the left bank of the Tay, 152 m.
A mile south of Dunkeld, on the left bank of the Tay, is the village of Birnam (pop. 389), where Sir John Everett Millais, the painter, made his summer residence.
At Little Dunkeld, almost opposite to Dunkeld, the Bran joins the Tay, after a run of 11 m.
Of the thirteen parliaments summoned by that sovereign, only one, the last, was held at Edinburgh, but his assassination in the Blackfriars' monastery at Perth led to the abrupt transfer of the court and capital from the Tay to the Forth.
BROUGHTY FERRY, a municipal and police burgh, seaport and watering-place of Forfarshire, Scotland, on the Firth of Tay, 4 m.
Gradually growing more or less ruinous it was acquired by government in 1855, repaired, strengthened and converted into a Tay defence, mounting several heavy guns.
Before the erection of the Tay Bridge the town was the scene of much traffic, as the railway ferry from Tayport was then the customary access to Dundee from the south.
After conquering the Ordovices in North Wales and the island of Mona (Anglesey), during the next two years he carried his victorious arms to the Taiis (Tay; others read Tanaus, perhaps the north Tyne), and in his fourth campaign fortified the country between Clota and Bodotria (the firths of Clyde and Forth) as a protection against the attacks of the Caledonians.
The cantilevers can stiffened suspension bridge, but atter the fall of the Tay bridge in 1879 this was abandoned.
The river flows out of Loch Earn, pursues an eastward course with a gentle inclination towards the south, and reaches the Firth of Tay, 62 m.
Strathearn, as the valley of the Earn is called, extending from the loch to the Firth of Tay, is a beautiful and, on the whole, fertile tract, though liable at times to heavy floods.
It is situated on the right bank of the Tay, between the meadows of the North Inch (98 acres) and those of the South Inch (72 acres), both laid out as public parks.
The river is crossed by St John's Bridge of nine arches, completed in 1772 from the designs of John Smeaton and widened a century later; by Victoria Bridge, a modern structure connecting South Street with Dundee Road; and farther south (at the end of Tay Street) by a footway alongside of the viaduct belonging to the Caledonian railway.
Perth has long been famous for its dyeing and bleaching, the bleach-fields being mostly situated outside of the city, in convenient proximity to the Tay and Almond.
The salmon fisheries of the Tay yield a substantial revenue.
The Caledonian Railway bridge at Glasgow, the reconstructed Tay bridge (1882-7), Forth bridge (1882-9), the Tower bridge, London, and the Nile lgridge at Cairo were amongst his principal achievements.
Around being then only three fathoms deep. Lying in the fairway of vessels making or leaving the Tay and Forth, besides ports farther north, it was a constant menace to navigation.
Of Perth near the union of Tay and Isla), which is the most northerly of the ascertained Roman encampments in Scotland and seems to belong to the age of Agricola.
But there are also several important transverse valleys, those of the Garry and Tay being the most conspicuous examples.
The chains of the Ochil, Sidlaw, Pentland, Renfrew, Campsie and Fintry Hills, and the valleys of the Strathmore, Firth of Tay, and the basin of Midlothian may be cited as examples.
Of the three chief valleys in the central Lowlands two, those of the Tay and the Forth, descend from the Highlands, and one, that of the Clyde, from the Southern Uplands.
The longitudinal valleys, which run in the same general direction as the ridges - that is, north-east and south-west--have had their trend defined by geological structure, such as a line of dislocation (the Great Glen), or the plications of the rocks (Lochs Ericht, Tay and Awe, and most of the sea lochs of Argyllshire).
The valley of the Garry and Tay crosses the strike of all the Highland rocks, traverses the great fault on the Highland border, and finally breaks through the chain of the Sidlaw Hills at Perth.
Strath Tay, Strath Spey, Strath Conon.
This long and wide depression, though it looks like one great valley, strictly speaking, includes portions of the valleys of the Tay, Isla, North Esk and South Esk, all of which cross it.
The Carse of Gowrie is the strip of low ground intervening between the Firth of Tay and the Sidlaw Hills.
Other important longitudinal lakes are Lochs Tay, Awe, Ericht and Shiel.
The eastern is indented by a series of broad arms of the sea - the firths of Forth and Tay, Moray and Dornoch firths - but is otherwise relatively unbroken.
They are more abundant on the east coast, however, especially on the shores of Aberdeenshire, between the mouths of the two Esks in Forfarshire, on both sides of the mouth of the Firth of Tay, and at various places on the Firth of Forth.
In the Tay, Forth and Clyde, where important harbours are situated, great expense is involved in constantly dredging to remove the sediment continually brought down from the land and carried backwards and forwards by the tides.
In 1903 the Tay rentals came to £22,902, the highest then recorded.
Over the principal rivers at this early period there were bridges near the most populous places, as over the Dee near Aberdeen, the Esk at Brechin, the Tay at Perth and the Forth near Stirling.
The withdrawal of the Romans from Britain (410) left the northern part of the island as a prey to be fought for by warlike tribes, of whom the most notable were the Picts in the north, the Scots or Dalriads from Ireland in the west (Argyll), the Cymric or Welsh peoples in the south-west and between Forth and Tay, and the Teutonic invaders, Angles or English, in the south-east.
While southern Scotland was thus English and Cymric, the north, from Cape Wrath to Lochaber, in the west, and to the Firth of Tay, on the east, was Pictland; and the vernacular spoken there was the Gaelic. The west, south of Lochaber to the Mull of Kintyre, with the isles of Bute, Islay, Arran and Jura, was the realm of the Dalriadic kings, Scots from Ireland (503): here, too, Gaelic was spoken, as among the " Southern Picts " of the kingdom of Galloway.
KILLIN, a village and parish of Perthshire, Scotland, at the south-western extremity of Loch Tay, 4 m.
The town lies in the midst of luxuriant trees, and the noble sweep of the Tay, the effectively situated bridge, the magnificent grounds of Dunkeld House, and the protecting mountains combine to give it a very romantic appearance.
Wind Pressure.-Much attention has been given to wind action since the disaster to the Tay bridge in 1879.