TIGRIS (Old Persian Tigra, Diklat of the cuneiform inscriptions, Hiddekel of the Old Testament, Diglath of the Targum, Digla of the Arabs), a great river of western Asia, rising from two principal sources.
An ancient legend identifies Melchizedek with Shem (Palestinian Targum, Jerome on Isa.
It was called Targum, from the Targum.
The earliest to be thus edited was the Targum of Onkelos (Ongelos), the proselyte, on the Law.
The Samaritan Targum, of about the same date, clearly rests on the same tradition.
Parallel to Onkelos was another Targum on the Law, generally called pseudoJonathan, which was edited in the 7th century in Palestine, and is based on the same system of interpretation but is fuller and closer to the original tradition.
There is also a fragmentary Targum (Palestinian) the relation of which to the others is obscure.
For the other books, the recognized Targum on the Prophets is that ascribed to Jonathan ben Uzziel (4th century ?), which originated in Palestine, but was edited in Babylonia, so that it has the same history and linguistic character as Onkelos.
Just as there is a Palestinian Targum on the Law parallel to the Babylonian Onkelos, so there is a Palestinian Targum (called Yerushalmi) on the Prophets parallel to that of Ben Uzziel, but of later date and incomplete.
There is also a second Targum on Esther.
(nearly suppressed in the Targum of Jonathan) are reasserted and vindicated by the words and life of Jesus.
He edited the Aramaic translation (known as the Targum) of the Prophets according to the Codex Reuchlinianus preserved at Carlsruhe, Prophetae chaldaice (1872), the Hagiographa chaldaice (1874), an Arabic translation of the Gospels, Die vier Evangelien, arabisch aus der Wiener Handschrift herausgegeben (1864), a Syriac translation of the Old Testament Apocrypha, Libri V.
But the dynasty was known to Josephus and the Mishna (once) as "the sons (race) of the Asamonaeans (of A.)"; and the Targum of 1 Sam.
His work constitutes an enlarged targum on these books, and its object is to prove the everlasting validity of the law, which, though revealed in time, was superior to time.
(C) The Jewish Aramaic version or Targum is probably a late work.'
The word Morashtite (Morashti) was therefore obscure to them; but this only gives greater weight to the traditional pronunciation with o in the first syllable, which is as old as the LXX., and goes against the view, taken by the Targum both on Micah and on Jeremiah, and followed by some moderns (including Cheyne, E.B., 3198), that Micah came from Mareshah.
The prophecy must, therefore, be regarded as anonymous; the title was added by the compiler 1 A Hebrew tradition given in the Targum of Jonathan, and approved by Jerome, identifies Malachi with Ezra the priest and scribe.
The method, by which the text was thus utilized as a vehicle for conveying homiletic discourses, traditional sayings, legends and allegories, is abundantly illustrated by the Palestinian and later Targums, as opposed to the more sober translations of Onkelos and the Targum to the Prophets.
28) is mentioned with disapproval in the Jerusalem Talmud, 5 though it has been preserved in the Targum PseudoJonathan ad loc.° A definite rule for guidance in translating is apparently preserved in the Tosefta, 7 where it is stated that " he who translates quite literally is a liar, while he who adds anything is a blasphemer," Exod.
Berliner, Targum Onkelos, ii.
They belonged to the class of traditional literature which it was forbidden to write down, and, so long at least as the Targum tradition remained active, there would be little temptation to commit it to writing.
Hence there is no need to reject the tradition as to the existence of a written Targum on Job in the time of Gamaliel I.
8 (1st century A.D.), especially as references to Targum MSS.
The official recognition of a written Targum, and therefore the final fixing of its text belongs to the post-Talmudic period, and is not to be placed earlier than the 5th century.
Targums On The Pentateuch (t) The so-called Targum of Onkelos admittedly owes its name to a mistaken reference in the Babylonian Talmud."
With the exception of this one reference, the Targum is always introduced in the Babylonian Talmud by the phrase " as we translate " (irn:inr_-r7), or " our Targum " (p' 1 ?urn): it is probable, therefore, that the name of the author, or authors, was unknown to the Babylonian Jews.
It is first quoted under the title of the Targum of Onkelos by Gaon Sar Shalom (d.
According to Dalman, 13 its language differs in many material particulars from the Aramaic dialects of the Palestinian and Babylonian Talmuds, and is more closely allied to the biblical Aramaic. On the linguistic side, therefore, we may regard Onkelos " as a faithful representative of a Targum which had its rise in Judaea, the old seat of Palestinian literary activity."
(2) In addition to the Targum of Onkelos two other Targums to the Pentateuch are cited by Jewish authorities, under the titles of the Targum Jerushalmi and the Targum of Jonathan ben Uzziel.
In a large number of cases this Targum gives merely a variant rendering of single words: where longer passages are given it presents a very paraphrastic translation, and bears all the marks of a late Haggadic composition.
That this Targum was redly intended to supplement that of Onkelos is shown by comparing the two texts.
In these connexions "Shekinah" thus becomes the equivalent of "God" or its synonyms. One or two examples will make the Targum-usage clear.
45 ("and I will dwell among the children of Israel and will be their God") is rendered in the Targum (Onkelos): "And I will cause my Shekinah to dwell in the midst of the children of Israel, and I will be their God."
17 ("thine eyes shall see the King in His beauty") is rendered (Targum of Jonathan): "Thine eyes shall see the Shekinah of the king of the worlds in His beauty."
Is it possible that a consciousness that the word was not a plural can have survived till the early Christian centuries, when the Targum of Ongelos (Onkelos) rendered Naharaim by "the river Euphrates" (Pethor of Aram which is on the' Euphrates: Deut.
We further possess a Samaritan Targum of the Pentateuch written in the Samaritan dialect, a variety of western Aramaic, and also an Arabic translation of the five books of the law; the latter dating perhaps from the 11th century A.D.
Xxvii., which closely follows the second Targum to Esther i.
As in the Talmud and the Jerusalem Targum, the serpent has even become the devil, i.e.
DRAGOMAN (from the Arabic terjuman, an interpreter or translator; the same root occurs in the Hebrew word targum signifying translation, the title of the Chaldaean translation of the Bible), a comprehensive designation applied to all who act as intermediaries between Europeans and Orientals, from the hotel tout or travellers' guide, hired at a few shillings a day, to the chief dragoman of a foreign embassy whose functions include the carrying on of the most important political negotiations with the Ottoman government, or the dragoman of the imperial divan (the grand master of the ceremonies).
Unfortunately, we possess but little material for controlling the texts either of the Fragmentary Targum or of the pseudo-Jonathan.
The same scholar has also edited the Paris manuscript (110) of the Fragmentary Targum (Das Fragmententhargum, Berlin, 1899), to which he has added the variants from Cod.
In the same edition are collected the various fragments of the Targum Jerushalmi, which are to be found in the early editions of the Pentateuch and in part also in various manuscripts.