To the north of the valley of the Drave the duchy is occupied by the Hohe Tauern and the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, which belong to the central zone of the Eastern Alps.
The Hohe Tauern contains the massifs of the Gross-Glockner (12,455 ft.), the Hochnarr (10,670 ft.) and the Ankogel (11,006 ft.), and is traversed by the saddles of the Hochthor and the Malnitzer Tauern, which separates these groups from one another.
To the east of the Hohe Tauern stretches the group of the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria, namely the PÃ¶llauer Alps with the glacier-covered peak of the Hafner Eck (10,041 ft.); the Stang Alps with the highest peak the Eisenhut (8007 ft.); the Saualpe with the highest peak the Grosse Saualpe (6825 ft.); and finally the Koralpen chain or the Stainzer Alps (7023 ft.) separated from the preceding group by the Lavant valley.
C. von Sonklar, in his map of the Hohe Tauern (r: 144,000; 1864) coloured plains and valleys green; mountain slopes in five shades of brown; glaciers blue or white.
This measure provided for the construction of a railway over the Tauern Mountains between Schwarzach in Salzburg and Mollbriicken in Carinthia; and of a railway over the Karawanken between Trieste and Klagenfurt, with a branch to Villach.
The Karawanken railway, a direct connexion with Bohemia and the northern industrial provinces of Austria, is calculated to counteract the gravitation of traffic towards the German ports; while the Tauern railway constitutes the shortest route to the interior of Austria and to the south of Germany.
South of the Enns, Styria is traversed by groups of the central zone of the eastern Alps: the Niedere Tauern, the primitive Alps of Carinthia and Styria and the Styrian Nieder Alps.
The principal divisions of the Niedere Tauern are: the Radstadter Tauern with the Hochgolling (9390 ft.), the Wolzer Alps with the Predigtstuhl (8349 ft.), the Rottenmanner Tauern with the Grosser Bssenstein (8032 ft.), and the Seckauer Alps or Zinken group, which culminates in the Zinkenkogel (7865 ft.).
It is traversed from west to east by the main chain of the Alps, which rises in various snow-covered summits, the more important being the Ortler (12,802 ft., the loftiest peak in Tirol and in the Eastern Alps generally), the Wildspitze (12,382 ft., Oetzthal group), the Zuckerhiitl (11,520 ft., Stubai group), the Hochfeiler (11, 559 ft., Zillerthal group), the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.) and the Gross Glockner (12,461 ft., both in the Tauern range), while more to the south are the Dolomites, which culminate in the Marmolata (10,972 ft.).
After the Tauern railway had been built for the Alpine countries - without, it is true, any particular pecuniary help from the Polish part of the empire, which was known to be only passively interested - the Poles demanded a complete carrying into effect and extension of the waterways law, with a larger State subsidy.
It is divided into three regions; the region of the Hohe Tauern, extending S.
The Hohe Tauern contains many high lying valleys, traversed by the streams which flow into the Salzach, as well as numerous depressions and passes, here called popularly Tauern.
The deepest depression of the whole range is the Velber Tauern valley (8334 ft.) between the Velber and the Tauern, and the principal pass is the Niederer (Mallnitzer) Tauern (7920 ft.).
The two falls at Wildbad-Gastein (196 and 296 ft.); the fall, by which the Gasteiner Ache discharges itself into the Salzach, near Lend; the Tauern fall (660 ft.), formed by the Tauern Ache on the N.
Side of the Radstater Tauern; and the Gollinger fall (202 ft.) also deserve notice.
To the west the limit will then be the Col de Tenda (6145 ft.), leading from Cuneo (Coni) to Ventimiglia, while on the east our line will be the route over the Radstadter Tauern (5702 ft.) and the Katschberg (5384 ft.) from Salzburg to Villach in Carinthia, and thence by Klagenfurt to Marburg and so past Laibach in Carniola on to Trieste; from Villach the direct route to Trieste would be over the Predil Pass (3813 ft.) or the Pontebba or Saifnitz Pass (2615 ft.), more to the west, but in either case this would exclude the Terglou (9400 ft.), the highest summit of the entire South-Eastern Alps, as well as its lower neighbours.
But, a little farther, at the Dreiherrenspitze (11,500 ft.) we have to choose between following the watershed southwards, or keeping due east along the highest crest of the Greater Tauern Alps.
The eastward direction is maintained and the watershed (though not the chief Alpine watershed) continues through the Greater Tauern Alps, culminating in the Gross Venediger (12,008 ft.), for the Gross Glockner (12,461 ft.) rises to the south.
Our chain bends northeast near the Radstddter Tauern Pass, and preserves that direction through the Lesser Tauern Alps to the Semmering Pass.
In the Eastern Alps the longest glacier is the Pasterze (rather over 64 m.), which is not near the true main watershed, though it clings to the slope of the Greater Tauern range, east of the Dreiherrenspitze.
Hence the passes that can be shown to have been certainly known to them are comparatively few in number: they are, in topographical order from west to east, the Col de l'Argentiere, the Mont Genevre, the two St Bernards, the Spliigen, the Septimer, the Brenner, the Radsta.dter Tauern, the SOlkscharte, the P16cken and the Pontebba (or Saifnitz).
There are also schemes (more or less advanced) for piercing the Spliigen and the Hohe Tauern, both on the main ridge, and the LOtschen Pass, on one of the external ranges.
Our selected divisions relate only to the High Alps between the Col de Tenda and the route over the Radstddter Tauern, while in each of the 18 subdivisions the less elevated outlying peaks are regarded as appendages of the higher group within the topographical limits of which they rise.
As regards the main divisions, three are generally distinguished; the Western Alps (chiefly French and Italian, with a small bit of the Swiss Valais) being held to extend from the Col de Tenda to the Simplon Pass, the Central Alps (all but wholly Swiss and Italian) thence to the Reschen Scheideck Pass, and the Eastern Alps (wholly Austrian and Italian, save the small Bavarian bit at the north-west angle) thence to the Radstadter Tauern route, with a bend outwards towards the south-east, as explained under (2) in order to include the higher summits of the SouthEastern Alps.
Central Tirol Alps (from the Brenner Pass to the Radstalter Tauern Pass, north of the Drave Valley and south of the Pinzgau and the Enns Valley).
This division takes in the Zillerthal and Tauern Ranges.
ï¿½ 8,645 Krimmler Tauern (Krimml to Kasern), foot path 8,642 Virgner or Defereggerthorl (Defereggen Glen to Virgen and Pragraten), foot path 8,586 Backlenke or Trojerjoch (Pragraten to the Defereggen Glen), foot path 8,573 Hochthor or Heiligenbluter Tauern (Heiligenblut to Rauris), foot path 8,442 Horndljochl (Mayrhofen to Steinhaus), foot path (Z) 8,383 Velber Tauern (Windisch Matrei to Mittersill), bridle path.
8,334 Kaiser Tauern (Kals to Uttendorf), foot path 8,242 Hohe or Korn Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path over, railway tunnel beneath 8,081 Niedere or Mallnitzer Tauern (Mallnitz to Gastein), bridle path 7,920 Fuscherthorl (Ferleiten to the Seidlwinkel Glen), foot path 7,891 Lappacherjoch (Lappach to the Ahrn Valley), foot path (Z).
Radstadter Tauern (Radstadrto Mautendorf), carriage road 5,702 15.
Von Ruthner, Aus den Tauern (1864) and Aus Tirol (1869); V.
Von Sonklar, Die Oetzthaler Gebirgsgruppe (1860), and Die Gebirgsgruppe der Hohen-Tauern (1866); Sir L.
The southern Tirol, the chief passes into Italy, strategic points on the Istrian and Dalmatian coasts, were strongly fortified, while in the interior the Tauern, Karawanken and Wochein railways were constructed, partly in order to facilitate the movement of troops towards the Italian border.
The principal sections of this line were named after the ranges they pierced, the chief tunnels being bored through the Tauern, Karawanken and Wochein hills.