Mounds of bones marked his road, witnesses of devastations which other historians record in detail; Christian prisoners, from Germany, he found in the heart of "Tartary" (at Talas); the ceremony of passing between two fires he was compelled to observe, as a bringer of gifts to a dead khan, gifts which were of course treated by the Mongols as evidence of submission.
In the 10th century the Nestorians introduced Christianity into Tartary proper; in 1274 Marco Polo saw two of their churches.
On the other hand they are considerably like the Mongoloid peoples of north and east Asia (less so to the Polynesians); so that the general tendency among anthropologists has been to admit a common origin, however remote, between the tribes of Tartary and of America.
In 1245 the Roman pontiff sent two embassies - one, a party of four Dominicans, sought the commander-in-chief of the Mongol forces in Persia; the second, consisting of Franciscans, made their way into Tartary, and sought to convert the successor of Oktai-Khan.
" And so, literally with " neither bread nor scrip," they went forth on their pilgrimage, and, incredible as it sounds, within ten years they had established missions in the islands of the West Indies, in South America, Surinam, Greenland, among the North American tribes, in Lapland, Tartary, Algiers, Guinea, the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon.
Sakhalin is separated from the mainland by the narrow and shallow Strait of Tartary or Mamiya Strait, which often freezes in winter in its narrower part, and from Yezo (Japan) by the Strait of La Perouse.
Both, however, regarded it as a peninsula, and were unaware of the existence of the Strait of Tartary, which was discovered in 1809 by a Japanese, Mamiya Rinzo.
Contemporary observers agree that the disease was introduced from the East; and one eyewitness, Gabriel de Mussis, an Italian lawyer, traced, or indeed accompanied, the march of the plague from the Crimea (whither it was said to have been introduced from Tartary) to Genoa, where with a handful of survivors of a Genoese expedition he landed probably at the end of the year 1347.
Lear preferred to give a geographical colour to his absurdities, as in: - "There was an old person of Tartary Who cut through his jugular artery, When up came his wife, And exclaimed, ' O my Life, How your loss will be felt through all Tartary!'" but this is by no means essential.
Although Turkestan and Central Asia were formerly known as Independent Tartary, it is not now usual to call the Sarts, Kirghiz and other inhabitants of those countries Tatars, nor is the name usually given to the Yakuts of Eastern Siberia.
The Sakhalin Gulf and Gulf of Tartary connect it with the Japanese Sea on the west of the island of Sakhalin, and on the south of this island is the La Perouse Strait.
The low shrub oak plateau to which the opposite shore arose stretched away toward the prairies of the West and the steppes of Tartary, affording ample room for all the roving families of men.
2 "In the 14th century, the city of Ilchi, in Chinese Tartary, possessed 14 monasteries, averaging 3000 devotees in each; while in Tibet, at the present time, there are in the vicinity of Lhassa 12 great monasteries, containing a population of 18,500 lamas.
But it is certain that before the friar had quitted "Tartary," Mangu Khan, Kuyuk's successor, had been elected.