YEW (Taxus baccata).
Taxus - Yew.
Pinus cembra " is only remembered, as also Taxus baccata.
The European badger (Meles taxus or M.
Ermani), elder, poplar, elm, wild cherry (Prunus padus), Taxus baccata and several willows are mixed with the conifers; while farther south the maple, mountain ash and oak, as also the Japanese Panax ricinifolium, the Amur cork (Philodendron amurense), the spindle tree (Euonymus macropterus) and the vine (Vitis thunbergii) make their appearance.
Abies smithiana extends into Afghanistan; Abies webbiana forms dense forests at altitudes of 8000 to 12,000 ft., and ranges from Bhutan to Kashmir; several junipers and the common yew (Taxus baccata) also occur.
Certain species of Pinus, the yews (Taxus) and some other genera grow as bushes, which in place of a main mast-like stem possess several repeatedly-branched leading shoots.
Excelsa, 5 in Taxus baccata; in Pinus the needles usually fall in October of their third year).
The stamens of Araucaria and Agathis are peculiar in bearing several long and narrow free pollen-sacs; these may be compared with the sporangiophores of the horsetails (Equisetum); in Taxus (yew) the filament is attached to the centre of a large circular distal expansion, which bears several pollen-sacs on its under surface.
Taxus, Cupressus, &c.), or more usually Micro- (Pinus, Larix, &c.) it reaches maturity before the dehis- cence of the microsporangium.
The nucleus of the microspore divides and gives rise to a small cell within the large cell, a second small cell is then produced; this is the structure of the ripe pollen-grain in some conifers (Taxus, &c.).
In Taxus the body-cell eventually divides into two, in which the products of division are of unequal size, the larger constituting the male generative cell, which fuses with the nucleus of the egg-cell.
Taxus, Cephalotaxus, Dacrydium, &c.) the ordinary integument is partially enclosed by an arillus or second integument.
In Taxus, Torreya (California and the Far East) and Cephalotaxus the absence of resin-canals and the presence of spiral thickeningbands on the tracheids constitute well-marked characteristics.
In the North American area Picea alba, P. nigra, Larix americana, Abies balsamea (balsam fir), Thuja canadensis (hemlock spruce), Pinus Strobus (Weymouth pine), Thuja occidentalis (white cedar), Taxus canadensis are characteristic species.
In the far East conifers are richly represented; among them occur Pinus densiflora,Cryptomeria japonica, Cephalotaxus, species of Abies, Larix, Thujopsis, Sciadopitys venticillata, Pseudolarix Kaempferi, &c. In the Himalaya occur Cedrus deodara, Taxus, species of Cupressus, Finns excelsa, Abies Webbiana, &c. The continent of Africa is singularly poor in conifers.