These animals also occur in the desert district south of the Tarim; but are most abundant in the deserts and mountains to the southward of Kuruktagh, where there are a few brackish-water pools, and are also common in the barren mountains between Kuruktagh and Choetagh.
This is the case, for instance, in the Caspian sea, the Aral and Balkhash lakes, the Tarim basin, the Sahara, inner Australia, the great basin of the United States and the Titicaca basin.
1340), was the author of the Tur (or the four Tarim), a most important manual of Jewish law, serving as an abridgement of the Mishneh Torah brought up to date.
From Khotan he followed the Tarim to Aksu.
The great central depression of the continent which reaches from the foot of the Pamir plateau on the west through the Tarim desert to Lop Nor and the Gobi has yielded up many interesting Chinese secrets.
Eastwards of this the great Kashgar depression, which includes the Tarim desert, separates Russia from the vast sterile highlands of Tibet; and a continuous series of desert spaces of low elevation, marking the limits of a primeval inland sea from the Sarikol meridional watershed to the Khingan mountains on the western borders of Manchuria, divide her from the northern provinces of China.
4 The lower terrace is obviously continued in the Tarim basin of East Turkestan; but in the present state of our knowledge we cannot determine whether the further continuations of the borderridge of the higher terrace (Yablonoi, Kentei) must be looked for in the Great Altai or in some other range situated farther south.
In altitude; while to the south of the eastern T`ien-shan comes the Tarim depression, from 2200 to 3000 ft.
Hirsch under the protection of the sultan of Mukalla, the head of the Kaiti family, and practically ruler of all Hadramut, with the exception of the towns of Saiyun and Tarim, which belong to the Kathiri tribe.
Here he procured a Kathiri escort and pushed on through Saiyun to Tarim, the former capital.
Shibam, Saiyun and Tarim are towns of 6000 or more inhabitants, and Hajren and Haura in the W.
On the east the Pamir highlands are fenced off from the East Turkestan lowlands by the double border-ridge of Sarik-kol (the Sarik-kol range and the Murtagh or Kashgar range), which has its eastern foot down in the Tarim basin (4000-4500 ft.) and its western up on the Pamirs at 10,500 to 13,000 ft.
In the western part of this valley occurs the very important transverse water-divide of Gulcha-davan (14,150 ft.), which separates the basin of the Cherchen-darya that goes down into the Tarim basin from the area that drains down to the Ghaz-kol, which belongs to the Tsaidam depression.
It consists of two towns, Kuhna Shahr or " old city," and Yangi Shahr or " new city," about five miles apart, and separated from one another by the Kyzyl Su, a tributary of the Tarim river.
Like all other cities of Central Asia, it has changed hands repeatedly, and was from 1864-1877 the seat of government of the Amir Yakub Beg, surnamed the Atalik Ghazi, who established and for a brief period ruled with remarkable success a Mahommedan state comprising the chief cities of the Tarim basin from Turfan round along the skirt of the mountains to Khotan.
The earliest authentic mention of Kashgar is during the second period of ascendancy of the Han dynasty, when the Chinese conquered the Hiungnu, Yutien (Khotan), Sulei (Kashgar), and a group of states in the Tarim basin almost up to the foot of the Tian Shan mountains.
The great Tungani (Dungani) revolt, or insurrection of the Chinese Mahommedans, which broke out in 1862 in Kansuh, spread rapidly to Dzungaria and through the line of towns in the Tarim basin.
Kashgar and the other cities of the Tarim basin remained under Yakub Beg's rule until 1877, when the Chinese regained possession of their ancient dominion.
Carey Tarim basin, and subsequently made their way eastward and then southward across the Altyn Tagh and gleish,1885- other ranges to the Tsaidam region.
The fauna of the lake and of its tributaries - explored by Nikolsky - is more akin to the fauna of the rivers of the Tarim basin than to that of the Aral; it also does not contain the common frog.
The hangul (C. cashmirianus) of Kashmir is a distinct dark-coloured species, in which the antlers tend to turn in at the summit; while C. yarcandensis, of the Tarim Valley, Turkestan, is a redder animal, with a wholly rufous tail, and antlers usually terminating in a simple fork placed in a transverse plane.
Northwards across the desert of Takla-makan, though it carries water only in the early summer, and empties itself into the Tarim a few miles below the confluence of the Ak-su with the Yarkand-darya (Tarim).
And Otun-koza at 2390 ft., facilitate communication between the basins of the Tarim and the Ili (Dzungaria).
The principal stream is, of course, the Tarim, about 1000 m.
The basin of the Tarim contains, indeed, numerous other streams, most of them summer torrents seaming the flanks of the encircling mountains, but once no doubt affluents of the Tarim, though now all swallowed up in the desert soon after quitting the shelter of the mountains.
The Tarim, which is on the whole a sluggish, shallow, winding stream, fringes the great desert of Takla-makan on the west, north and east, and, after being extensively drawn upon for irrigation purposes in the oases (Yarkand, Kashgar, Maral-bashi, Ak-su), through which it passes, it eventually dies away in the salt reed-grown lake or marsh of Lop-nor (Karakoshun).
And 86° 51' E.), beside the lower Tarim, the January mean is - 1.3° F., the June mean 88°, and the lowest minimum recorded - 14° (February).
The lower Tarim begins to freeze early in November.
In June beside the lower Tarim the thermometer has registered 104° before a buran, 77 ° during its continuance, and 48.7° at night.
The tiger and wild boar haunt the thickets beside the Tarim, wild duck and wild geese throng its waters, and more especially the waters of its marginal and deltaic lakes.
Fish are plentiful in the lower Tarim and in its lakes.
The plateau or highland region which forms the waterparting between the Tarim basin on the east and the Syr-darya catchment area on the west.
It used to be supposed that the Tian-shan confronted the basin of the Tarim with a steep, wall-like versant.
What cultivation there is, is confined to the oases which nestle at the foot of the mountains all round the Tarim basin.
In addition to agriculture, the breeding of livestock, more especially sheep, camels, horses and asses, fishing in the waters of the lower Tarim, and the transportation of merchandise are all important means of livelihood.
It appears very probable that at the dawn of history East Turkestan was inhabited by an Aryan population, the ancestors of the present Slav and Teutonic races, and that a civilization not inferior to that of Bactria had already developed at that time in the region of the Tarim.'
Of our era the Tarim region had a mixed population of Aryans and Ural-Altaians, some being settled agriculturists and others nomads.
But already there were tokens of its decay; even then the eastern parts of the Tarim basin seem to have been growing less and less populous.
In the 7th century the Tibetan king, Srong-btsan, with the help of the western Turks, subjugated the western part of the Tarim basin.
Grigoriev, 2 the Turks who succeeded the Chinese in the western parts of East Turkestan were the Karlyk Turks, who extended farther south-west up to Kashmir, while the north-eastern parts of the Tarim region were subdued by the Uighurs.
The reintroduction of Islam was of no benefit to the Tarim region.