In England in 1876 two churches united to form the Presbyterian Church of England; in the Netherlands two churches became one in 1892; in South Africa a union of the different branches of the Presbyterian Church took place in 1897; in Scotland the Free Church and the United Presbyterian became one in 1900 under the designation of the United Free Church; in Australia and Tasmania six churches united in 1901 to form the Presbyterian Church of Australia; and a few months later the two churches in New Zealand which represented respectively the North and South Islands united to form the Presbyterian Church of New Zealand.
Of more interest is the imperfectly known Wynyardia, from older Tertiary beds in Tasmania, which apparently presents points of affinity both to phalangers and dasyures.
Spencer, "Mammalia of the Horn Expedition" (1896); "Wynyardia, a Fossil Marsupial from Tasmania," Proc. Zool.
The edge of the abysmal area comes close to the eastern coasts of Tasmania and New South Wales, approaching to within 60 m.
The terrace closest to the land, known as the continental shelf, has an average depth of 600 ft., and connects Australia, New Guinea, and Tasmania in one unbroken sweep. Compared with other continents, the Australian continental shelf is extremely narrow, and there are points on the eastern coast where the land plunges down to oceanic depths with an abruptness rarely paralleled.
An elongation of the shelf to the south joins Tasmania with the mainland.
With the exception of Tasmania there are no important islands belonging geographically to Australia, for New Guinea, Timor and other islands of the East Indian archipelago, though not removed any great distance from the continent, do not belong to its system.
It consists in the main of an Archean block or " coign,"which still occupies nearly the whole of the western half of the continent, outcrops in north-eastern Queensland, forms the foundation of southern New South Wales and eastern Victoria, and is exposed in western Victoria, in Tasmania, and in the western flank of the Southern Alps of New Zealand.
Silurian rocks are well developed in western Tasmania, and the Silurian sea must have washed the south-western corner of the continent, if the rocks of the Stirling Range be rightly identified as of this age.
The Upper Devonian was a period of marine retreat; the crustal disturbances of the Lower Devonian were renewed and great quartz-pebble beaches were formed on the rising shore lines, producing the West Coast Range conglomerates of Tasmania, and the similar rocks to the south-east of Mansfield in Victoria.
The Carboniferous period began with a marine transgression, enabling limestones to form in Tasmania and New South Wales; and at the same time the sea first got in along the western edge of the western plateau, depositing the Carboniferous rocks of the Gascoyne basin and the coastal plain of north-western Australia.
Kitson's work in Tasmania shows that there also the glacial beds may be correlated with the lower or Greta Coal Measures of New South Wales.
The Permian deposits are best developed in New South Wales and Tasmania, where their characters show the continuation of the Carboniferous conditions.
In Victoria, Tasmania, northern New South Wales and Queensland, there are Jurassic terrestrial deposits, containing the coal seams of Victoria, of the Clarence basin of north-eastern New South Wales, and of the Ipswich series in Queensland; the same beds range far inland on the western slopes of the east Australian highlands in New South Wales and Queensland and they occur, with coal-seams, at Leigh's Creek, at the northern foot of the South Australian highlands.
Similar deposits, of approximately the same age, occur in Tasmania and New Zealand; and at about the same time there began the Kainozoic volcanic period of Australasia.
Farther east the sea was interrupted by the still existing land-connexion between Tasmania and Victoria; but beyond it, the marine deposits are found again, fringing the coasts of eastern Gippsland and Croajingolong.
Tasmania and Victoria were separated by the foundering of Bass Strait, and at the same time the formation of the rift valley of Spencer Gulf, and Lake Torrens, isolated the South Australian highlands from the Eyre Peninsula and the Westralian plateau.
From an area corresponding to what is now South America there entered a fauna and flora, which, after undergoing modification, passed by way of Tasmania to Australia.
On the Australian side the fact that Tasmania is richest in marsupial types indicates the gate by which they entered.
The zoology of Australia and Tasmania presents a very conspicuous point of difference from that of other regions of the globe, in the prevalence of non-placental mammalia.
There are some twenty smaller species in Australia and Tasmania, besides the rock wallabies and the hare kangaroos; these last are wonderfully swift, making clear jumps 8 or io ft.
Australia and Tasmania possess two animals of this order - the echidna, or spiny ant-eater (hairy in Tasmania), and the Platypus anatinus, the duckbilled water mole, otherwise named the Ornithorhynchus paradoxus.
The excess of the 1 The statistical portion of this article includes Tasmania, which is a member of the Australian Commonwealth.
- Australia is politically divided into five states, which with the island of Tasmania form the Commonwealth of Australia.
The distribution of population at the close of 1906 (4,118,000) was New South Wales 1,530,000, Victoria 1,223,000, Queensland 534,000, South Australia 381,000, Western Australia 270,000, Tasmania 180,000.
In Western Australia, New South Wales, Tasmania and Queensland there are many hundreds of well-equipped saw-mills affording employment to about 5000 men.
Trout may now be taken in many of the mountain streams. At one time whaling was an important industry on the coasts of New South Wales and Tasmania, and afterwards on the Western Australian coasts.
Tasmania is a gold producer to the extent of about 70,000 or 80,000 oz.
Tasmania is now the largest copper-producing state of the Commonwealth; in 1905 the output was over £672,010 and in earlier years even larger.
The total value of copper produced in Australia up to the end of 1905 was £42,500,000 sterling, £24,500,000 having been obtained in South Australia, £7,500,000 in New South Wales, £6,400,000 in Tasmania and over £3,500,000 in Queensland.
Tasmania during the last few years has attained the foremost position in the production of tin, the annual output now being about £363,000.
The total value of tin produced in Australia is nearly a million sterling per annum, and the total production to the end of 1905 was £22,500,000, of which Tasmania produced about 40%, New South Wales one-third, Queensland a little more than a fourth.
Extensive deposits, which are being developed successfully, occur in Tasmania, it being estimated that there are, within easy shipping facilities, 17,000,000 tons of ore.
Wolfram (tungstate of iron and manganese) occurs in some of the states, notably in New South Wales, Victoria, Tasmania and Queensland.
Chromium has been discovered in Tasmania also.
Yet while the Tasmanians are so distinctly separated in physique and customs from the Australians, the fauna and flora of Tasmania and Australia prove that at one time the two formed one continent, and it would take an enormous time for the formation of Bass Strait.
Did they get to Tasmania before or after its separation from the main continent?
In 1777, while on his way to search for a north-east passage between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, Cook again touched at the coast of Tasmania and New Zealand.
On his first voyage, in 1770, Cook had some grounds for the belief that Van Diemen's Land, as Tasmania was then called, was a separate island.
Van Diemen's Land, now called Tasmania, had been occupied as early as 1803.
The copper mines of South Australia were for the time deserted, while Tasmania and New Zealand lost many inhabitants, who emigrated to the more promising country.
The effects of the crisis were mainly felt in the three eastern states, Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria, Tasmania and South Australia being affected chiefly by reason of the fact of their intimate financial connexion with the eastern states.
The Australian sub-region consists of Australia, Tasmania, New Caledonia and New Zealand, and, though partly lying within the tropic is most naturally treated as a whole.
The species, about a dozen in number, are widely distributed over Australia, Tasmania, New Guinea and several of the adjacent islands.
6 in., as in South Africa, Queensland, Tasmania and New Zealand; but in New South Wales the normal is 4 ft.
Scotland, North of England, and Midlands, Wales, France, Belgium, Carniola, Moravia, Elsass, Saxony, Perm, Sizran, China, Cape Colony, Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, Pennsylvania, West Virginia, Ohio, Michigan, Indiana, Illinois, Iowa, Missouri, Tennessee, Kentucky, Alabama, Kansas, Arkansas, Colorado, Oklahoma, Tasmania, Victoria (Permo-Carboniferous), West Australia (Permo-Carboniferous).
Maps on the same scale are available of New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania, on a scale of 1:560,000 for Western Australia, on a scale of 1:253,460 for Queensland.
The platypus is pretty generally distributed in situations suitable to its aquatic habits throughout the island of Tasmania and the southern and eastern portions of Australia.
Tasmania.-The first magazine was Murray's Austral-Asiatic Review, published at Hobart in 1828.
Hoplocephalus curtus), with a similar distribution, and also common in Tasmania, from 5 to 6 ft.