By the seizure and sale of Church lands, by th sale of state railways, by economy to the bone and on onc supreme occasion by an appeal to taxpayers to advance a years quota of the land-tax, he had met the most pressing engagements of that troublous period.
The urban population, divided into two categories according to their taxable wealth, elects delegates direct to the college of the government (Guberniya), and is thus represented in the second degree; but the system of division into categories, according not to the number of taxpayers but to the amount they pay, gives a great preponderance to the richer classes.
Below the feudal nobility and their Moslem soldiers came the Christian serfs, tillers of the soil and taxpayers, whose lives and property were at the mercy of their lords.
Preserved merely as taxpayers necessary to supply the funds for the maintenance of the dominant and military class, according to a foreign observer in 1571, they had been so degraded and oppressed that they dared not look a Turk in the face.
They sometimes settled officially and of their own authority the share of certain taxpayers, and, though this was sometimes done as a favour, it was often a measure of justice.
The franchise is extended to all male taxpayers of twenty-five years of age and upwards.
The finances of the state were economically managed, and taxpayers were most carefully guarded from oppression.
The rural community; (b) taxpayers, being citizens other than " colonists," i.e.
The diet consists of five representatives elected by the highest taxpayers, five by general election, and five nominated for life by the prince.
Nine states allow voting rights to aliens who have declared their intention to become citizens, and in some they can as taxpayers vote on financial matters submitted to a special vote.
As a rule, they succeeded only in raising far larger armies than the taxpayers could afford to maintain.
This happy condition had been brought about largely as the result of giving fiscal reform, accompanied by substantial relief to the taxpayers, the first place in the governments programme, and with the abolition of octroi duties in.
The present diet consists of sixteen members elected for three years, four chosen by the highest assessed taxpayers, the others by general election.
For the chamber of deputies, all citizen taxpayers of full age may vote, being organized for the purpose into three colleges.
When the government employs committees chosen by the taxpayers to estimate and assess the details of taxation, it will find it hard to go back to arbitrary exactions.
The diet consists of 32 members, elected for 3 years, of whom 9 are returned by the highest taxpayers, 11 by the towns and 12 by the country districts.
The taxpayers, with the clergy at their head, adopted the same idea, and every day contrived fresh methods of evasion.
He behaved constantly like a wary and cautious trimmer, avoiding all extreme measures, shaking off compromising allies like the Ultramontanes and the Regionalists, elbowing out of the cabinet General Polavieja when he asked for too large credits for the army, taking charge of the ministry of marine to carry out reforms that no admiral would have ventured to make for fear of his own comrades, and at last dispensing with the services of the ablest man in the cabinet, the finance minister, Seor Villaverde, when the sweeping reforms and measures of taxation which he introduced raised a troublesome agitation among the taxpayers of all classes.
He had to proclaim not only such important provinces as Barcelona, Valencia and Bilbao, but even the capital of Spain itself, in order to check a widespread agitation which had assumed formidable proportions under the direction of the chambers of commerce, industry, navigation and agriculture, combined with, about 300 middle-class corporations and associations, and supported by the majority of the gilds and syndicates of taxpayers in Madrid and the large towns.
The drastic measures taken by the government against the National Union of Taxpayers, and against the newspapers which assisted it in advocating resistance to taxation until sweeping and proper retrenchment had been effected in the national expenditure, checked this campaign in favor of reform and retrenchment for a while.
After the feudal vassals, decimated Struggle by the wars of religion and the executioners hand, with the and after the recalcitrant taxpayers, the Protestants, Protest- in their turn, and by their own fault, experienced this.
The administrative machinery of the state still existed, but it worked in empty air: its taxpayers disappeared, those who were amenable to its legal jurisdiction slipped from its grasp, -and the number of those whose affairs it should have directed dwindled away.