To meet these expenditures there are a high tariff on imported merchandise, and excise and stamp taxes of a far-reaching and often vexatious character.
It left the government free either to apply to foreign countries the general tariff or to enter into negotiations with them for the application, under certain conditions, of a minimum tariff.
Almost all other countries, moreover, share in the benefit of the minimum tariff, and profit by the modifications it may successively undergo.
To the ministry appertains the duty of fixing the duties on foreign produce in those colonies which have not been,,by law,, subjected to the same tariff as in France.
Of West Africa and the Congo have been, with certain modificatiOns, placed under the French tariff.) The budget of all colonies not possessing a council general (see below) must also be approved by the minister.
An additional duty was thrown on the Federal arbitration court by the Customs and Excise Tariff Acts of 1906, in which were embodied the principles known as the " New Protection."
At the Imperial Conference in London in 1907 Mr Deakin, the Commonwealth premier, was the leading advocate of colonial preference with a view to imperial commercial union; and though no reciprocal arrangement was favoured by the Liberal cabinet, who temporarily spoke for the United Kingdom, the colonial representatives were all agreed in urging such a policy, and found the Opposition (the Unionist party) in England prepared to adopt it as part of Mr Chamberlain's tariff reform movement.
In spite of the official rebuff received from the mother-country, the Australian ministry, in drawing up the new Federal tariff, gave a substantial preference to British imports, and thus showed their willingness to go farther.
Under the then existing telegraphic tariff the charge in Great Britain was a shilling for a twenty-word message over a distance not exceeding ioo miles; is.
Rate irrespective of distance had not justified itself, and that for any but very short distances the tariff was " utterly unremunerative " notwithstanding a very large increase in volume of business.
The company began with a tariff of 4d.
For 15 words with an additional porterage charge for delivery beyond a certain distance, and in 1866 the tariff was raised to is.
Tariff, and in the seven financial years from 1900-1907: the British ship " Agamemnon," both being war-ships lent for the purpose by their respective governments.
For instance, in the county of London, the telephone tariff is £5 per annum plus id.
The tariff for unlimited use has to be made very high to cover the cost of the additional burdens thrown upon the service, and it only works economically to the individual subscriber who has an exceptionally large number of calls originating from his instrument.
Before the tariff reform of 1887 manufactured articles, alimentary products and raw materials for manufacture held the principal places in the imports.
The commercial treaty was, however, rejected by the French Chamber in June 1878, a circumstance necessitating the application of the Italian general tariff, which implied a 10 to 20% increase in the duties on the principal French exports.
Extravagant expenditure on railways and public works, loose administration of finance, the cost of colonial enterprise, the growing demands for the army and navy, the impending tariff war with France, and the overspeculation in building and in industrial ventures, which had absorbed all the floating capital of the country, had combined to produce a state of affairs calling for firm and radical treatment.
At the end of 1889 Crispi abolished the differential duties against French imports and returned to the general Italian tariff, but France declined to follow his lead and maintained her prohibitive dues.
The pharmacists were divided into two classes, the stationarii, who sold simple drugs and non-magisterial preparations at a tariff determined by competent authorities, and the confectionarii, whose business it was to dispense scrupulously the prescriptions of medical men; all pharmaceutical establishments were placed under the surveillance of the college of medicine.
The price of the drugs and the tariff for dispensing prescriptions is fixed by government authority.
A zone tariff was introduced on the Russian railways in 1894, and the cost of long journeys was considerably reduced; a journey of 623 m.
Finnish diet ought to refer to the imperial legislature not only all military matters - as the tsar demanded (Rescript of October 14) - but the question of the use of the Russian language in the grand-duchy, the principles of the Finnish administration, police, justice, education, formation of business companies and of associations, public meetings, the press, the customs tariff, the monetary system, means of communication, and the pilot and lighthouse system.
Whatever the ostensible form of a railway tariff, the contribution of the different shipments of freight to these general expenses is determined on the principle of charging what the traffic will bear.
Besides the system of charges thus prescribed in the classification and rate-sheet, each tariff provides for a certain number of special rates or charges made for particular lines of trade in certain localities, independently of their relation to the general system.
If these special rates are published in the tariff, and are offered to all persons alike, provided they can fulfil the conditions imposed by the company, they are known as commodity rates, and are apparently a necessity in any scheme of railway charges.
While the superficial appearance of the railway tariff is different for different countries, and sometimes for different parts of the same country, the general principles laid down are followed in rate-making by all well-managed lines, whether state or private.
In Hungary and Russia a zone-tariff system is in operation, whereby the charge per mile decreases progressively with the length of the journey, the traveller paying according to the number of zones he has passed through and not simply according to the distance traversed.
Among the measures and events distinguishing his term as president were the following: The meeting of the Pan-American Congress at Washington; the passage of the McKinley Tariff Bill and of the Sherman Silver Bill of 1890; the suppressing of the Louisiana Lottery; the enlargement of the navy; further advance in civil service reform; the convocation by the United States of an international monetary conference; the establishment of commercial reciprocity with many countries of America and Europe; the peaceful settlement of a controversy with Chile; the negotiation of a Hawaiian Annexation Treaty, which, however, before its ratification, his successor withdrew from the Senate; the settlement of difficulties with Germany concerning the Samoan Islands, and the adjustment by arbitration with Great Britain of the Bering Sea fur-seal question.
In his inaugural address (4th March 1909) President Taft announced himself as favouring the maintenance and enforcement of the reforms initiated by President Roosevelt (including a strict enforcement of the Sherman Anti-Trust Act, an effective measure for railway rate regulation, and the policy of conservation of natural resources); the revision of the tariff on the basis of affording protection to American manufactures equal to the difference between home and foreign cost of production; a graduated inheritance tax; a strong navy as the best guarantee of peace; postal savings banks; free trade with the Philippine Islands; and mail subsidies for American ships.
He opposed the tariff bill of 1816 and in 1824, and he repudiated the name of "American system," claimed by Clay for his system of protection.
The tariff of 1828 aroused bitter opposition in South Carolina, and called from Vice-President Calhoun the statement of the doctrine of nullification which was adopted by the South Carolina legislature at the close of the year and is known as the South Carolina Exposition.
What is now the German empire was a mere congeries of small states, waging perpetual tariff wars upon each other.
126); but Palmyra was not an industrial town, and the exacting fiscal system which drew profit even out of the bare necessaries of life - such as water, oil, wheat, salt, wine, straw, wool, skins (see Tariff ii.
Under the same emperor the customs were revised and a new tariff promulgated (April, A.D.
The tariff should be compared with the Greek Tariff of Coptos A.D.
90 (Flinders Petrie, Koptos, pp. 27 sqq.) and the Latin Tariff of Zarai (Corp. inscr.
As regards the tariff he advocated, as a temporary stop-gap, the passing of the emergency tariff, which had been vetoed by President Wilson, but which with slight alteration was approved by Mr. Harding on May 27 1921.
He urged the need of adopting a permanent tariff policy, and on Dec. 5 1921 suggested a " flexible tariff " which might provide for the adjustment of rates to meet unusual and changing conditions.
Such adjustments might be made, in his opinion, by the executive on the advice of the Tariff Commission.
To this day there are many Arabic words in the vocabulary of the languages of western Europe which are a standing witness of the Crusades - words relating to trade and seafaring, like tariff and corvette, or words for musical instruments, like lute or the Elizabethan word "naker."
Zoll, toll, customs, and Verein, union), a term used generally for a certain form of Customs Union, but specially for the system among the German states which was in force between 1819 and 1871 (see TARIFF, and GERMANY: History).
While this work of reconstruction was in progress domestic politics in England were convulsed by the tariff reform movement and Mr Chamberlain's resignation.
It was transformed long since into a fixed amount per head of the animals taxed, which amount varies according to the region in which the tax is levied, the highest tariff being in the sanjak of Jerusalem (72 piastres) and the lowest in the Yemen (1 piastre).
From 1831 to 1833 he was a Democratic member of the United States Senate, in which he advocated a compromise tariff and strongly supported Jackson's position in regard to nullification.
By his casting vote at a critical period during the debate in the Senate on the tariff bill of 1846, he irretrievably lost his influence with the protectionist element of his native state, to whom he had given assurances of his support of the Tyler tariff of 1842.
He voted for the tariff of 1824, then gradually abandoned the protectionist position.
His declarations during the campaign were vague regarding the tariff and unfavourable to the United States Bank and to nullification, but he had already somewhat placated the South by denying the right of Congress to abolish slavery in the District of Columbia without the consent of the slave states.
They also endeavoured to distinguish between different kinds of income, in order to arrive at a more just estimate of the total income, and fixed by tariff the proportion in which each kind of income was to contribute.
The gg Y divergent interests of the various colonies threatened indeed a tariff and railway war when the Customs Convention (provisionally renewed in March 1906) should expire in 1908.